2012 Vol. 22, No. 4

Display Method:
Policy Review and Outlook on China′s Sustainable Development since 1992
WANG Yi, SUN Honglie, ZHAO Jingzhu
2012, 22(4): 381-389.
The Road to Rio+20 is the journey of countries in the world pursuing the sustainable development. As the first country to
release the national Agenda 21, China′s experience and lessons are of great significance for both China itself and other countries. The
paper reviews the progress made and problems remained in pursuing the sustainable development in China with regard to policy
formulation, institutional arrangements, planning and management. In the past five years, the mandatory targets-driven approach, which
focused on energy efficiency and key pollutants reduction, played a very important role and made China comprehensive outcomes for
sustainability. In order to achieve the targets, China adopted an integrated policy package including legal, administrative, economic and
technology instruments. During the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011–2015), China will continue and strengthen the approach above and
mainstream the transformation of economic development pattern through realizing the idea of green and low-carbon development. By
summarizing policy trends in the world, the paper points out two directions, i.e., integration approach and taking prioritized and concrete
actions for a sustainable future beyond 2012. The paper also presents policy approaches and recommendations for sustainable
development in the next 10 years in China.
More than Carbon Stocks: A Case Study of Ecosystem-based Benefits of REDD+ in Indonesia
LU Heli, YAN Weiyang, QIN Yaochen, LIU Guifang 1
2012, 22(4): 390-401.
 During the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP 15), Parties agreed that reducing emissions from deforestation and forest
degradation and enhancing ′removals of greenhouse gas emission by forests′ (REDD+) in developing countries through positive incentives
under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was capable of dealing with global emissions. As REDD+
seeks to lower emissions by stopping deforestation and forest degradation with an international payment tier according to baseline
scenarios, opportunities for ecosystem benefits such as slowing habitat fragmentation, conservation of forest biodiversity, soil
conservation may be also part of this effort. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate ecosystem-based benefits of REDD+, and
to identify the relationships with carbon stock changes. To achieve this goal, high resolution satellite images are combined with
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to identify historical deforestation in study area of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The
carbon emissions for the period of 2000–2005 and 2005–2009 are 2.73 × 105 t CO2 and 1.47 × 106 t CO2 respectively, showing an
increasing trend in recent years. Dring 2005–2009, number of patches (NP), patch density (PD), mean shape index distribution
(SHAPE_MN) increased 30.8%, 30.7% and 7.6%. Meanwhile, largest patch index (LPI), mean area (AREA_MN), area-weighted mean of
shape index distribution (SHAPE_AM), neighbor distance (ENN_MN) and interspersion and juxtaposition index (IJI) decreased by 55.3%,
29.7%, 15.8%, 53.4% and 21.5% respectively. The area regarding as positive correlation between carbon emissions and soil erosion was
approximately      8.9 × 103 ha corresponding to 96.0% of the changing forest. These results support the view that there are strong
synergies among carbon loss, forest fragmentation and soil erosion in tropical forests. Such mechanism of REDD+ is likely to present
opportunities for multiple benefits that fall outside the scope of carbon stocks.
Trends of Urban Air Pollution in Zhengzhou City in 1996–2008
DU Xile, LU Changhe, WANG Hairong, MA Jianhua
2012, 22(4): 402-413.
Urban air pollution is a commonly concerned environmental problem in the world. Identification of air quality trend using long-
term monitoring data is helpful to understand the effectiveness of pollution control strategies. This study, using data from six monitoring
stations in Zhengzhou City, analyzed the changing trend in concentrations of SO2, NOx/NO2 and TSP/PM10 in 1996–2008, based on non
-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen′s slope estimator, and evaluated the comprehensive air pollution level using Multi-Pollutant Index
(MPI). It was found that the concentration of each pollutant exceeded obviously the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value,
but the changing trend varied: SO2 and NO2 were significantly increased mainly due to an increase in coal consumption and vehicle
number, while NOx, TSP and PM10 decreased. The air pollution was serious, and differed markedly among the three functional regions: it
is the most severe in the Industrial and Residential Area (IRA), followed by the Transportation Hub and Business District (THBD), and then
the High-tech, Cultural and Educational Area (HCEA). Different from NO2 concentration that had a similar change trend/rate among the
function regions, the change rate of PM10 concentration differed spatially, decreased much more obviously in THBD than other two
regions. For the whole city, the comprehensive air pollution level declined gradually, illustrating that the air quality in Zhengzhou was
improved in the last decade.
Role of Organic Acids in Desorption of Mercury from Contaminated Soils in Eastern Shandong Province, China
JIANG Hong, ZHANG Lei, ZHENG Binghui, WANG Guoqiang
2012, 22(4): 414-421.
Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on desorption of Hg
from two kinds of soils in the eastern Shandong Province, China. Of all LMWOAs, oxalic and citric acids were chosen as the
representatives in this experiment because they are most common in soils. Desorption of Hg increases with the increase of extracting
time, until the highest desorption amount at 6–8 h, and then declines. It indicates that timeliness is very important when organic acids
are used for phytoremediation in contaminated soils. When the concentrations of organic acids increase from 1.0 mmol/L to 10.0 mmol/L,
Hg desorption increases significantly regardless of oxalic or citric acid. Compared with oxalic acid, citric acid is more effective to enhance
the desorption of Hg, especially from fluvo-aquic soil. With the increase of initial pH value from 3 to 8, Hg desorption decreases directly in
the presence of oxalic acid. However, Hg desorption first decreases, then increases, and eventually decreases again in the presence of
citric acid due to the variation of competitive ability between chelating of citric acid and adsorption of soil in different pH values. Citric
acid showed greater ability to release Hg from soils than oxalic acid. According to the results of the present study, it is found that the
bioavailabilities of heavy metal can be improved with selecting suitable types and concentrations of organic acid amendment and
reasonable soil condition.
Changes of Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in Hengduan Mountains, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 1961–2008
NING Baoying, YANG Xiaomei, CHANG Li
2012, 22(4): 422-436.
Variations and trends in extreme climate events are more sensitive to climate change than the mean values, and so have
received much attention. In this study, twelve indices of temperature extremes and 11 indices of precipitation extremes at 32
meteorological stations in Hengduan Mountains were examined for the period 1961–2008. The results reveal statistically significant
increases in the temperature of the warmest and coldest nights and in the frequencies of extreme warm days and nights. Decreases of
the diurnal temperature range and the numbers of frost days and ice days are statistically significant. Regional averages of growing
season length also display the trends consistent and significant with warming. At a large proportion of the stations, patterns of
temperature extremes are consistent with warming since 1961: warming trends in minimum temperature indices are greater than those
relating to maximum temperature. As the center of the Shaluli Mountain, the warming magnitudes decrease from inner to outer. Changes
in precipitation extremes is low: trends are difficult to detect against the larger inter-annual and decadal-scale variability of precipitation,
and only the wet day precipitation and the regional trend in consecutive dry days are significant at the 0.05 level. It can be concluded
that the variation of extreme precipitation events is not obvious in the Hengduan Mountains, however, the regional trends generally
decrease from the south to the north. Overall, the spatial distribution of temporal changes of all extreme climate indices in the Hengduan
Mountains illustrated here reflects the climatic complexity in mountainous regions.
Estimation of Regional Evapotranspiration in Alpine Area and Its Response to Land Use Change: A Case Study in Three-River
Headwaters Region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
LI Huixia, LIU Guohua, FU Bojie
2012, 22(4): 437-449.
Three-River Headwaters (TRH) region involved in this paper refers to the source region of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River, the
Huanghe (Yellow) River and the Lancang River in China. Taking the TRH region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as a case, the annual
evapotranspiration (ET) model developed by Zhang et al. (2001) was applied to evaluate mean annual ET in the alpine area, and the
response of annual ET to land use change was analyzed. The plant-available water coefficient (w) of Zhang′s model was revised by using
vegetation-temperature condition index (VTCI) before annual ET was calculated in alpine area. The future land use scenario, an input of
ET model, was spatially simulated by using the conversion of land use and its effects at small regional extent (CLUE-S) to study the
response of ET to land use change. Results show that the relative errors between the simulated ET and that calculated by using water
balance equation were 3.81% and the index of agreement was 0.69. This indicates that Zhang′s ET model based on revised plant-
available water coefficient is a scientific and practical tool to estimate the annual ET in the alpine area. The annual ET in 2000 in the
study area was 221.2 mm, 11.6 mm more than that in 1980. Average annual ET decreased from southeast to northwest, but the change
of annual ET between 1980 and 2000 increased from southeast to northwest. As a vast and sparsely populated area, the population in
the TRH region was extremely unbalanced and land use change was concentrated in very small regions. Thus, land use change had little
effect on total annual ET in the study area but a great impact on its spatial distribution, and the effect of land use change on ET
decreased with increasing precipitation. ET was most sensitive to the interconversion between forest and unused land, and was least
sensitive to the interconversion between cropland and low-covered grassland.
Holocene Climate Cycles in Northwest Margin of Asian Monsoon
LI Yu, WANG Nai′ang, LI Zhuolun, ZHOU Xuehua, ZHANG Chengqi
2012, 22(4): 450-461.
 In the mid-latitude regions of the Asian continent, Zhuye Lake is located in the northwest margin of the Asian monsoon, where
the modern climate is affected by the Asian monsoon and Westerlies. In this study, we investigated the absolutely dated Holocene
records in Zhuye Lake for detecting the Holocene climate cycles. Totally, 14 14C dates and 6 optically simulated luminescence (OSL)
dates are obtained from the QTH01 and QTH02 sections. The proxies of grain-size, total organic carbon content (TOC), C/N and δ13C are
used for wavelet analysis, and the results show obvious ~256, ~512 and ~1024-year climate cycles, which are consistent with the
Holocene millennial and centennial scale climate cycles in the typical Asian summer monsoon domain. In different parts of the Zhuye Lake,
the Holocene sediments show variable climate cycles that are affected by the lake basin topography. In the Zhuye Lake, the Holocene
climate cycles are mainly correlated with the solar-related Asian summer monsoon variability and the North Atlantic ice-rafting events.
Mapping of Freshwater Lake Wetlands Using Object-Relations and Rule-based Inference
RUAN Renzong, Susan USTIN
2012, 22(4): 462-471.
 Inland freshwater lake wetlands play an important role in regional ecological balance. Hongze Lake is the fourth biggest
freshwater lake in China. In the past three decades, there has been significant loss of freshwater wetlands within the lake and at the
mouths of neighboring rivers, due to disturbance, primarily from human activities. The main purpose of this paper was to explore a
practical technology for differentiating wetlands effectively from upland types in close proximity to them. In the paper, an integrated
method, which combined per-pixel and per-field classification, was used for mapping wetlands of Hongze Lake and their neighboring
upland types. Firstly, Landsat ETM+ imagery was segmented and classified by using spectral and textural features. Secondly, ETM+
spectral bands, textural features derived from ETM+ Pan imagery, relative relations between neighboring classes, shape features, and
elevation were used in a decision tree classification. Thirdly, per-pixel classification results from the decision tree classifier were improved
by using classification results from object-oriented classification as a context. The results show that the technology has not only
overcome the salt-and-pepper effect commonly observed in the past studies, but also has improved the accuracy of identification by
nearly 5%.
Suburbanization and Subcentering of Population in Beijing Metropolitan Area: A Nonparametric Analysis
SUN Tieshan, HAN Zhenhai, WANG Lanlan, LI Guoping
2012, 22(4): 472-482.
 This study focuses on the suburbanization and subcentering of population and examines the nature of spatial restructuring in
terms of the population distribution in the Beijing metropolitan area. Instead of the classic density function approach, we employ the
nonparametric analysis to characterize the spatial pattern of population densities in the Beijing metropolitan area and identify the
suburban subcenters. Our findings suggest that the population has spread with rapid urban growth in the Beijing metropolitan area, and
the compact urban form has been replaced by a more dispersed polycentric spatial distribution. However, compared with the
decentralization of western cities, the spatial extent of the decentralization of population in the Beijing metropolitan area is quite limited.
The rapid growth of population in the near suburbs has expedited the sprawl of the central city, with a larger central agglomeration of
population dominating the metropolitan area. In this sense, the spatial pattern of the Beijing metropolitan area is still characterized by the
continuous compactness. However, our findings do provide the evidence that the city has been turning to a polycentric structure. We
find significant population subcenters have emerged in the suburbs of Beijing since the 1980s. But the polycentricity emerged in the
Beijing metropolitan area is very different by nature from that observed in Western cities. The subcenters emerged are adherent to the
development scheme planned for the city, so it can be referred to as the so called ′planned polycentricity′.
Establishment of Rural Housing Land Standard in China
SONG Wei, CHEN Baiming, ZHANG Ying, WU Jianzhai
2012, 22(4): 483-495.
On the basis of rural household survey in 12 provinces of China in 2005, this research built an econometrical model to find the area standard for rural housing land. This standard is expected to facilitate rural housing land administration, efficient and intensive housing land use and policy making. This research concludes: 1) according to the household survey data, the average area for rural housing land in China is about 235.26 m2, and the rural housing land mainly includes unused land (42.89%) and house construction land (37.76%) with the average floor-area ratio of 0.42; 2) the indexes in the standard concern the factors such as location, landform, house form, household population and cultivated land area per farmer, which all have significant effects on rural housing land use; 3) the reasonable area for rural housing land may be 150 m2 in average before 2020, and the referential standards in different provinces are   120 m2, 130 m2, 140m2, 150 m2, 160 m2, 170 m2, 190 m2, 200 m2, 210 m2, 220 m2, 230 m2 and 250 m2 respectively; and 4) if there are less than two persons or more than five persons in a family, these standards need to be decreased or increased by 7%. When the cultivated land area per farmer is lower than the provincial average, the standards have to reduce by 3.5%.
Karst Cave Tourism System in Zhejiang Province Based on Resource Regional Analysis
JIN Pingbin, FU Zhiwei, BAN Maosheng
2012, 22(4): 496-506.
Karst cave tourism plays an important role in the overall tourism of Zhejiang Province, China. In analyzing the current status of karst cave tourism resources, it is crucial to develop a scientific system for optimizing resource exploitation and tourism development in the future. This study conducted an analysis of resource characteristics and regional structure in Zhejiang Province. Nearest neighbor index (NNI) method and accessibility index method were used for a comprehensive understanding of the effects of scale, strength, combination, and accessibility of karst cave tourism resources. Results indicated that karst cave tourism resources in Zhejiang Province have a significant regional influence, and that resource quality and exploitation are diverse in different regions. Among the regions, Jinhua had the highest exploitation proportion of over 60% and the lowest NNI value of 0.098. Furthermore, regional analysis inferred that different karst caves demonstrate diversity in accessibility to tourism markets, among which the Lingshan Cave, Fengshui Cave, and Xianqiao Cave reveal the highest accessibility index of 2.41. Finally, we put forward a karst cave tourism system in Zhejiang Province based on the Growth Pole Theory and set up an overall scheme for karst cave tourism development. From a regional perspective analysis, the study refined the methods for regional resource research and provided a strategic proposal for karst cave tourism in Zhejiang Province.