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Residue Return Effects Outweigh Tillage Effects on Soil Microbial Communities and Functional Genes in Black Soil of Northeast China
Qian WANG, Shuxia JIA, Aizhen LIANG, Xuewen CHEN, Shixiu ZHANG, Yan ZHANG, B MCLAUGHLIN Neil, Yan GAO, Dandan HUANG
当前状态:  doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1335-3
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Conservation tillage as an effective alternative to mitigate soil degradation has attracted worldwide attention, but the influences of conservation tillage on soil microbial community and especially function remain unclear. Shotgun metagenomics sequencing was performed to examine the taxonomic and functional community variations of black soils under three tillage regimes, namely no-tillage with residue (maize straw) return (NTS), moldboard plow with residue return (MPS), and moldboard plow without residue return (MPN) in Northeast China. The results revealed: 1) Soil bacterial and archaeal communities differed significantly under different tillage regimes in contrast to soil fungal community. 2) The overlay of less tillage and residues return under NTS led to unique soil microbial community composition and functional composition. Specifically, in contrast to other treatments, NTS increased the relative abundances of some taxa such as Bradyrhizobium, Candidatus Solibacter, and Reyranella, along with the relative abundances of some taxa such as Sphingomonas, Unclassified Chloroflexi and Nitrososphaera decreased; NTS had a unique advantage of increasing the relative abundances of genes involved in ‘ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters’ and ‘quorum sensing (QS)’ pathways, while MPN favored the genes involved in ‘flagellar assembly’ pathway and some metabolic pathways such as ‘carbon’ and ‘glyoxylate and dicarboxylate’ and ‘selenocompound’ metabolisms. 3) Significantly different soil bacterial phyla (Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Chloroflexi) and metabolic pathways existed between MPN and another two treatments (NTS and MPS), while did not exist between NTS and MPS. 4) Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and soil bulk density were significantly affected (P < 0.05) by tillage and accounted for the variance both in microbial (bacterial) community structure and functional composition. These results indicated that a change in tillage regime from conventional to conservation tillage results in a shift of microbial community and functional genes, and we inferred that residue return played a more prominent role than less tillage in functional shifts in the microbial community of black soils.
Spatiotemporal Changes in NDVI and Its Driving Factors in the Kherlen River Basin
Shan YU, Wala DU, Xiang ZHANG, Ying HONG, Yang LIU, Mei HONG, Siyu CHEN
当前状态:  doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1337-1
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Vegetation is an important factor linking the atmosphere, water, soil, and biological functions, and it plays a specific role in the climate change response and sustainable development of regional economies. However, little information is available on vegetation vulnerability and its driving mechanism. Therefore, studying temporal and spatial change characteristics of vegetation and their corresponding mechanisms is important for assessing ecosystem stability and formulating ecological policies in the Kherlen River Basin. We used MOderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) remote sensing images from 2000 to 2020 to analyse temporal changes in NDVI with the autoregressive moving average model (ARMA) and the breaks for additive season trend (BFAST) in the basin and to assess natural, anthropogenic and topographic factors with the Geodetector model. The results show that: 1) the long NDVI time series remained stable in the Kherlen River Basin from 2000 to 2020, with a certain significant mutation period from 2013 to 2017; 2) the coefficient of variation (CV) in the analysis of the spatial NDVI was generally constant, mainly at the level of 0.01–0.07, and the spatial NDVI change was minimally impacted by external interference; and 3) temperature and precipitation are the key factors affecting the NDVI in the basin, and changes in local hydrothermal conditions directly affect the local NDVI. The results of this study could provide a scientific basis for the effective protection of the ecological environment and will aid in understanding the influence of vegetation change mechanisms and the corresponding factors.
Spatiotemporal Pattern of Cultivated Land Pressure and Its Influencing Factors in the Huaihai Economic Zone, China
Yi LI, Bin FANG, Yurui LI, Weilun FENG, Xu YIN
当前状态:  doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1334-4
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Cultivated land pressure represents a direct reflection of grain security. Existing relevant studies rarely approached the spatiotemporal pattern of cultivated land pressure or the spatial heterogeneity of its influencing factors from the level of economic zones. Taking the Huaihai Economic Zone (HEZ), China for case analysis, this study investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of cultivated land pressure in diverse periods from 2000 to 2018 based on a modified cultivated land pressure index and spatial correlation models. On this basis, it explored the influencing factors of the spatial differentiation of cultivated land pressure in the late stage of the study using geographical detector as well as multi-scale geographically weighted regression model. The results indicated that: 1) in the study period, the global cultivated land pressure index of the study area decreased gradually, but cultivated land pressure increased locally in a significant way, especially in the central and southern Shandong Province; 2) the spatial pattern of cultivated land pressure manifested global clustering features. Hot and secondary-hot spots presented a narrowing and clustering trend, whereas cold and secondary-cold spots manifested a spreading and clustering trend; 3) average slope, the proportion of non-grain crops, population urbanization rate, and multiple cropping index have significant effects on the spatial differentiation of cultivated land pressure. The former three factors were positively correlated with cultivated land pressure, and the last factor was negatively correlated with cultivated land pressure; and 4) the amount of cultivated land has increased in the central and southern Shandong Province through land consolidation which, nonetheless, failed to improve the grain production. In regards to major grain producing areas similar to the HEZ in China, the authors suggest that great importance should be given to the balance of the quality and quantity of cultivated land, the optimization of agricultural production factors and the rational control of non-grain crops, thus providing a powerful guarantee for grain security in China.
Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Droughts and Floods in Shandong Province, China and Their Relationship with Food Loss
Wentong YANG, Liyuan ZHANG, Ziyu YANG
当前状态:  doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1338-0
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Mastering the pattern of food loss caused by droughts and floods aids in planning the layout of agricultural production, determining the scale of drought and flood control projects, and reducing food loss. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index is calculated using monthly meteorological data from 1984 to 2020 in Shandong Province of China and is used to identify the province’s drought and flood characteristics. Then, food losses due to droughts and floods are estimated separately from disaster loss data. Finally, the relationship between drought/flood-related factors and food losses is quantified using methods such as the Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression. The results show that: 1) there is a trend of aridity in Shandong Province, and the drought characteristic variables are increasing yearly while flood duration and severity are decreasing. 2) The food losses caused by droughts in Shandong Province are more than those caused by floods, and the area where droughts and floods occur frequently is located in Linyi City. 3) The impact of precipitation on food loss due to drought/flood is significant, followed by potential evapotranspiration and temperature. 4) The relationship between drought and flood conditions and food losses can be precisely quantified. The accumulated drought duration of one month led to 1.939 × 104 t of grain loss, and an increase in cumulative flood duration of one month resulted in 1.134 × 104 t of grain loss. If the cumulative drought severity and average drought peak increased by one unit, food loss due to drought will increase by 1.562 × 104 t and 1.511 × 106 t, respectively. If the cumulative flood severity and average flood peak increase by one unit, food loss will increase by 8.470 × 103 t and 1.034 × 106 t, respectively.
Air Pollution Exposure Based on Nighttime Light Remote Sensing and Multi-source Geographic Data in Beijing
Zheyuan ZHANG, Jia WANG, Nina XIONG, Boyi LIANG, Zong WANG
当前状态:  doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1339-z
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Air pollution is a problem that directly affects human health, the global environment and the climate. The air quality index (AQI) indicates the degree of air pollution and effect on human health; however, when assessing air pollution only based on AQI monitoring data the fact that the same degree of air pollution is more harmful in more densely populated areas is ignored. In the present study, multi-source data were combined to map the distribution of the AQI and population data, and the analyze their pollution population exposure of Beijing in 2018 was analyzed. Machine learning based on the random forest algorithm was adopted to calculate the monthly average AQI of Beijing in 2018. Using Luojia-1 nighttime light remote sensing data, population statistics data, the population of Beijing in 2018 and point of interest data, the distribution of the permanent population in Beijing was estimated with a high precision of 200 m × 200 m. Based on the spatialization results of the AQI and population of Beijing, the air pollution exposure levels in various parts of Beijing were calculated using the population-weighted pollution exposure level (PWEL) formula. The results show that the southern region of Beijing had a more serious level of air pollution, while the northern region was less polluted. At the same time, the population was found to agglomerate mainly in the central city and the peripheric areas thereof. In the present study, the exposure of different districts and towns in Beijing to pollution was analyzed, based on high resolution population spatialization data, it could take the pollution exposure issue down to each individual town. And we found that towns with higher exposure such as Yongshun Town, Shahe Town and Liyuan Town were all found to have a population of over 200 000 which was much higher than the median population of townships of 51 741 in Beijing. Additionally, the change trend of air pollution exposure levels in various regions of Beijing in 2018 was almost the same, with the peak value being in winter and the lowest value being in summer. The exposure intensity in population clusters was relatively high. To reduce the level and intensity of pollution exposure, relevant departments should strengthen the governance of areas with high AQI, and pay particular attention to population clusters.
What Drives Migrants Back to Set up Firms? Return-home Entrepreneurial Intention of Rural Migrant Workers in China
Huasheng ZHU, Yawei CHEN, Hua ZHANG, Zhangfei LIU
当前状态:  doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1336-2
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The extant literature on international immigrants has discussed migrants’ entrepreneurial activities in the context of Western countries but has paid little attention to return-home entrepreneurial intention (RHEI). Rural migrant workers (RMWs) in China, who used to promote rural development by remittances and were characterized by similarities with early international migrants, have gradually returned to their hometowns to initiate entrepreneurial activities. Based on the structured questionnaire conducted in 2015 and 2020 in Anhui Province, China, this article combines the concept of mixed embeddedness with the idea of double-layered embeddedness and analyzes the impacts of the social, economic and institutional context in RMWs’ hometowns and migration destinations on RMWs’ RHEI by using binary logistic regression. The article shows that the social, economic, and institutional environments of RMWs’ hometowns and migration destinations have effects on their RHEI. The embeddedness in the economic and informal institutional context in RMWs’ RHEI is even more important than personal characteristics. Compared with migration destinations, RMWs’ hometowns exert a more influential effect on their RHEI. However, that does not mean that the role of migration destinations can be undervalued. Actually, the better the social, economic, and institutional environments of migration destinations RMWs moved into is, the higher entrepreneurial intention they will have after returning to their hometowns. The article proposes a modified framework in combination of mixed embeddedness with double-layer embeddedness and proves that it is suitable for analyzing RMWs’ RHEI. The framework has important implications for strengthening China’s RMWs to return home to start their own businesses.
Spatial-temporal Evolution and Influencing Factors of Digital Financial Inclusion: County-level Evidence from China
Guojun ZHANG, Yu CHEN, Gengnan WANG, Chunshan ZHOU
当前状态:  doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1333-5
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The vigorous development of information and communications technology has accelerated reshaping of the financial industry. The COVID-19 pandemic has further catalyzed the demand for digital financial services. Digital financial inclusion relies on information technology to overcome spatial limitations. In this case, the research question is whether it adheres to the spatial laws governing conventional financial activities. This study uses exploratory spatial data analysis and a geographical detector to elucidate the spatiotemporal characteristics and factors influencing digital financial inclusion at the county level in China (Data don’t include that of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan of China) from 2014 to 2020. The research findings indicate: first, China’s county-level digital financial inclusion is generally increasing and exhibits significant spatial autocorrelation. Second, population density, level of traditional financial development, government regulation, and education level are key determinants of China’s county-level digital financial inclusion. Third, policies should be differentiated by region to narrow the spatial gap in digital financial inclusion. The results provide a reference for other developing countries on using digital technology to develop financial inclusion.
Inferring Human-elephant Coexistence Based on Characteristics of Human-elephant Interactions in Nangunhe, Yunnan, China
Jiahui WANG, Ying CHEN, Yakuan SUN, Zhuoluo LYU, Kun SHI
当前状态:  doi: 10.1007/s11769-023-1332-6
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Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) negatively impacts both humans and wildlife. Attitudes of local residents have been critical in promoting wildlife conservation. It is therefore necessary to understand the characteristics of HWC and identify influential factors on attitudes towards conservation to implement conservation strategies efficiently. This research focused on features of human-elephant interactions, while attitudes and values regarding the small population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Nangunhe National Nature Reserve (NNR), Yunnan, China. The total of 327 valid questionnaires were gathered around the area where Asian elephants were distributed. Logistic regression models were employed to analyze the correlations among five predictor variables (‘Area’, ‘Family size’, ‘Annual income’, ‘Quantity of family members in non-primary industries’ and ‘Experiencing loss or not’) and three response variables (‘Attitude towards elephants’, ‘Perception of the values of elephants’ and ‘Attitude towards tourism development’). The study area was densely forested with tea plants, rubber trees, corns and sugarcane. There, 25.99% of respondents reported the experience of human-elephant conflict (HEC), with crop raiding and cash crop damages being the major conflict types. To demonstrate respect for elephants and to mitigate HEC, a unique custom called ‘Giving tribute to elephants’ was developed long ago. Respondents’ township with an official annual festival of ‘Giving Tribute to Elephants’ (odds ratio (OR) = 2.75, P = 1.73 × 10−6) and higher annual income (OR = 2.09, P = 5.45 × 10−5) significantly contributed to forming a more positive attitude towards elephants, whereas HEC itself have contributed to a more negative attitude (OR = 0.50, P = 3.29 × 10−3). Therefore, we propose that: 1) reducing human-elephant conflict by testing multiple mitigation measures and adopting the most effective one of them; 2) enhancing local livelihoods through the development of ecological products and ecotourism; and 3) preserving and developing the Wa culture in this region. The study area deserves more attention and further research to explore and obtain endorsement from the public to achieve coexistence between human and wildlife.
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05 一月 2023, 第33卷 第1期
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Urban Expansion in Major Grain Producing Area from 1978 to 2017: A Case Study of Zhengzhou Metropolitan Area, China
Yongju YANG, Hebing ZHANG, Xuning QIAO, Liang LIU, Jinchan ZHENG
2023, 33(1): 1-20.   doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-023-1325-5
[摘要](21) [HTML全文](10) [PDF 7154KB](7)
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The spatial form of urbanization in China has developed from single-core city expansion to a multi-center metropolitan area. However, little attention has been paid to the growth process of the emerging metropolitan area situated in major grain producing locations in the central China. Taking the Zhengzhou metropolitan area (ZZMA) as a case study, we developed an inverse S-shape model to characterize the spatial distribution of urban land density, and constructed an urban expansion core index, urban expansion intensity index, and urban compactness index to quantify the spatial structure change that has taken place from 1978 to 2017 during the process of urban expansion. Moreover, cropland contribution rate (CR) was constructed to evaluate the impacts of urban expansion on croplands. We uncovered four key findings. First, over the past 40 yr, the ZZMA has experienced dramatic expansion, and the central city of Zhengzhou expanded faster than other cities. The gravity centers of urban expansion of surrounding cities were moving toward to Zhengzhou City. Second, the urban land density decreased with the distance from the city center to the outskirts. As the only large city, Zhengzhou has experienced the fastest and most compact centralized urban expansion, especially after 2000, while other medium- and small-sized cities have experienced low-intensity decentralized expansion. Third, the urban core has been gradually expanding outward. From 1978 to 2017, the hot-zone of urban growth has moved progressively with the acceleration of urbanization. All cities except Jiaozuo had a single peak in different periods. Forth, the cities in national core grain-producing areas has higher cropland contribution rates and lower urban expansion areas, which was closely related to cropland protection. Further analysis showed that large city was relatively better positioned than smaller cities in the efficiency of their urban infrastructure and the effectiveness of wealth creation efficiency in the urbanized area could be tested in all cities, and the policy factor seemed to play an important role in the urban expansion process.
Multi-source Data-driven Identification of Urban Functional Areas: A Case of Shenyang, China
Bing XUE, Xiao XIAO, Jingzhong LI, Bingyu ZHAO, Bo FU
2023, 33(1): 21-35.   doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-022-1320-2
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Urban functional area (UFA) is a core scientific issue affecting urban sustainability. The current knowledge gap is mainly reflected in the lack of multi-scale quantitative interpretation methods from the perspective of human-land interaction. In this paper, based on multi-source big data include 250 m × 250 m resolution cell phone data, 1.81 × 105 Points of Interest (POI) data and administrative boundary data, we built a UFA identification method and demonstrated empirically in Shenyang City, China. We argue that the method we built can effectively identify multi-scale multi-type UFAs based on human activity and further reveal the spatial correlation between urban facilities and human activity. The empirical study suggests that the employment functional zones in Shenyang City are more concentrated in central cities than other single functional zones. There are more mix functional areas in the central city areas, while the planned industrial new cities need to develop comprehensive functions in Shenyang. UFAs have scale effects and human-land interaction patterns. We suggest that city decision makers should apply multi-sources big data to measure urban functional service in a more refined manner from a supply-demand perspective.
Spatial Structure of China’s E-commerce Express Logistics Network Based on Space of Flows
Yuanjun LI, Qitao WU, Yuling ZHANG, Guangqing HUANG, Hongou ZHANG
2023, 33(1): 36-50.   doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-022-1322-0
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The intermediate link compression characteristics of e-commerce express logistics networks influence the traditional mode of circulation of goods and economic organization, and alter the city spatial pattern. Based on the theory of space of flows, this study adopts China Smart Logistics Network relational data to build China’s e-commerce express logistics network and explore its spatial structure characteristics through social network analysis (SNA), the PageRank technique, and geospatial methods. The results are as follows: the network density is 0.9270, which is close to 1; hence, indicating that e-commerce express logistics lines between Chinese cities are nearly complete and they form a typical network structure, thereby eliminating fragmented spaces. Moreover, the average minimum number of edges is 1.1375, which indicates that the network has a small world effect and thus has a high flow efficiency of logistics elements. A significant hierarchical diffusion effect was observed in dominant flows with the highest edge weights. A diamond-structured network was formed with Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and Beijing as the four core nodes. Other node cities with a large logistics scale and importance in the network are mainly located in the 19 city agglomerations of China, revealing the fact that the development of city agglomerations is essential for promoting the separation of experience space and changing the urban spatial pattern. This study enriches the theory of urban networks, reveals the flow laws of modern logistics elements, and encourages coordinated development of urban logistics.
Spatio-temporal Evolution of the Rural Regional System and Its Evolution Mechanism in Huang-Huai-Hai Area of China
Mingyang CHENG, Huiling CHEN
2023, 33(1): 51-68.   doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-022-1323-z
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The problem of rural development arises from the evolution of rural regional system. It is urgent to deepen the research on the evolution process and mechanism of rural regional system. However, there are relatively few studies on rural development from the perspective of the evolution process, driving mechanism and evolution mechanism of rural regional system. Therefore, this study took Huang-Huai-Hai Area for example, started with the systematicness of the rural regional system, the spatio-temporal pattern and driving mechanism of rural regional system evolution, and further summarized and refined the evolution mechanism of the rural regional system. The methods of spatial pattern analysis, gray correlation degree and geographical detection were adopted. The results showed that the problems in rural areas were often dominated by one factor and produced by the joint action of many factors. Factors such as county urbanization, county economy, county public service, agricultural mechanization, surrounding cities and convenient transportation will affect the evolution of rural regional systems. Based on the evolution of the elements in the rural regional system, the evolution types of rural regional system can be divided into decline type, equilibrium type and growth type. This study can provide a reference for understanding the process of rural rise and fall and can also guide rural revitalization and rural sustainable development.
Environmental Changes and Human Impacts on Landscapes near Medieval Steklyanukha-2 Fortress in Russia from Early Iron Age to Modern Times
Nadezhda RAZJIGAEVA, Larisa GANZEY, Tatiana KORNYUSHENKO, Tatiana GREBENNIKOVA, Ekaterina KUDRYAVTSEVA, Yana PISKAREVA, Stanislav PROKOPETS
2023, 33(1): 69-84.   doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-023-1326-4
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The development of landscapes in one of the most populated river basins of the southern Russian Far East was studied using pollen and diatom data. The study sites were a multi-layered mountain fortress, Steklyanukha-2, and an Upper Holocene high floodplain sequence of the Steklyanukha River. Buried soil from the fluvial section acts as an environmental archive of the time in which people from the Yankovskaya archeological cultures settled in the river basin. The soil was formed under conditions of decreasing water supply in the valley and prolonged droughts. Findings of pollen Fagopyrum and Urtica signal economic activity in the Early Iron Age. Floodplain lake sediments accumulated from 1.6 to 0.5 kyr, when the valley was actively developed during the Middle Ages. There are signals of the development of secondary birch and oak forests. In the cultural layer of the fortress and lake sediments formed in the Middle Ages, Ambrosia and Xanthium pollens were found and are reliable evidence of agricultural activity in the valley. The pollens of plants typically seen in human-disturbed areas were also found. Indirect evidence of human activity includes non-pollen palynomorphs. The study of diatoms in a depression near a rampart confirmed the archaeologists’ assumption that it was used as a water reserve. Pollen spectra from surface soils reflect agricultural activity in the river basin since the second half of the 19th century. The largest amount of pollen of alien and synanthropic plants and weeds, as well as spores of pathogenic fungi and fire indicators, were found here.
Multi-scenario Simulation for 2060 and Driving Factors of the Eco-spatial Carbon Sink in the Beibu Gulf Urban Agglomeration, China
Menglin QIN, Yincheng ZHAO, Yuting LIU, Hongbo JIANG, Hang LI, Ziming ZHU
2023, 33(1): 85-101.   doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-023-1327-3
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Since China announced its goal of becoming carbon-neutral by 2060, carbon neutrality has become a major target in the development of China’s urban agglomerations. This study applied the Future Land Use Simulation (FLUS) model to predict the land use pattern of the ecological space of the Beibu Gulf urban agglomeration, in 2060 under ecological priority, agricultural priority and urbanized priority scenarios. The Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model was employed to analyse the spatial changes in ecological space carbon storage in each scenario from 2020 to 2060. Then, this study used a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model to determine the main driving factors that influence the changes in land carbon sinking capacity. The results of the study can be summarised as follows: firstly, the agricultural and ecological priority scenarios will achieve balanced urban expansion and environmental protection of resources in an ecological space. The urbanized priority scenario will reduce the carbon sinking capacity. Among the simulation scenarios for 2060, carbon storage in the urbanized priority scenario will decrease by 112.26 × 106 t compared with that for 2020 and the average carbon density will decrease by 0.96 kg/m2 compared with that for 2020. Carbon storage in the agricultural priority scenario will increase by 84.11 × 106 t, and the average carbon density will decrease by 0.72 kg/m2. Carbon storage in the ecological priority scenario will increase by 3.03 × 106 t, and the average carbon density will increase by 0.03 kg/m2. Under the premise that the population of the town will increases continuously, the ecological priority development approach may be a wise choice. Secondly, slope, distance to river and elevation are the most important factors that influence the carbon sink pattern of the ecological space in the Beibu Gulf urban agglomeration, followed by GDP, population density, slope direction and distance to traffic infrastructure. At the same time, urban space expansion is the main cause of the changes of this natural factors. Thirdly, the decreasing trend of ecological space is difficult to reverse, so reasonable land use policy to curb the spatial expansion of cities need to be made.
Spatio-temporal Changes in Water Conservation Ecosystem Service During 1990–2019 in the Tumen River Basin, Northeast China
Peng ZHANG, Xiaoping LIU, Weihong ZHU, Chunjing LI, Ri JIN, Hengqi YAN, Chengyang GU, Jingzhi WANG
2023, 33(1): 102-115.   doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-023-1328-2
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The water conservation (WC) function of ecosystems is related to regional ecological security and the sustainable development of water resources, and the assessment of WC and its influencing factors is crucial for ecological and water resource management. The Tumen River Basin (TRB) is located in the core of the Northeast Asian ecological network and has been experiencing severe ecological crises and water shortages in recent years due to climate change and human activities. However, these crises have not been fully revealed to the extent that corresponding scientific measures are lacking. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and drivers of WC in the TRB from 1990 to 2019 based on the water yield module of the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model. The results showed that: 1) under the combined effect of nature and socioeconomics, the WC depth of the TRB has slowly increased at a rate of 0.11 mm/yr in the past 30 years, with an average WC depth of 36.14 mm. 2) The main driving factor of the spatial variation in WC is precipitation, there is a significant interaction between precipitation and velocity, the interaction between each factor is higher than the contribution of a single factor, and the interactions between factors all have nonlinear enhancement and two-factor enhancement. 3) Among the seven counties and municipalities in the study area, the southern part of Helong City and the southeastern part of Longjing City are extremely important areas for WC (> 75 mm), and they should be regarded as regional water resources and ecological priority protection areas. It is foreseen that under extreme climate conditions in the future, the WC of the watershed is under great potential threat, and protection measures such as afforestation and forestation should begin immediately. Furthermore, the great interannual fluctuations in WC depth may place more stringent requirements on the choice of time scales in the ecosystem service assessment process.
Evaluation and Quantitative Attribution Analysis of Water Yield Services in the Peak-cluster Depression Basins in Southwest of Guangxi, China
Donghua WANG, Yichao TIAN, Yali ZHANG, Liangliang HUANG, Jin TAO, Yongwei YANG, Junliang LIN, Qiang ZHANG
2023, 33(1): 116-130.   doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-023-1329-1
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Karst environmental issues have become one of the hot spots in contemporary international geological research. The same problem of water shortage is one of the hot spots of global concern. The peak-cluster depression basins in southwest of Guangxi is an important water connotation and ecological barrier areas in the Pearl River Basin of China. Thus, studying the spatial and temporal variations and the influencing factors of its water yield services is critical to achieve the sustainable development of water resources and ecological environmental protection in this region. As such, this paper uses the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model to assess the spatial and temporal variabilities of water yield services and its trends in the peak-cluster depression basins in southwest of Guangxi from 2000 to 2020. This work also integrates precipitation (Pre), reference evapotranspiration (ET), temperature (Tem), digital elevation model (DEM), slope, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land use/land cover (LULC) and soil type to reveal the main factors that influence water yield services with the help of Geodetector. Results show that: 1) in time scale, the total annual water yield in the study area show a fluctuating and increasing trend from 2000 to 2020, with a growth rate of 7.3753 × 108 m³/yr, and its multi-year average water yield was 538.07 mm; 2) in spatial pattern, with high yield areas mainly distributed in the south of the study area (mainly including Shangsi County, Pingxiang City, Ningming County, Longzhou County and Jingxi County), and low yield areas mainly distributed in Baise City and Nanning City; 3) the dominant factor of water yield within karst and non-karst landforms is not necessarily controlled by precipitation, and the explanation degree of DEM factors in karst areas is significantly higher than that in non-karst areas; 4) amongst the climatic factors, Pre, ET and Tem are dominant in the spatial pattern of region water yield capacity. among which Pre has the highest explanatory power for the spatial heterogeneity of annual water production, with q values above 0.8, and each driver showed a significant interaction on the spatial distribution of water yield, with Pre exhibiting the strongest interaction with LULC.
Surface Regional Heat (Cool) Island Effect and Its Diurnal Differences in Arid and Semiarid Resource-based Urban Agglomerations
Yan CHEN, Miaomiao XIE, Bin CHEN, Huihui WANG, Yali TENG
2023, 33(1): 131-143.   doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-022-1324-y
[摘要](56) [HTML全文](25) [PDF 2806KB](3)
摘要:
With the rapid development of urban agglomerations in northwest arid and semiarid regions of China, the scope of the urban heat island (UHI) effect has gradually expanded and gradually connected, and has formed a regional heat island (RHI) with a larger range of impact to the regional environment. However, there are few studies on the heat island effect of urban agglomerations in arid and semiarid regions, so this paper selects the urban agglomeration of Hohhot, Baotou and Ordos (HBO) of Inner Mongolia, China as the study area. Based on the 8-day composite Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface temperature data (156 scenes in all) and land use maps for 2005, 2010, and 2015, we analyze the spatiotemporal distributions of regional heat (cool) islands (RH(C)I) and the responses of surface temperatures to land-use changes in the diurnal and interannual surface cities. The results showed that: 1) from 2005 to 2015, urban areas showed the cold island effect during the day, with the area of the cold island showing a shrinking feature; at night, they showed the heat island effect, with the area of the heat island showing a first decrease and then an increase. 2) From 2005 to 2015, the land development (unutilized land to building land) brings the greatest temperature increase (∆T = 1.36°C) during the day, while the greatest temperature change at night corresponds to the conversion of cultivated land to building land (∆T = 0.78°C) exhibited the largest changes at night. From 2010 to 2015, the land development (grassland to building land) bring the greatest temperature increase (∆T = 0.85°C) during the day, while the great temperature change at night corresponds to the conversion of water areas to building land (∆T = 1.38°C) exhibited the largest changes at night. Exploring the spatial and temporal evolution of surface urban heat (cool) islands in urban agglomerations in arid and semiarid regions will help to understand the urbanization characteristics of urban agglomerations and provide a reference for the formulation of policies for the coordinated and healthy development of the region and co-governance of regional environmental problems.
Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Future Scenario Simulation of the Trade-offs and Synergies of Mountain Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Dabie Mountains Area, China
Lin FANG, Yanxiao LIU, Canfeng LI, Jun CAI
2023, 33(1): 144-160.   doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-023-1330-8
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摘要:
Mountain ecosystems play an essential role in supporting regional sustainable development and improving local ecological environments. However, economic development in mountainous areas has long been lagging, and multiple conflicts related to resource assurance, ecological protection, and economic development have emerged. An accurate grasp of the current status and evolutionary trends of mountain ecosystems is essential to enhance the overall benefits of ecosystem services and maintain regional ecological security. Based on the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs) model, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution patterns and the trade-offs and synergies among ecosystem services (ES) in the Dabie Mountains Area (DMA) of eastern China. The Markov-PLUS (Patch-generating Land Use Simulation) model was used to conduct a multi-scenario simulation of the area’s future development. Water yield (WY) and soil conservation (SC) had overall increasing trends during 2000−2020, carbon storage (CS) decreased overall but slowed with time, and habitat quality (HQ) increased and then decreased. The ecological protection scenario is the best scenario for improving ES in the DMA by 2030; compared to 2020, the total WY would decrease by 3.77 × 108 m3, SC would increase by 0.65 × 106 t, CS would increase by 1.33 × 106 t, and HQ would increase by 0.06%. The comprehensive development scenario is the second-most effective scenario for ecological improvement, while the natural development scenario did not have a significant effect. However, as the comprehensive development scenario considers both environmental protection and economic development, which are both vital for the sustainable development of the mountainous areas, this scenario is considered the most suitable path for future development. There are trade-offs between WY, CS, and HQ, while there are synergies between SC, CS, and HQ. Spatially, the DMA’s central core district is the main strong synergistic area, the marginal zone is the weak synergistic area, and trade-offs are mainly distributed in the transition zone.
Spatial Variability of PM2.5 Pollution in Imbalanced Natural and Socioeconomic Processes: Evidence from the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region of China
Yixu WANG, Shuo SUN, Wentian XU, Xuecheng FU, Lei YAO
2023, 33(1): 161-174.   doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-023-1331-7
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摘要:
Accurately identifying and quantifying the factors influencing PM2.5 pollution is of great significance for the prevention and control of pollution. However, the redundancy among potential factors of PM2.5 may be overlooked. Meanwhile, the inconsistent spatial distribution of the natural and socioeconomic conditions brings unique implications for the cities within a region, which may lead to an uncertain understanding of the relationship between pollution and environmental factors. This study focused on the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) Region, China, which presents complex and varied background conditions. Potential impact factors on PM2.5 were firstly screened by combining systematic cluster analysis with a random forest recursive feature elimination algorithm. Then, the representative multi-factor responsible for PM2.5 pollution in the region during the key period of 2014–2018 (when the strict national air pollution control policy was implemented). The results showed that the key driving factors of PM2.5 pollution in the BTH cities are different, indicating that the uniqueness of a city will have an impact on the leading causes of pollution. Further discussion shows that air control policy provides an effective way to improve air quality. This study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk drivers of air pollution within the BTH Region. In the future, it is recommended that more attention should be paid to the specific differences between the cities when formulating PM2.5 concentration control measures.
Incorporating Exercise Efficiency to Evaluate the Accessibility and Capacity of Medical Resources in Tibet, China
Li WANG, Linsheng YANG, Binggan WEI, Hairong LI, Hongyan CAI, Jixia HUANG, Xing YUAN
2023, 33(1): 175-188.   doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-022-1321-1
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摘要:
Accessibility and capacity of medical resources are key for the health care and emergency response, while the efficiency of the medical resources is very much limited by hypoxia in Tibet, China. Through introducing exercise efficiency, this study explores the accessibility of township residence to county-ship medical resources in Tibet using weighted mean travel time (WMT), and evaluates the medical capacity accordingly. The results show that: 1) the average travel time of township residence to county-level hospital is around 2 h by motor vehicle in Tibet. More than half of the population can not reach the county-ship hospital within 1 h, 33.24% of the population can not reach within 2 h, and 3.75% of the population can not reach within 6 h. 2) When considering the catchment of the medical resources and the population size, the WMT of the county-ship medical resources ranges from 0.25 h to 10.92 h. 3) After adjusted by travel time and exercise efficiency, the county-ship medical capacity became more unequal, with 38 out of 74 counties could not meet the national guideline of 1.8 medical beds per 1000. 4) In total, there are 17 counties with good WMT and sufficient medical resources, while 13 counties having very high WMT and low capacity of medical resources in Tibet. In the end, suggestions on medical resources relocation and to improve the capacity are provided. This study provides a method to incorporate exercise efficiency to access the accessibility and evaluate medical capacity that can be applied in high altitude ranges.