RAO Enming, XIAO Yi, OUYANG Zhiyun, ZHENG Hua. Changes in Ecosystem Service of Soil Conservation Between 2000 and 2010 and Its Driving Factors in Southwestern China[J]. Chinese Geographical Science, 2016, 26(2): 165-173. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0759-9
Citation: RAO Enming, XIAO Yi, OUYANG Zhiyun, ZHENG Hua. Changes in Ecosystem Service of Soil Conservation Between 2000 and 2010 and Its Driving Factors in Southwestern China[J]. Chinese Geographical Science, 2016, 26(2): 165-173. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0759-9

Changes in Ecosystem Service of Soil Conservation Between 2000 and 2010 and Its Driving Factors in Southwestern China

doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0759-9
Funds:  Under the auspices of National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2011BAC09B08), Special Issue of National Remote Sensing Survey and Assessment of Eco-Environment Change between 2000 and 2010 (No. STSN-04-01)
More Information
  • Corresponding author: XIAO Yi
  • Received Date: 2014-10-14
  • Rev Recd Date: 2014-12-31
  • Publish Date: 2016-02-27
  • Human activities significantly alter ecosystems and their services; however, quantifying the impact of human activities on ecosystems has been a great challenge in ecosystem management. We used the Universal Soil Loss Equation and county-level socioeconomic data to assess the changes in the ecosystem service of soil conservation between 2000 and 2010, and to analyze its spatial characteristics and driving factors in the southwestern China. The results showed that cropland in the southwestern China decreased by 3.74%, while urban land, forest, and grassland areas increased by 46.78%, 0.86%, and 1.12%, respectively. The soil conservation increased by 1.88 × 1011 kg, with deterioration only in some local areas. The improved and the degraded areas accounted for 6.41% and 2.44% of the total land area, respectively. Implementation of the Sloping Land Conversion Program and urbanization explained 57.80% and 23.90% of the variation in the soil conservation change, respectively, and were found to be the main factors enhancing soil conservation. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake was one of the factors that led to the degradation of soil conservation. Furthermore, industrial adjustment, by increasing shares of Industry and Service and reducing those of Agriculture, has also promoted soil conservation. Our results quantitatively showed and emphasized the contributions to soil conservation improvement made by implementing ecological restoration programs and promoting urbanization. Consequently, these results provide basic information to improve our understanding of the effects of ecological restoration programs, and help guide future sustainable urban development and regional industrial restructuring.
  • [1] Carter H J, Eslinger D L, 2004. Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool (N-SPECT) Technical Guide. NOAA-CSC.
    [2] Chazdon R L, 2008. Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science, 320(5882): 1458-1460. doi:  10.1126/science.1155365
    [3] Faulkner S, 2004. Urbanization impacts on the structure and function of forested wetlands. Urban Ecosystems, 7(2): 89-106. doi:  10.1023/B:UECO.0000036269.56249.66
    [4] Feng X, Wang Y, Chen L et al., 2010. Modeling soil erosion and its response to land-use change in hilly catchments of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Geomorphology, 118(3-4): 239-248. doi:  10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.01.004
    [5] Fu B, Liu Y, Lyu Y et al., 2011. Assessing the soil erosion control service of ecosystems change in the Loess Plateau of China. Ecological Complexity, 8(4): 284-293. doi: 10.1016/j.ecocom. 2011.07.003
    [6] Grau H R, Aide T M, 2007. Are rural-urban migration and sustainable development compatible in mountain systems? Mountain Research and Development, 27(2): 119-123. doi:  10.1659/mrd.0906
    [7] Grimm N B, Foster D, Groffman P et al., 2008. The changing landscape: ecosystem responses to urbanization and pollution across climatic and societal gradients. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6(5): 264-272. doi:  10.1890/070147
    [8] Han Huali, 2010. Study on Land Use Changes and Its Ecological Effects in Mountainous Areas at China's Southwest Border Driven by the Project of Converting Farmland to Forest: a Case Study in Luxi City, Yunnan Province. Chongqing: Southwest University. (in Chinese)
    [9] Jiang G, Liu M, Han N et al., 2003. Potential for restoration of degraded steppe in the Xilingol Biosphere Reserve through urbanization. Environmental Conservation, 30(3): 304-310. doi:  10.1017/S0376892903000304
    [10] Jiang Z, Lian Y, Qin X, 2014. Rocky desertification in southwest China: impacts, causes, and restoration. Earth-Science Reviews, 132: 1-12. doi:  10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.01.005
    [11] Li H, Aide T M, Ma Y et al., 2007. Demand for rubber is causing the loss of high diversity rain forest in SW China. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16(6): 1731-1745. doi:  10.1007/s10531-006-9052-7
    [12] Li Jingbao, Zhong Saixiang, Yang Yan et al., 2005. Effects on the functions of ecosystem services of Dongting Lake from silt deposit and land reclamation. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 13(2): 179-182. (in Chinese)
    [13] Liu Bingzheng, Liu Shihai, Zheng Suiding, 1999. Soil conservation and coefficient of soil conservation of crops. Research of Soil and Water Conservation, 6(2): 32-36, 113. (in Chinese)
    [14] Liu J, Li S, Ouyang Z et al., 2008. Ecological and socioeconomic effects of China's policies for ecosystem services. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(28): 9477-9482. doi:  10.1073/pnas.0706436105
    [15] Lyu Y, Fu B, Feng X et al., 2012. A policy-driven large scale ecological restoration: quantifying ecosystem services changes in the Loess Plateau of China. Plos One, 7(2): e31782. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0031782
    [16] McDonald R I, 2008. Global urbanization: can ecologists identify a sustainable way forward? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6(2): 99-104. doi:  10.1890/070038
    [17] Nagendra H, Sudhira H S, Katti M et al., 2014. Urbanization and its impacts on land use, biodiversity and ecosystems in India. Interdisciplina, 2(2): 305-313.
    [18] Ouyang Zhiyun, Zheng Hua, 2009. Ecological mechanisms of ecosystem services. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29(11): 6183-6188. (in Chinese)
    [19] Pimentel D, Harvey C, Resosudarmo P et al., 1995. Environ­mental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science, 267(5201): 1117-1123. doi: 10.1126/science. 267.5201.1117
    [20] Rao E, Ouyang Z, Yu X et al., 2014. Spatial patterns and impacts of soil conservation service in China. Geomorphology, 207: 64-70. doi:  10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.10.027
    [21] Rey Benayas J M, Newton A C, Diaz A et al., 2009. Enhancement of biodiversity and ecosystem services by ecological restora­tion: a meta-analysis. Science, 325(5944): 1121-1124. doi:  10.1126/science.1172460
    [22] Ricardo G H, Aide M, 2008. Globalization and land-use transitions in Latin America. Ecology and Society, 13(2): 16.
    [23] SCO (State Council Office), 2010. Training Manual of the First Nationwide Water Resources Survey: Census of Soil and Water Conservation. Beijing: China Water Power Press. (in Chinese)
    [24] Shen W, Wu J, Grimm N B et al., 2008. Effects of urbanization-induced environmental changes on ecosystem functioning in the Phoenix metropolitan region, USA. Ecosystems, 11(1): 138-155. doi:  10.1007/s10021-007-9085-0
    [25] Su C, Fu B, 2013. Evolution of ecosystem services in the Chinese Loess Plateau under climatic and land use changes. Global and Planetary Change, 101: 119-128. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha. 2012.12.014
    [26] van Beynen P E, 2011. Karst Management. Netherlands: Springer. doi:  10.1007/978-94-007-1207-2
    [27] Wang S J, Liu Q M, Zhang D F, 2004. Karst rocky desertification in southwestern China: geomorphology, landuse, impact and rehabilitation. Land Degradation & Development, 15(2): 115-121. doi:  10.1002/ldr.592
    [28] Wang Y K, Fu B, Xu P, 2012. Evaluation the impact of earthquake on ecosystem services. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 13: 954-966. doi:  10.1016/j.proenv.2012.01.089
    [29] Wei Hongbo, Li Rui, Yang Qinke, 2002. Research advances of vegetation effect on soil and water conservation in China. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 26(4): 489-496. (in Chinese)
    [30] Wei Xingping, 2011. The Study on the Characteristics and Mechanism of Soil Erosion in Karst Valley Area, Chongqing. Chongqing: Southwest University. (in Chinese)
    [31] Wischmeier W H, Smith D D, 1978. Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses: A Guide to Conservation Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
    [32] Xu J, Yin R, Li Z et al., 2006. China's ecological rehabilitation: unprecedented efforts, dramatic impacts, and requisite policies. Ecological Economics, 57(4): 595-607. doi:  10.1016/j.ecole­con.2005.05.008
    [33] Yang D, Kanae S, Oki T et al., 2003. Global potential soil erosion with reference to land use and climate changes. Hydrological Processes, 17(14): 2913-2928. doi:  10.1002/hyp.1441
    [34] Yang Guishan, Ma Ronghua, Zhang Lu et al., 2010. Lake status, major problems and protection strategy in China. Journal of Lake Science, 22(6): 799-810. (in Chinese)
    [35] Yang Miao, Xie Qiang, Tan Xiaorong et al., 2013. Assessment of restoration of soil and water conservation function in watershed in earthquake disaster area based on GIS/RS. Sichuan Environment, 32(1): 39-45. (in Chinese)
    [36] Ye Y, Chen G, Fan H, 2003. Impacts of the ¢Grain for Green¢ project on rural communities in the Upper Min River Basin, Sichuan, China. Mountain Research and Development, 23(4): 345-352. doi: 10.1659/0276-4741(2003)023[0345:IOTGFG]2.0. CO;2
    [37] Yin R, Zhao M, 2012. Ecological restoration programs and payments for ecosystem services as integrated biophysical and socioeconomic processes—China's experience as an example. Ecological Economics, 73: 56-65. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon. 2011.11.003
    [38] Zhang Chunmin, Wang Genxu, 2008. Impacts of Wenchuan Earthquake disasters on ecosystem and its spatial pattern: case study of Qingchuan, Pingwu and Maoxian counties. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 28(12): 5833-5841. (in Chinese)
    [39] Zhang K L, Shu A P, Xu X L et al., 2008. Soil erodibility and its estimation for agricultural soils in China. Journal of Arid Environments, 72(6): 1002-1011. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2007. 11.018
    [40] Zhang Min, Zou Xiaoming, 2009. Comparison of soil C and N in rubber plantation and seasonal rain forest. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 20(5): 1013-1019. (in Chinese)
    [41] Zheng Hua, Ouyang Zhiyun, Zhao Tongqian et al., 2003. The impact of human activities on ecosystem services. Journal of Natural Resources, 18(1): 118-126. (in Chinese)
  • 加载中
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
  • 1. 

    沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

  1. 本站搜索
  2. 百度学术搜索
  3. 万方数据库搜索
  4. CNKI搜索

Article Metrics

Article views(574) PDF downloads(1110) Cited by()

Proportional views
Related

Changes in Ecosystem Service of Soil Conservation Between 2000 and 2010 and Its Driving Factors in Southwestern China

doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0759-9
Funds:  Under the auspices of National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2011BAC09B08), Special Issue of National Remote Sensing Survey and Assessment of Eco-Environment Change between 2000 and 2010 (No. STSN-04-01)
    Corresponding author: XIAO Yi

Abstract: Human activities significantly alter ecosystems and their services; however, quantifying the impact of human activities on ecosystems has been a great challenge in ecosystem management. We used the Universal Soil Loss Equation and county-level socioeconomic data to assess the changes in the ecosystem service of soil conservation between 2000 and 2010, and to analyze its spatial characteristics and driving factors in the southwestern China. The results showed that cropland in the southwestern China decreased by 3.74%, while urban land, forest, and grassland areas increased by 46.78%, 0.86%, and 1.12%, respectively. The soil conservation increased by 1.88 × 1011 kg, with deterioration only in some local areas. The improved and the degraded areas accounted for 6.41% and 2.44% of the total land area, respectively. Implementation of the Sloping Land Conversion Program and urbanization explained 57.80% and 23.90% of the variation in the soil conservation change, respectively, and were found to be the main factors enhancing soil conservation. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake was one of the factors that led to the degradation of soil conservation. Furthermore, industrial adjustment, by increasing shares of Industry and Service and reducing those of Agriculture, has also promoted soil conservation. Our results quantitatively showed and emphasized the contributions to soil conservation improvement made by implementing ecological restoration programs and promoting urbanization. Consequently, these results provide basic information to improve our understanding of the effects of ecological restoration programs, and help guide future sustainable urban development and regional industrial restructuring.

RAO Enming, XIAO Yi, OUYANG Zhiyun, ZHENG Hua. Changes in Ecosystem Service of Soil Conservation Between 2000 and 2010 and Its Driving Factors in Southwestern China[J]. Chinese Geographical Science, 2016, 26(2): 165-173. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0759-9
Citation: RAO Enming, XIAO Yi, OUYANG Zhiyun, ZHENG Hua. Changes in Ecosystem Service of Soil Conservation Between 2000 and 2010 and Its Driving Factors in Southwestern China[J]. Chinese Geographical Science, 2016, 26(2): 165-173. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0759-9
Reference (41)

Catalog

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return