2010 Vol. 20, No. 1

Display Method:
Geography and Rural Household Income:A Village Level Study in Henan Province, China
LI Xiaojian, FAN Xinsheng
2010, 20(1): 1-8. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0001-8
This study uses the data from a sample survey conducted in April 2007 on 1 251 rural households in 11 villages of Henan Province, the largest less developed agricultural province in China, to examine how geography affects rural household income(RHI).The quantitative analysis indicates following results.1) The significance of the traditional geographical factors reduces as RHI rank increases.2) The landform does not affect the RHI significantly.The per capita income of rural household in a plain area is lower than that in a mountainous area.And 3) the capital endowment and status of non-farm economic activities contribute to the increase of RHI.But the probability and intensity of non-farm economic activities of rural households in urban outskirts villages are higher than that in non-urban outskirts villages.Based on the results, the paper further concludes that geography still plays a significant role in rural development, but it is changing over time.The agricultural resources(such as per capita arable land) significantly affect RHI with the relatively lower income level, while the geographical location shows a more significant impact on RHI with the relatively high income level.Along with economic development, the proximity replaces the traditional geographical factors such as landform and physical resources as the major determining factor in RHI.
Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Estuarine Surface Sediments of Tangxi River in Chaohu Lake Basin
LI Ruzhong, SHU Kun, LUO Yueying, SHI Yong
2010, 20(1): 9-17. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0009-0
A total of 30 surface sediments samples from the estuary wetland of the Tangxi River, Chaohu Lake Basin were obtained and tested.Enrichment factor(EF) and geoaccumulation index(Igeo) as well as multivariate statistical analysis methods including Factor Analysis(FA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis(HCA) were applied for the assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface sediments.The results of EF values show that the pollution of copper(Cu) and cadmium(Cd) occurs in the estuarine sediments, and that zinc(Zn), lead(Pb) and chrome(Cr) may originate from crustal materials or natural weathering process.The mean EF values of the five heavy metals are in the decreasing order:Cu>Cd>Zn>Pb>Cr.Based on the Igeo of target heavy metals, the surface sediments collected from the study area can be approximately categorized as unpolluted with Zn, Pb and Cr, and moderately polluted with Cu and Cd.The degree of heavy metal pollution decreases in the order of Cu>Cd>Zn>Pb>Cr.Three groups of pollution factors are presented from FA:Zn-TOC, Cu-Cd and Cr-Pb, which respectively accounte for 27.22%, 25.20% and 21.05% of variance.By means of HCA, a total number of seven groups are distinguished from 30 sampling sites.Results indicate that Cu and Cd are the prior controlled pollutants in the estuarine sediments of the Tangxi River.
Fundamental Theories of Spatial Similarity Relations in Multi-scale Map Spaces
YAN Haowen
2010, 20(1): 18-22. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0018-z
Similarity relation is one of the spatial relations in the community of geographic information science and cartography.It is widely used in the retrieval of spatial databases, the recognition of spatial objects from images, and the description of spatial features on maps.However, little achievements have been made for it by far.In this paper, spatial similarity relation was put forward with the introduction of automated map generalization in the construction of multi-scale map databases;then the definition of spatial similarity relations was presented based on set theory, the concept of spatial similarity degree was given, and the characteristics of spatial similarity were discussed in detail, in-cluding reflexivity, symmetry, non-transitivity, self-similarity in multi-scale spaces, and scale-dependence.Finally a classification system for spatial similarity relations in multi-scale map spaces was addressed.This research may be useful to automated map generalization, spatial similarity retrieval and spatial reasoning.
Seasonal Changes of Energy Fluxes in an Estuarine Wetland of Shanghai, China
GUO Haiqiang, ZHAO Bin, CHEN Jiquan, YAN Yaner, LI Bo, CHEN Jiakuan
2010, 20(1): 23-29. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0023-2
The energy budget and regulating factors were investigated over an estuarine wetland during one year of continuous measurement in 2006.The results show that the seasonal changes of the energy fluxes and Bowen ratio(β) were greatly affected by incoming shortwave radiation and canopy growth.During the non-growing season and early-growing season, sensible heat(H) dominated the energy flux, and β could reach a maximum of 2.5, while during most of the growing season, latent heat dominated the energy flux and β fluctuated from 0.4 to 1.0.The energy budget ratio in growing season was about 0.76, and the value would be higher if heat exchange during tidal flooding was in-cluded.During tidal flooding days, β was slightly higher than that at exposure days in most cases.Vegetation cover seems exert little effect on energy partitioning except in March when the standing dead grass intercepted the incoming radiation that might reach the soil surface and reduce the turbulence between soil and atmosphere, thus suppressing the evaporation from the soil though the soil mositure was high at that time.
Assessment of Point and Nonpoint Sources Pollution in Songhua River Basin, Northeast China by Using Revised Water Quality Model
YANG Yuhong, YAN Baixing, SHEN Wanbin
2010, 20(1): 30-36. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0030-3
Individual participation of pollutants in the pollution load should be estimated even if roughly for the appropriate environmental management of a river basin.It is difficult to identify the sources and to quantify the load, especially in modeling nonpoint source.In this study a revised model was established by integrating point and nonpoint sources into one-dimensional Streeter-Phelps(S-P) model on the basis of real-time hydrologic data and surface water quality monitoring data in the Jilin Reach of the Songhua River Basin.Chemical oxygen demand(COD) and ammonia nitrogen(NH3-N) loads were estimated.Results showed that COD loads of point source and nonpoint source were 134 958 t/yr and 86 209 t/yr, accounting for 61.02% and 38.98% of total loads, respectively.NH3-N loads of point source and nonpoint source were 16 739 t/yr and 14 272 t/yr, accounting for 53.98% and 46.02%, respectively.Point source pollution was stronger than nonpoint source pollution in the study area at present.The water quality of upstream was better than that of downstream of the rivers and cities.It is indispensable to treat industrial wastewater and municipal sewage out of point sources, to adopt the best management practices to control diffuse pollutants from agricultural land and urban surface runoff in improving water quality of the Songhua River Basin.The revised S-P model can be successfully used to identify pollution source and quantify point source and nonpoint source loads by calibrating and validating.
Response of Regeneration Diversity of Carex Lasiocarpa Community to Different Water Levels in Sanjiang Plain, China
WANG Li, SONG Changchun, HU Jinming, YANG Tao
2010, 20(1): 37-42. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0037-9
The species diversity at the regeneration stage, inflenced by different water levels, is important for community composition in the later growing season.Regeneration diversity of Carex lasiocarpa community under different water levels was studied at two stages, recruitment and adult, in the Sanjiang Plain, Heilongjiang Province, China.The results showed that, at the two growing stages, important value of C.lasiocarpa population and species richness of the community decreased with the increasing water level, while the Simpson and Shannon-Wiener diversity indexes and Pielou evenness index increased.Under different water levels, community diversities were higher at the recruitment stage, while population important values of C.lasiocarpa were higher at the adult stage.Indexes in vegetation evaluation must be chosen prudentially for successful restoration and effective management of wetlands, and especially for wetland restoration, the optimal time should be selected according to the restoration objectives and costs.
Organisational Hierarchies and Decision Making Process of Chinese Multinational Enterprises in Vietnam
2010, 20(1): 43-50. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0043-y
This paper examines the organisational hierarchies and decision making processes of two Chinese multinational enterprises operating in Vietnam—China Luoyang Floating Glass Corp.(CLFG) and China TCL Holdings Co.Ltd.(TCL).For this study, research data were obtained from in-depth interviews of more than 20 government officials in P.R.China and Vietnam, and managers and staff of those two enterprises.Results indicate that the organisational structures of the two enterprises are still vertical but complex, although moderate changes made to them post the nationwide economic reform of China.Consequently, decision making process follows a "top-down" model, sometimes, with insufficient grassroots information.Findings are discussed in the light of political, social and cultural milieu, and implications are drawn for the management of Chinese multinational enterprises operating in overseas markets.Both CLFG and China TCL are structured on task specialisations.However, departmentalisation in TCL's overseas division in head office is not only based on products, but also on geographical regions of markets.The organisational structure of TCL in Vietnam is less complex than the international division, but it is more centralised.Decision making at TCL combines more traditional Chinese business philosophy with modern western organisational characteristics.TCL has a strong western influence in its management style.However, some traditional characteristics such as "hero" leadership influence and political influence are involved with decision making at TCL.Amongst others, the transitional economy, social culture, poor management system and political sensitivity have been major elements influencing decision making.In the case of CLFG, some decisions have been made before proper information has been gathered and analysed.
Forest Ecosystem Services and Their Values in Beijing
XIE Gaodi, LI Wenhua, XIAO Yu, ZHANG Biao, LU Chunxia, AN Kai, WANG Jixing, XU Kang, WANG Jinzeng
2010, 20(1): 51-58. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0051-y
As the most important ecosystem in Beijing, the forest supports a lot of ecosystem services to local and around communities, which plays a key role in the maintenance of urban ecological security.However, the valuation on the forest ecosystem services based on regional scale could not provide precise and reasonable values for forestry sector management.In this study, we estimated the magnitudes and economic values of the forest ecosystem services in Beijing at sublot level.The economic value of forest ecosystem services in Beijing was estimated to be 19 339.71×10 6 yuan(RMB) in 2004.Among all the ecosystem services indicators we estimated in this study, only fruit, timber and part of the recreation(which only include the tourism income from the forest parks and scenic areas, but not include that from other forest types) were measured in the social economic system.As estimated in this study, more than 82.19% of the economic value of forest ecosystem services could not be measured in the socio-economic statistical system.The importance of forest ecosystem services in Beijing to human welfare was underestimated by the socio-economic system.Therefore, the policies about the eco-compensation of forest ecosystem services should be established to maintain the sustainable supply of the forest ecosystem services in Beijing.
Estimation on Aesthetic Value of Tourist Landscapes in a Natural Heritage Site:Kanas National Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China
DI Feng, YANG Zhaoping, LIU Xuling, WU Jingrui, MA Zhongguo
2010, 20(1): 59-65. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0059-3
Most world natural heritage sites are designated partly by reason of their prominent aesthetic values in accordance with Article Ⅶ of World Natural Heritage Convention.In this paper, the aesthetic values of Kanas National Nature Reserve, which has potential for such designation, was analyzed quantitatively using scenic beauty estimation(SBE).The landscapes of 19 representative scenic spots in the Kanas National Nature Reserve in summer and autumn were selected as the objects of evaluation.The contributions of different landscape factors to the aesthetic value of the Kanas National Nature Reserve were revealed using a multivariate quantitative model.The main factors affecting the aesthetic value were waterscapes, vegetation, mountains, folk culture and the tourist environment.The t-test and F-test results are extremely significant.According to the results, some suggestions were given for conserving the landscapes in the Kanas National Nature Reserve.
Tourist Behaviors in Wetland Park:A Preliminary Study in Xixi National Wetland Park, Hangzhou, China
PAN Lili, CUI Lijuan, WU Ming
2010, 20(1): 66-73. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0066-4
Public education as well as tourism and leisure are the two important functions of national wetland park, and tourist behaviors act as the guiding factor in the national wetland park construction and management.As the first national wetland park in China, Xixi National Wetland Park, located in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, will give constructive instructions to the construction and management of other wetland parks and ecotourism resorts.This paper analyzed the tourist behaviors in Xixi National Wetland Park.By the observation, in-depth interview and questionnaire, the results show that tourists in wetland parks are different from those in the other common destinations, and they are also different from those strict eco-tourists.In fact, the tourists in wetland park have unique characteristics, such as the intense perception to the functions of wetland ecosystem and the environment impact behaviors.Those tourists are preferred to natural landscapes in their motivations and expectations.Wetland landscapes are the main image to those tourists in the Xixi National Wetland Park.Tourist expectation, experience and satisfaction are all critical factors for the success of the planning and management in national wetland parks.Based on the results, some measures for the sustainable development of wetland parks, including to optimize wetland theme landscape and tourism products, to improve tourist facilities and services, to enhance quality of visitor experiences, and to implement total quality management based on tourist characteristics, are given to national wetland park ecotourism.
Eco-geographic Environment and Regional Development in Xinjiang of China
XIA Fuqiang, DAI Erfu, ZHENG Du, WU Shaohong, YANG Qinye
2010, 20(1): 74-83. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0074-4
The study on relationship between eco-geographic environment(EGE) and regional development(RD) is of theoretical and practical significance to promote the comprehensive study on nature and human factors and regional coordination development.Based on the evaluation index system and models of EGE and RD, Quadrant Analysis Method(QAM) and the Coordination Degree and Coordinated Development Degree Model(CDCDDM) were applied to studying the relationship between EGE and RD in Xinjiang in this paper.The results show that Xinjiang can be divided into four type regions according to the relationship between EGE and RD, namely high coordination region(HCR), overloading development region(ODR), low coordination region(LCR) and potential development region(PDR).Most areas of Xinjiang belong to LCR which can not bear a larger population and support large-scale economic development.HCR, ODR and PDR, which are mainly distributed in piedmont oases and take basin as unit, should be focused on in the development of Xinjiang.The EGE has great influence on RD, and there is serious contradiction between them.Relevant suggestions on development strategies were put forward according to the character of different type regions, and the key regions of macro-layout of RD in Xinjiang were pointed out.
Rocky Desertification Risk Zone Delineation in Karst Plateau Area:A Case Study in Puding County, Guizhou Province
ZHANG Panpan, HU Yuanman, XIAO Duning, LI Xiuzhen, YIN Jie, HE Hong S
2010, 20(1): 84-90. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0084-2
Karst rocky desertification is a geo-ecological problem in Southwest China.The rocky desertification risk zone delineation could be used as a guide for the regional and hierarchical rocky desertification management and prevention.We chose the middle and lower reaches of the Houzhai underground basin on the karst plateau in Puding County, Guizhou Province, China as the study area and selected land use type, elevation, slope, aspect, lithology and settlement buffer as the main driving factors of the rocky desertification.The potential risk of rocky desertification was quantified with the factor-weights union method and statistical analysis method.Five grades of rocky desertification risk were delineated based on Geographic Information System.The extremely low, low, moderate, high and extremely high rocky desertification risk zones accounted for 5.01%, 44.17%, 33.92%, 15.59% and 1.30%, respectively.As a whole, the rocky desertification risk level was moderate because the area of low and moderate rocky desertification risk zones occupied 78.09% of the study area.However, more than half of the area(about 50.81%) was predicted to have moderate rocky desertification risk and above, indicating that the study area was subject to rocky desertification.Rocky desertification risk was higher in the southeast and lower in the northwest of the study area.Distinct differences in the distribution of rocky desertification risk zones corresponding to different factors have been found.
Quantitative Assessment of Impacts of Regional Climate and Human Activities on Saline-alkali Land Changes:A Case Study of Qian’an County, Jilin Province
LIAN Yi, WANG Jie, TU Gang, REN Hongling, SHEN Baizhu, ZHI Keguang, LI Shangfeng, GAO Zongting
2010, 20(1): 91-97. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0091-3
Interdecadal and interannual variations of saline-alkali land area in Qian'an County, Jilin Province, China were comprehensively analyzed in this paper by means of satellite remote sensing interpretation, field flux observations and regional climate diagnosis.The results show that on the interannual scale, the impact of climate factors accounts for 71.6% of the total variation of the saline-alkali land area, and that of human activities accounts for 28.4%.Therefore the impact of climate factors is obviously greater than that of human activities.On the interdecadal scale, the impact of climate factors on the increase of the saline-alkali land area accounts for 43.2%, and that of human activities accounts for 56.8%.The impact of human activities on the variation of saline-alkali land area is very clear on the interdecadal scale, and the negative impact of human activities on the environment should not be negligible.Besides, changes in the area of heavy saline-alkali land have some indication for development of saline-alkali land in Qian'an County.