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2023, Volume 33,  Issue 1

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Urban Expansion in Major Grain Producing Area from 1978 to 2017: A Case Study of Zhengzhou Metropolitan Area, China
Yongju YANG, Hebing ZHANG, Xuning QIAO, Liang LIU, Jinchan ZHENG
2023, 33(1): 1-20. doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1325-5
The spatial form of urbanization in China has developed from single-core city expansion to a multi-center metropolitan area. However, little attention has been paid to the growth process of the emerging metropolitan area situated in major grain producing locations in the central China. Taking the Zhengzhou metropolitan area (ZZMA) as a case study, we developed an inverse S-shape model to characterize the spatial distribution of urban land density, and constructed an urban expansion core index, urban expansion intensity index, and urban compactness index to quantify the spatial structure change that has taken place from 1978 to 2017 during the process of urban expansion. Moreover, cropland contribution rate (CR) was constructed to evaluate the impacts of urban expansion on croplands. We uncovered four key findings. First, over the past 40 yr, the ZZMA has experienced dramatic expansion, and the central city of Zhengzhou expanded faster than other cities. The gravity centers of urban expansion of surrounding cities were moving toward to Zhengzhou City. Second, the urban land density decreased with the distance from the city center to the outskirts. As the only large city, Zhengzhou has experienced the fastest and most compact centralized urban expansion, especially after 2000, while other medium- and small-sized cities have experienced low-intensity decentralized expansion. Third, the urban core has been gradually expanding outward. From 1978 to 2017, the hot-zone of urban growth has moved progressively with the acceleration of urbanization. All cities except Jiaozuo had a single peak in different periods. Forth, the cities in national core grain-producing areas has higher cropland contribution rates and lower urban expansion areas, which was closely related to cropland protection. Further analysis showed that large city was relatively better positioned than smaller cities in the efficiency of their urban infrastructure and the effectiveness of wealth creation efficiency in the urbanized area could be tested in all cities, and the policy factor seemed to play an important role in the urban expansion process.
Multi-source Data-driven Identification of Urban Functional Areas: A Case of Shenyang, China
Bing XUE, Xiao XIAO, Jingzhong LI, Bingyu ZHAO, Bo FU
2023, 33(1): 21-35. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1320-2
Urban functional area (UFA) is a core scientific issue affecting urban sustainability. The current knowledge gap is mainly reflected in the lack of multi-scale quantitative interpretation methods from the perspective of human-land interaction. In this paper, based on multi-source big data include 250 m × 250 m resolution cell phone data, 1.81 × 105 Points of Interest (POI) data and administrative boundary data, we built a UFA identification method and demonstrated empirically in Shenyang City, China. We argue that the method we built can effectively identify multi-scale multi-type UFAs based on human activity and further reveal the spatial correlation between urban facilities and human activity. The empirical study suggests that the employment functional zones in Shenyang City are more concentrated in central cities than other single functional zones. There are more mix functional areas in the central city areas, while the planned industrial new cities need to develop comprehensive functions in Shenyang. UFAs have scale effects and human-land interaction patterns. We suggest that city decision makers should apply multi-sources big data to measure urban functional service in a more refined manner from a supply-demand perspective.
Spatial Structure of China’s E-commerce Express Logistics Network Based on Space of Flows
Yuanjun LI, Qitao WU, Yuling ZHANG, Guangqing HUANG, Hongou ZHANG
2023, 33(1): 36-50. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1322-0
The intermediate link compression characteristics of e-commerce express logistics networks influence the traditional mode of circulation of goods and economic organization, and alter the city spatial pattern. Based on the theory of space of flows, this study adopts China Smart Logistics Network relational data to build China’s e-commerce express logistics network and explore its spatial structure characteristics through social network analysis (SNA), the PageRank technique, and geospatial methods. The results are as follows: the network density is 0.9270, which is close to 1; hence, indicating that e-commerce express logistics lines between Chinese cities are nearly complete and they form a typical network structure, thereby eliminating fragmented spaces. Moreover, the average minimum number of edges is 1.1375, which indicates that the network has a small world effect and thus has a high flow efficiency of logistics elements. A significant hierarchical diffusion effect was observed in dominant flows with the highest edge weights. A diamond-structured network was formed with Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and Beijing as the four core nodes. Other node cities with a large logistics scale and importance in the network are mainly located in the 19 city agglomerations of China, revealing the fact that the development of city agglomerations is essential for promoting the separation of experience space and changing the urban spatial pattern. This study enriches the theory of urban networks, reveals the flow laws of modern logistics elements, and encourages coordinated development of urban logistics.
Spatio-temporal Evolution of the Rural Regional System and Its Evolution Mechanism in Huang-Huai-Hai Area of China
Mingyang CHENG, Huiling CHEN
2023, 33(1): 51-68. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1323-z
The problem of rural development arises from the evolution of rural regional system. It is urgent to deepen the research on the evolution process and mechanism of rural regional system. However, there are relatively few studies on rural development from the perspective of the evolution process, driving mechanism and evolution mechanism of rural regional system. Therefore, this study took Huang-Huai-Hai Area for example, started with the systematicness of the rural regional system, the spatio-temporal pattern and driving mechanism of rural regional system evolution, and further summarized and refined the evolution mechanism of the rural regional system. The methods of spatial pattern analysis, gray correlation degree and geographical detection were adopted. The results showed that the problems in rural areas were often dominated by one factor and produced by the joint action of many factors. Factors such as county urbanization, county economy, county public service, agricultural mechanization, surrounding cities and convenient transportation will affect the evolution of rural regional systems. Based on the evolution of the elements in the rural regional system, the evolution types of rural regional system can be divided into decline type, equilibrium type and growth type. This study can provide a reference for understanding the process of rural rise and fall and can also guide rural revitalization and rural sustainable development.
Environmental Changes and Human Impacts on Landscapes near Medieval Steklyanukha-2 Fortress in Russia from Early Iron Age to Modern Times
2023, 33(1): 69-84. doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1326-4
The development of landscapes in one of the most populated river basins of the southern Russian Far East was studied using pollen and diatom data. The study sites were a multi-layered mountain fortress, Steklyanukha-2, and an Upper Holocene high floodplain sequence of the Steklyanukha River. Buried soil from the fluvial section acts as an environmental archive of the time in which people from the Yankovskaya archeological cultures settled in the river basin. The soil was formed under conditions of decreasing water supply in the valley and prolonged droughts. Findings of pollen Fagopyrum and Urtica signal economic activity in the Early Iron Age. Floodplain lake sediments accumulated from 1.6 to 0.5 kyr, when the valley was actively developed during the Middle Ages. There are signals of the development of secondary birch and oak forests. In the cultural layer of the fortress and lake sediments formed in the Middle Ages, Ambrosia and Xanthium pollens were found and are reliable evidence of agricultural activity in the valley. The pollens of plants typically seen in human-disturbed areas were also found. Indirect evidence of human activity includes non-pollen palynomorphs. The study of diatoms in a depression near a rampart confirmed the archaeologists’ assumption that it was used as a water reserve. Pollen spectra from surface soils reflect agricultural activity in the river basin since the second half of the 19th century. The largest amount of pollen of alien and synanthropic plants and weeds, as well as spores of pathogenic fungi and fire indicators, were found here.
Multi-scenario Simulation for 2060 and Driving Factors of the Eco-spatial Carbon Sink in the Beibu Gulf Urban Agglomeration, China
Menglin QIN, Yincheng ZHAO, Yuting LIU, Hongbo JIANG, Hang LI, Ziming ZHU
2023, 33(1): 85-101. doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1327-3
Since China announced its goal of becoming carbon-neutral by 2060, carbon neutrality has become a major target in the development of China’s urban agglomerations. This study applied the Future Land Use Simulation (FLUS) model to predict the land use pattern of the ecological space of the Beibu Gulf urban agglomeration, in 2060 under ecological priority, agricultural priority and urbanized priority scenarios. The Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model was employed to analyse the spatial changes in ecological space carbon storage in each scenario from 2020 to 2060. Then, this study used a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model to determine the main driving factors that influence the changes in land carbon sinking capacity. The results of the study can be summarised as follows: firstly, the agricultural and ecological priority scenarios will achieve balanced urban expansion and environmental protection of resources in an ecological space. The urbanized priority scenario will reduce the carbon sinking capacity. Among the simulation scenarios for 2060, carbon storage in the urbanized priority scenario will decrease by 112.26 × 106 t compared with that for 2020 and the average carbon density will decrease by 0.96 kg/m2 compared with that for 2020. Carbon storage in the agricultural priority scenario will increase by 84.11 × 106 t, and the average carbon density will decrease by 0.72 kg/m2. Carbon storage in the ecological priority scenario will increase by 3.03 × 106 t, and the average carbon density will increase by 0.03 kg/m2. Under the premise that the population of the town will increases continuously, the ecological priority development approach may be a wise choice. Secondly, slope, distance to river and elevation are the most important factors that influence the carbon sink pattern of the ecological space in the Beibu Gulf urban agglomeration, followed by GDP, population density, slope direction and distance to traffic infrastructure. At the same time, urban space expansion is the main cause of the changes of this natural factors. Thirdly, the decreasing trend of ecological space is difficult to reverse, so reasonable land use policy to curb the spatial expansion of cities need to be made.
Spatio-temporal Changes in Water Conservation Ecosystem Service During 1990–2019 in the Tumen River Basin, Northeast China
Peng ZHANG, Xiaoping LIU, Weihong ZHU, Chunjing LI, Ri JIN, Hengqi YAN, Chengyang GU, Jingzhi WANG
2023, 33(1): 102-115. doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1328-2
The water conservation (WC) function of ecosystems is related to regional ecological security and the sustainable development of water resources, and the assessment of WC and its influencing factors is crucial for ecological and water resource management. The Tumen River Basin (TRB) is located in the core of the Northeast Asian ecological network and has been experiencing severe ecological crises and water shortages in recent years due to climate change and human activities. However, these crises have not been fully revealed to the extent that corresponding scientific measures are lacking. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and drivers of WC in the TRB from 1990 to 2019 based on the water yield module of the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model. The results showed that: 1) under the combined effect of nature and socioeconomics, the WC depth of the TRB has slowly increased at a rate of 0.11 mm/yr in the past 30 years, with an average WC depth of 36.14 mm. 2) The main driving factor of the spatial variation in WC is precipitation, there is a significant interaction between precipitation and velocity, the interaction between each factor is higher than the contribution of a single factor, and the interactions between factors all have nonlinear enhancement and two-factor enhancement. 3) Among the seven counties and municipalities in the study area, the southern part of Helong City and the southeastern part of Longjing City are extremely important areas for WC (> 75 mm), and they should be regarded as regional water resources and ecological priority protection areas. It is foreseen that under extreme climate conditions in the future, the WC of the watershed is under great potential threat, and protection measures such as afforestation and forestation should begin immediately. Furthermore, the great interannual fluctuations in WC depth may place more stringent requirements on the choice of time scales in the ecosystem service assessment process.
Evaluation and Quantitative Attribution Analysis of Water Yield Services in the Peak-cluster Depression Basins in Southwest of Guangxi, China
Donghua WANG, Yichao TIAN, Yali ZHANG, Liangliang HUANG, Jin TAO, Yongwei YANG, Junliang LIN, Qiang ZHANG
2023, 33(1): 116-130. doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1329-1
Karst environmental issues have become one of the hot spots in contemporary international geological research. The same problem of water shortage is one of the hot spots of global concern. The peak-cluster depression basins in southwest of Guangxi is an important water connotation and ecological barrier areas in the Pearl River Basin of China. Thus, studying the spatial and temporal variations and the influencing factors of its water yield services is critical to achieve the sustainable development of water resources and ecological environmental protection in this region. As such, this paper uses the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model to assess the spatial and temporal variabilities of water yield services and its trends in the peak-cluster depression basins in southwest of Guangxi from 2000 to 2020. This work also integrates precipitation (Pre), reference evapotranspiration (ET), temperature (Tem), digital elevation model (DEM), slope, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land use/land cover (LULC) and soil type to reveal the main factors that influence water yield services with the help of Geodetector. Results show that: 1) in time scale, the total annual water yield in the study area show a fluctuating and increasing trend from 2000 to 2020, with a growth rate of 7.3753 × 108 m³/yr, and its multi-year average water yield was 538.07 mm; 2) in spatial pattern, with high yield areas mainly distributed in the south of the study area (mainly including Shangsi County, Pingxiang City, Ningming County, Longzhou County and Jingxi County), and low yield areas mainly distributed in Baise City and Nanning City; 3) the dominant factor of water yield within karst and non-karst landforms is not necessarily controlled by precipitation, and the explanation degree of DEM factors in karst areas is significantly higher than that in non-karst areas; 4) amongst the climatic factors, Pre, ET and Tem are dominant in the spatial pattern of region water yield capacity. among which Pre has the highest explanatory power for the spatial heterogeneity of annual water production, with q values above 0.8, and each driver showed a significant interaction on the spatial distribution of water yield, with Pre exhibiting the strongest interaction with LULC.
Surface Regional Heat (Cool) Island Effect and Its Diurnal Differences in Arid and Semiarid Resource-based Urban Agglomerations
Yan CHEN, Miaomiao XIE, Bin CHEN, Huihui WANG, Yali TENG
2023, 33(1): 131-143. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1324-y
With the rapid development of urban agglomerations in northwest arid and semiarid regions of China, the scope of the urban heat island (UHI) effect has gradually expanded and gradually connected, and has formed a regional heat island (RHI) with a larger range of impact to the regional environment. However, there are few studies on the heat island effect of urban agglomerations in arid and semiarid regions, so this paper selects the urban agglomeration of Hohhot, Baotou and Ordos (HBO) of Inner Mongolia, China as the study area. Based on the 8-day composite Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface temperature data (156 scenes in all) and land use maps for 2005, 2010, and 2015, we analyze the spatiotemporal distributions of regional heat (cool) islands (RH(C)I) and the responses of surface temperatures to land-use changes in the diurnal and interannual surface cities. The results showed that: 1) from 2005 to 2015, urban areas showed the cold island effect during the day, with the area of the cold island showing a shrinking feature; at night, they showed the heat island effect, with the area of the heat island showing a first decrease and then an increase. 2) From 2005 to 2015, the land development (unutilized land to building land) brings the greatest temperature increase (∆T = 1.36°C) during the day, while the greatest temperature change at night corresponds to the conversion of cultivated land to building land (∆T = 0.78°C) exhibited the largest changes at night. From 2010 to 2015, the land development (grassland to building land) bring the greatest temperature increase (∆T = 0.85°C) during the day, while the great temperature change at night corresponds to the conversion of water areas to building land (∆T = 1.38°C) exhibited the largest changes at night. Exploring the spatial and temporal evolution of surface urban heat (cool) islands in urban agglomerations in arid and semiarid regions will help to understand the urbanization characteristics of urban agglomerations and provide a reference for the formulation of policies for the coordinated and healthy development of the region and co-governance of regional environmental problems.
Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Future Scenario Simulation of the Trade-offs and Synergies of Mountain Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Dabie Mountains Area, China
Lin FANG, Yanxiao LIU, Canfeng LI, Jun CAI
2023, 33(1): 144-160. doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1330-8
Mountain ecosystems play an essential role in supporting regional sustainable development and improving local ecological environments. However, economic development in mountainous areas has long been lagging, and multiple conflicts related to resource assurance, ecological protection, and economic development have emerged. An accurate grasp of the current status and evolutionary trends of mountain ecosystems is essential to enhance the overall benefits of ecosystem services and maintain regional ecological security. Based on the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs) model, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution patterns and the trade-offs and synergies among ecosystem services (ES) in the Dabie Mountains Area (DMA) of eastern China. The Markov-PLUS (Patch-generating Land Use Simulation) model was used to conduct a multi-scenario simulation of the area’s future development. Water yield (WY) and soil conservation (SC) had overall increasing trends during 2000−2020, carbon storage (CS) decreased overall but slowed with time, and habitat quality (HQ) increased and then decreased. The ecological protection scenario is the best scenario for improving ES in the DMA by 2030; compared to 2020, the total WY would decrease by 3.77 × 108 m3, SC would increase by 0.65 × 106 t, CS would increase by 1.33 × 106 t, and HQ would increase by 0.06%. The comprehensive development scenario is the second-most effective scenario for ecological improvement, while the natural development scenario did not have a significant effect. However, as the comprehensive development scenario considers both environmental protection and economic development, which are both vital for the sustainable development of the mountainous areas, this scenario is considered the most suitable path for future development. There are trade-offs between WY, CS, and HQ, while there are synergies between SC, CS, and HQ. Spatially, the DMA’s central core district is the main strong synergistic area, the marginal zone is the weak synergistic area, and trade-offs are mainly distributed in the transition zone.
Spatial Variability of PM2.5 Pollution in Imbalanced Natural and Socioeconomic Processes: Evidence from the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region of China
Yixu WANG, Shuo SUN, Wentian XU, Xuecheng FU, Lei YAO
2023, 33(1): 161-174. doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1331-7
Accurately identifying and quantifying the factors influencing PM2.5 pollution is of great significance for the prevention and control of pollution. However, the redundancy among potential factors of PM2.5 may be overlooked. Meanwhile, the inconsistent spatial distribution of the natural and socioeconomic conditions brings unique implications for the cities within a region, which may lead to an uncertain understanding of the relationship between pollution and environmental factors. This study focused on the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) Region, China, which presents complex and varied background conditions. Potential impact factors on PM2.5 were firstly screened by combining systematic cluster analysis with a random forest recursive feature elimination algorithm. Then, the representative multi-factor responsible for PM2.5 pollution in the region during the key period of 2014–2018 (when the strict national air pollution control policy was implemented). The results showed that the key driving factors of PM2.5 pollution in the BTH cities are different, indicating that the uniqueness of a city will have an impact on the leading causes of pollution. Further discussion shows that air control policy provides an effective way to improve air quality. This study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk drivers of air pollution within the BTH Region. In the future, it is recommended that more attention should be paid to the specific differences between the cities when formulating PM2.5 concentration control measures.
Incorporating Exercise Efficiency to Evaluate the Accessibility and Capacity of Medical Resources in Tibet, China
Li WANG, Linsheng YANG, Binggan WEI, Hairong LI, Hongyan CAI, Jixia HUANG, Xing YUAN
2023, 33(1): 175-188. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1321-1
Accessibility and capacity of medical resources are key for the health care and emergency response, while the efficiency of the medical resources is very much limited by hypoxia in Tibet, China. Through introducing exercise efficiency, this study explores the accessibility of township residence to county-ship medical resources in Tibet using weighted mean travel time (WMT), and evaluates the medical capacity accordingly. The results show that: 1) the average travel time of township residence to county-level hospital is around 2 h by motor vehicle in Tibet. More than half of the population can not reach the county-ship hospital within 1 h, 33.24% of the population can not reach within 2 h, and 3.75% of the population can not reach within 6 h. 2) When considering the catchment of the medical resources and the population size, the WMT of the county-ship medical resources ranges from 0.25 h to 10.92 h. 3) After adjusted by travel time and exercise efficiency, the county-ship medical capacity became more unequal, with 38 out of 74 counties could not meet the national guideline of 1.8 medical beds per 1000. 4) In total, there are 17 counties with good WMT and sufficient medical resources, while 13 counties having very high WMT and low capacity of medical resources in Tibet. In the end, suggestions on medical resources relocation and to improve the capacity are provided. This study provides a method to incorporate exercise efficiency to access the accessibility and evaluate medical capacity that can be applied in high altitude ranges.