2018 Vol. 28, No. 4

Display Method:
Optimization Transmission Theory and Technical Pathways that Describe Multiscale Urban Agglomeration Spaces
FANG Chuanglin, YANG Junyan, FANG Jiawen, HUANG Xiejun, ZHOU Yi
2018, 28(4): 543-554. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0974-2
Urban agglomerations are spatial entities that promote the development of ‘new urbanization’ processes within China. In this context, the concept of ’multiscale urban agglomeration spaces‘ encompasses three linked levels:macroscale urban agglomerations, mesoscale cities, and microscale urban centers. Applying a series of multidisciplinary integrated research methods drawn from geography, urban planning, and architecture, this paper reveals two intensive utilization laws that can be generalized to apply to multiscale urban agglomeration spaces, top-to-bottom ‘positive transmission' linkage and inside-to-outside ’negative transmission‘ movement. This paper also proposes optimization transmission theory and policy decision technical pathways that can be applied to these three urban agglomeration spatial scales. Specific technical pathways of transmission include intensive expansion and simulated decision-making in macroscale urban agglomerations, ecology, production, and living space intensive layout and dynamic decision-making in mesoscale cities, and four cores (i.e., ‘single, ring, axis, and pole core’) progressive linkage and intensive optimization decision-making in microscale urban centers. The theory and technical pathways proposed in this paper solve the technical problem of optimization and provide intensive methods that can be applied not only at the individual level but also at multiple scales in urban agglomeration spaces. This study also advances a series of comprehensive technical solutions that can be applied to both compact and smart growth cities as well as to urban agglomerations. Solid theoretical support is provided for the optimization of Chinese land development, urbanization, agricultural development, and ecological security.
Co-dwelling, Mix-dwelling and Dis-dwelling: The Diversity Among Three Human and Livestock Dwelling Forms in Rural China
TANG Guorong, ZHANG Jinhe, ZHU Shunshun, PENG Hongsong, HU Huan
2018, 28(4): 555-570. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0941-y
Humans and livestock have always dwelling together, especially in rural areas. Based on a multi-method approach of ethnographic fieldwork, grounded theory and one-way multivariate analysis of variance, this paper explores human and livestock dwelling. The findings show that human and livestock dwelling form a special type of human dwelling place, with forms defined as co-, mix-and dis-dwelling. Then, from co-, mix-to dis-dwelling constructed a story line to the evolution of human and livestock dwelling forms, which further explains the entire dwelling situation of humans and livestock, including the dimensions of human dweller, livestock dweller, the rural environment and special events. Among co-, mix-and dis-dwelling significant differences existed between human and livestock individuals, the nature of rural environment, vernacularity and rural tourism development. Between co-and dis-dwelling, significant differences existed in seventeen aspects; between mix-and dis-dwelling, significant differences existed in eleven aspects; meanwhile, no significant differences existed between co-and mix-dwelling. Accordingly, this suggested that human and livestock dwelling forms can be divided into mix-and dis-dwelling. This study on humans and livestock dwelling relationship offer a new perspective on rural and animal geography. This paper is an exploratory foray into rural dwelling geography as part of the Anthrozoology study and broadens the scope of extant scholarship on human dwelling morphology, as well as analyses the spatial relationships between human and livestock dwelling.
Regional Clustering and Synchronization of Provincial Business Fluc-tuations in China
SONG Tao, ZHENG Tingguo, XIA Kai
2018, 28(4): 571-583. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0975-1
In this article, we propose a novel, multilevel, dynamic factor model, to determine endogenously clustered regions for the investigation of regional clustering and synchronization of provincial business fluctuations in China. The parameter identification and model estimation was conducted using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. We then conducted an empirical study of the provincial business fluctuations in China (31 Chinese provinces are considered except Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan due to the data unavailability), which were sampled from January 2000 to December 2015. Our results indicated that these provinces could be clustered into four regions:leading, coincident, lagging, and overshooting. In comparison with traditional geographical divisions, this novel clustering into four regions enabled the regional business cycle synchronization to be more accurately captured. Within the four regional clusters it was possible to identify substantial heterogeneities among regional business cycle fluctuations, especially during the periods of the 2008 financial crisis and the ‘four-trillion economic stimulus plan’.
Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Urban Smart Development in China and Its Driving Mechanism
CHEN Xiaohong, WEI Luyao, ZHANG Haifeng
2018, 28(4): 584-599. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0976-0
Smart urban development is an inevitable choice, and is essential to overall strength improvement. It is important to explore an urban smart development path which unites smart growth with driving shrinkage perfectly in forming scientific and sustainable development concept and responding to new normal strategic opportunities. Based on statistic data of 294 prefecture-level cities and above in China from 2000 to 2015, we analyzed spatial and temporal evolution of urban smart development in China by constructing a dynamic fitting model of urban land expansion, population growth, and economic development as well as the coefficient of variation of urban smart development (CVSD). Further efforts were then made to consider differential distribution regularity of urban smart development so as to understand the driving mechanisms of heterogeneous classification of urban smart development in China from different scales and scale variation. Our results indicate that:1) the disordered growth tendency of urban cities in China is overall well controlled in the middle, and late research and it mainly presented a doublet coexistence of shrinkage disordered cities and smart developing cities. It is particularly obvious that Northeast China and East China have regarded shrinkage disordered cities and smart developing cities as main development tendency separately. 2) Areas with basic stability and relative variation were relatively dispersed across the time period, but the proportion was far beyond areas with significant variation. It demonstrates a relative equilibrium spatial and temporal differential evolution pattern of prefecture-level cities and above in China, except for Tongling, Lanzhou and Chaoyang. 3) prefecture-level cities and above in China are mostly characterized by shrinkage disordered and smart development classification under the background of different scale and scale variation from 2000-2015; however, the spatial resonance relation is not obvious. 4) There are many interaction factors forming an important driving mechanism in developing the spatial and temporal pattern of urban smart development in China, including natural geographical factors, industrial structure adjustment, human capital radiation, regional traffic accessibility, and government decision-making intervention.
Simulating Sustainable Urban Development by Incorporating So-cial-ecological Risks into a Constrained CA Model
ZHU Jiang, YU Yanna, ZHOU Shenglu, WANG Xiang, LV Ligang
2018, 28(4): 600-611. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0977-z
A key solution to urban and global sustainability is effective planning of sustainable urban development, for which geo-techniques especially cellular automata (CA) models can be very informative. However, existing CA models for simulating sustainable urban development, though increasingly refined in modeling urban growth, capture mostly the environmental aspect of sustainability. In this study, an adaptable risk-constrained CA model was developed by incorporating the social-ecological risks of urban development. A three-dimensional risk assessment framework was proposed that explicitly considers the environmental constraints on, system resilience to, and potential impacts of urban development. The risk-constrained model was then applied to a case study of Sheyang County, Jiangsu Province in the eastern China. Comparative simulations of urban development in four contrasting scenarios were conducted, namely, the environmental suitability constrained scenario, the ecological risk constrained scenario, the social risk constrained scenario, and the integrated social-ecological risk constrained scenario. The simulations suggested that considering only environmental suitability in the CA simulation of urban development overestimated the potential of sustainable urban growth, and that the urbanization mode changed from city expansion that was more constrained by social risks to town growth that was more constrained by ecological risks. Our risk-constrained CA model can better simulate sustainable urban development; additionally, we provide suggestions on the sustainable urban development in Sheyang and on future model development.
Walking Access Distance of Metro Passengers and Relationship with Demographic Characteristics: A Case Study of Nanjing Metro
HE Jinliao, ZHANG Ruozhu, HUANG Xianjin, XI Guangliang
2018, 28(4): 612-623. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0970-6
In the metropolises of China, the metro plays an increasingly important role in commuting because of its efficiency, affordability, and cleanliness. This paper attempts to explore the relationship between walking access distance to metro stations and the demographic characteristics of passengers, such as age, monthly income, travel frequency, gender, and travel purpose, as well as the influence of the urban context. Nanjing Metro Line 2 is selected as the case study. By using different methods such as a questionnaire survey, spatial decay function, analysis of covariance (ANOVA), network analysis of routes, and K-means cluster analysis, it is suggested that demographic characteristics have a significant impact on the pedestrian walking distance, with the exception of gender. Furthermore, the paper finds a spatial decay effect in walking access distance, the decay rate of which, however, varies across stations. Terminal stations have a larger pedestrian catchment area than in regular and exchange stations. Moreover, the passengers of Nanjing Metro Line 2 can be classified into six groups according to their demographic characteristics, among which education and occupation are vital indicators in determining their willingness to walk to the stations. Middle-class passengers have a higher dependence on the metro and tend to walk longer than other groups do. This study provides an important reference for planners and transport sectors to optimize land-use and transport infrastructures.
Characteristics of Sand Dune Pattern and Fluvial-aeolian Interaction in Horqin Sandy Land, Northeast Plain of China
DU Huishi, WANG Zongming, MAO Dehua
2018, 28(4): 624-635. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0951-9
The interaction between fluvial and aeolian processes can significantly change surface morphology of the Earth. Taking the Horqin Sandy Land as the research area and using Landsat series satellite remote sensing images, this study utilizes geomorphology and landscape ecology to monitor and analyze the aeolian geomorphology characteristics of the Horqin Sandy Land. Results show that the sand dunes of the Horqin Sandy Land are mainly distributed on alluvial plains along the banks of the mainstream and tributaries of the Western Liao River, and the sand dune types tend to simplify from west to east and from south to north. The aeolian geomorphology coverage tend to be decreasing in the past 40 years, with an average annual change rate of 0.31%. While the area of traveling dunes decreased, the area of fixed and semi-fixed dunes increased. The fractal dimensions of various types of sand dune have all remained relatively constant between 1.07 and 1.10, suggesting that they are experiencing a relatively stable evolutionary process. There is a complex interaction between fluvial and aeolian processes of the Horqin Sandy Land, which plays a central role in surface landscape molding. Sand dunes on both sides of different rivers on the Horqin Sandy Land present certain regularity and different characteristics in terms of morphology, developmental scale, and spatial pattern. There are six fluvial-aeolian interaction modes in this area:supply of sand sources by rivers for sand dune development, complete obstruction of dune migration by rivers, partial obstruction of dune migration by rivers, influence of river valleys on dune developmental types on both sides, influence of river valleys on dune developmental scale on both sides, and river diversion due to obstruction and forcing by sand dunes. This study deepens our understanding of the surface process mechanism of the interaction between fluvial and aeolian processes in semi-arid regions, and provides a basis for researches on regional landscape responses in the context of global environmental change.
Hydrological Processes in the Huaihe River Basin, China: Seasonal Variations, Causes and Implications
SUN Peng, SUN Yuyan, ZHANG Qiang, YAO Rui
2018, 28(4): 636-653. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0969-z
Understanding streamflow changes in terms of trends and periodicities and relevant causes is the first step into scientific management of water resources in a changing environment. In this study, monthly streamflow variations were analyzed using Modified Mann-Kendall (MM-K) trend test and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) methods at 9 hydrological stations in the Huaihe River Basin. It was found that:1) streamflow mainly occurs during May to September, accounting for 70.4% of the annual total streamflowamount with Cv values between 0.16-0.85 and extremum ratio values between 1.70-23.90; 2) decreased streamflow can be observed in the Huaihe River Basin and significant decreased streamflow can be detected during April and May, which should be the results of precipitation change and increased irrigation demand; 3) significant periods of 2-4 yr were detected during the 1960s, the 1980s and the 2000s. Different periods were found at stations concentrated within certain regions implying periods of streamflow were caused by different influencing factors for specific regions; 4) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) has the most significant impacts on monthly streamflow mainly during June. Besides, Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Niño3.4 Sea Surface Temperature (Niño3.4) have impacts on monthly streamflow with three months lags, and was less significant in time lag of six months. Identification of critical climatic factors having impacts on streamflow changes can help to predict monthly streamflow changes using climatic factors as explanatory variables. These findings were well corroborated by results concerning impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) regimes on precipitation events across the Huaihe River Basin. The results of this study can provide theoretical background for basin-scale man-agement of water resources and agricultural irrigation.
Review of Rapid Transformation of Floodplain Wetlands in Northeast China: Roles of Human Development and Global Environmental Change
YU Xiaofei, DING Shanshan, ZOU Yuanchun, XUE Zhenshan, LYU Xianguo, WANG Guoping
2018, 28(4): 654-664. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0957-3
Northeast China is the region with the largest area of wetlands in China. The Sanjiang Plain and the Songnen Plain are large freshwater marsh distribution regions that are affected by climate warming and by the increasing frequency and density of extreme weather and are the regions most subject to disturbances by human activities in Northeast China. The wetlands of the Sanjiang Plain and the Songnen Plain have shrunk severely in the past 60 years, and wetland functions have been reduced substantially because of climate change, unreasonable land use, fire episodes, engineering and construction works and urbanization. Large-scale agricultural development started in the 1950s has been the most important driving factor for wetland loss and degradation in the Sanjiang Plain. Water shortage has been the most important factor for degradation and fragmentation of wetlands in the Songnen Plain. To mitigate wetland degradation and better protect wetlands, special regulations, long-term mechanisms and technical support of wetland protection should be established. A wetland compensation program should be implemented, and technologies for increasing the adaptive capacity of wetlands should be developed. Moreover, it is most important to find the balanced threshold between agricultural development and wetland protection.
Comparative Assessment of Tundra Vegetation Changes Between North and Southwest Slopes of Changbai Mountains, China, in Response to Global Warming
JIN Yinghua, ZHANG Yingjie, XU Jiawei, TAO Yan, HE Hongshi, GUO Meng, WANG Ailin, LIU Yuxia, NIU Liping
2018, 28(4): 665-679. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0978-y
Vegetation in high altitude areas normally exhibits the strongest response to global warming. We investigated the tundra vegetation on the Changbai Mountains and revealed the similarities and differences between the north and the southwest slopes of the Changbai Mountains in response to global warming. Our results were as follows:1) The average temperatures in the growing season have increased from 1981 to 2015, the climate tendency rate was 0.38℃/10yr, and there was no obvious change in precipitation observed. 2) The tundra vegetation of the Changbai Mountains has changed significantly over the last 30 years. Specifically, herbaceous plants have invaded into the tundra zone, and the proportion of herbaceous plants was larger than that of shrubs. Shrub tundra was transforming into shrub-grass tundra. 3) The tundra vegetation in the north and southwest slopes of the Changbai Mountains responded differently to global warming. The southwest slope showed a significantly higher degree of invasion from herbaceous plants and exhibited greater vegetation change than the north slope. 4) The species diversity of plant communities on the tundra zone of the north slope changed unimodally with altitude, while that on the tundra zone of the southwest slope decreased monotonously with altitude. Differences in the degree of invasion from herbaceous plants resulted in differences in species diversity patterns between the north and southwest slopes. Differences in local microclimate, plant community successional stage and soil fertility resulted in differential responses of tundra vegetation to global warming.
Daily SPEI Reveals Long-term Change in Drought Characteristics in Southwest China
JIA Yanqing, ZHANG Bo, MA Bin
2018, 28(4): 680-693. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0973-3
Drought is the most widespread and insidious natural hazard, presenting serious challenges to ecosystems and human society. The daily Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) has been developed to identify the regional spatiotemporal characteristics of drought conditions from 1960 to 2016, revealing the variability in drought characteristics across Southwest China. Daily data from 142 meteorological stations across the region were used to calculate the daily SPEI at the annual and seasonal time scale. The Mann-Kendall test and the trend statistics were then applied to quantify the significance of drought trends, with the following results. 1) The regionally averaged intensity and duration of all-drought and severe drought showed increasing trends, while the intensity and duration of extreme drought exhibited decreasing trends. 2) Mixed (increasing/decreasing) trends were detected, in terms of intensity and duration, in the three types of drought events. In general, no evidence of significant trends (P<0.05) was detected in the drought intensity and duration over the last 55 years at the annual timescale. Seasonally, spring was characterized by a severe drought trend for all drought and severe drought conditions, while extreme drought events in spring and summer were very severe. All drought intensities and durations showed an increasing trend across most regions, except in the northwestern parts of Sichuan Province. However, the areal extent of regions suffering increasing trends in severe and extreme drought became relatively smaller. 3) We identified the following drought hotspots:Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from the 1960s to the 1990s, respectively. Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Guizhou Province in the 1970s and 1980s, and Yunnan Province in the 2000s. Finally, this paper can benefit operational drought characterization with a day-to-day drought monitoring index, enabling a more risk-based drought management strategy in the context of global warming.
Regenerative Role of Soil Seed Banks of Different Successional Stages in A Saline-alkaline Grassland in Northeast China
MA Hongyuan, LI Jingpeng, YANG Fan, LÜ Xiaotao, PAN Yuepeng, LIANG Zhengwei
2018, 28(4): 694-706. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0966-2
Soil seed banks can act as a potential seed source for natural revegetation and restoration. However, in a saline-alkaline grassland, it remains unclear how the stages of vegetation succession affect the characteristics of soil seed banks and the potential of soil seed banks of different successional stages for vegetation restoration. In this study, seasonal changes of the soil seed bank, and seed production and dispersal dynamics along degradation successional gradients were investigated in a saline-alkaline grassland in Northeast China, where the dominant grass during the 1960s, Leymus chinensis was replaced with the secondary successional order of Puccinellia chinampoensis, Chloris virgata, and Suaeda salsa, together with bare patches. It was found that the soil seed bank composition varied according to the changing vegetation and had the highest species richness (7-16) in the climax successional stage, but had a low Sørensen similarity (0.22-0.37) with the aboveground vegetation. There was a high seed density of the soil seed bank (21 062-62 166/m2 in August and December) and also high Sørensen similarity index values (0.47-0.60) in the secondary successional stages of P. chinampoensis, C. virgata, and S. salsa. In bare patches, there were many seeds in the soil seed bank and some seedlings also appeared in the aboveground vegetation, indicating the existence of a persistent soil seed bank. Seed density and species richness differed substantially among the different successional stages, which was related to the reproductive characteristics of the standing plants in vegetation communities. Due to the lack of propagules of perennial species, especially the climax species of L. chinensis, in the soil, the successful restoration of the degraded saline-alkaline grassland was not possible. The study proved that in a degraded saline-alkaline grassland dominated by biennial or annual species, the soil seed bank was important for the revegetation of the current dominant plants, but not for the restoration of the original target species. Therefore, it is necessary to induce seeds or other propagules of the target perennial species.
Porosity Distribution Characteristics and Geological Analysis of Brine Storage Medium in the Qaidam Basin, Western China
HU Shuya, XIAO Changlai, LIANG Xiujuan, ZHAO Quansheng, WANG Guangcai, ZHANG Jianwei, FENG Juan
2018, 28(4): 707-716. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0979-x
Underground brine is an unusual water resource that contains abundant mineral resources. It is distributed widely in the Qaidam Basin, western China, a hyperarid inland basin located in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Pores in the brine storage medium act as storage space and transmission channels of underground brine. Therefore, the porosity of brine storage medium determines its ability to store brine. In this study, Mahai Salt Lake was used as the research area as a modern saline lake located in the north area of the Qaidam Basin. A total of 100 porosity samples were collected from eight sampling points in two profiles of the research area at sampling depths of 1.30-314.78 m. The porosity distribution characteristics and influencing factors in brine storage medium were analysed according to the measured porosity data. Based on analysis of the pore structure characteristics, the brine storage medium contains intercrystalline pores, unlike conventional freshwater storage mediums. Moreover, the primary salt rock is susceptible to dissolution by lighter brine, facilitating the formation of secondary porosity. Due to the formation of secondary pores, a porosity greater than 20% remains even at buried depths greater than 100 m. Based on the geological statistical analysis, due to the geographic location, salt formation time, and depositional environment, the porosity values of Mahai Salt Lake do not exhibit a wider distribution, but also show more extreme values than a nearby salt lake. Based on the porosity characteristics by depth, due to the presence of secondary pores, flooding, stratigraphic static pressure, and other factors, porosity shows fluctuations with increasing depth.
Cultivation Ages Effect on Soil Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metal Accumulation in Greenhouse Soils
WANG Jun, MI Wenkui, SONG Peipei, XIE Hui, ZHU Lusheng, WANG Jinhua
2018, 28(4): 717-726. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0980-4
The intensive management practices in greenhouse production may alter the soil physicochemical properties and contribute to the accumulation of heavy metals (HMs). To determine the HM concentrations in vegetable soil in relation to soil physicochemical properties and cultivation age, we conducted a soil survey for typical greenhouse soils in Shouguang, China. The results indicated that Cd is a major HM pollutant in the tested soils, as the only HM element exceeding the allowed limit for vegetable soil. The surveyed data was analyzed with regression analysis, correlation analysis and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). A positive correlation is observed between HM pollution level and cultivation age. CCA results suggest that the HM pollution level and distribution in soil are significantly affected by soil physicochemical properties, which was a function of years of cultivation as revealed by regression analysis. In summary, cultivation age is an important factor to affect soil physicochemical properties (organic matter and inorganic nutrients) as well as HM contamination.