2006 Vol. 16, No. 4

Display Method:
Economic Structure Transformation and Land Use Change of the Changjiang River Basin
WU Yingmei, SU Yufang, ZHANG Lei
2006, 16(4): 289-293.
Land, as a key factor of production, is an appropriate indicator of national and regional economic structure transformation. Land use in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Basin (CRB) since the 1950s has experienced these changes. Industrialization has been the most powerful force of the change in the regional development of the CRB. Virtually all regional resources were put into this effort to modernize the industrial production and urban construction systems of the CRB whose industrialization and urbanization has been a success story, with impressive structural change in both production and land use. These changes are evident in modern urban areas, but even more in traditionally rural areas. The regression analysis of regional development in the CRB over an extended period shows that the dominant factor in regional land use change is widespread industrialization in rural areas rather than the expansion of urban area. Thus, urbanization has had a limited influence on land use change in the CRB. A major task in realizing more sustainable land use in the future development of CRB is to relocate industrial activities from rural to urban areas.
Reconstruction of Industrial Location in View of Industrial Agglomeration
ZHU Huayou, DING Sibao
2006, 16(4): 294-298.
The Industrial Agglomeration Theory has been evolving all the time. The study on the industrial location has become the focus of the massive theoretical location problems about agglomeration since the 1970s. The authors here analyze the evolution and the characteristics of the Industrial Agglomeration Theory and study its effect on the recon- struction of industrial location. The study suggests that the new idea of reconstruction of industrial location is to cultivate regional innovative system. On this basis, the authors analyze two cases of old industrial bases on their construction—Tiexi Industrial District in Shenyang City and Changchun Industrial Economic Development Zone. Finally, the authors put forward some suggestions that should be regarded, which include: 1) to combine industrial location reconstruction and enterprises' inner reform; 2) to speed up adjustment of resources and opening to the world; 3) to combine government mechanism with the market mechanism properly.
Change of Cultivated Land and Its Implications on Food Security in China
YU Bohua, LU Changhe
2006, 16(4): 299-305.
The population growth and demand for high living standard not only increase food demand but also cause more loss of the limited cultivated land resources.Cultivated land loss caused by disasters and the implementation of the “Conversion of Cropland to Forest or Grassland” project make this situation even worse in China.Thus,there is a problem to be solved imminently that to what extent the cultivated land can guarantee food security of China.Based on time-series data on food production and cultivated land area from 1989 to 2003 and other research results,this paper constructs quality index of cultivated land according to different land quality.Regression models are adopted to predicate changes of main factors from 2004 to 2030,which have great effect on cultivated land area or grain productivity,and verify accuracy with coefficient of determination(R2).Nine results were got according to three scenarios of decreasing rate of population growth rate and three cases of urban and rural built-up area per capita.There results show that China's food supply can only be maintained at a low to middle level of 370-410kg per capita,that is,China has enough land productivity to meet primary demand of food independently.However,it cannot reach the safe target of 500kg per capita if there is no breakthrough in breeding or no remarkable improvement of irrigation works,when the grain self-sufficiency maintains no less than 80%.To breed productive crops and to improve land productivity by meliorating low quality cultivated land are appropriate measures to shrink the gap between food demand and supply.The results may offer helpful information for the formulation of policies on population growth,land use,protection of cultivated land.
Calculation of Ecological Footprint Based on Modified Method and Quantitative Analysis of Its Impact Factors——A Case Study of Shanghai
GAO Chengkang, JIANG Dahe, WANG Dan, YAN Jonathan
2006, 16(4): 306-313.
Ecological footprint(EF) has attracted much attention internationally as a potential indicator for sustainable development.In China,EF has also gained recognition in related fields and disciplines.Moreover,some scholars in these fields have proposed alternative methods to calculate EF and have made some progress.This paper,therefore,begins with the introduction and development of EF in China.However,the established methods of EF calculation hold some limitations,such as indicator variance and result abnormality.In order to resolve those problems,the authors make a further modification considering the demand of EF as a comprehensive indicator:1) More accurate analysis has been done to divide EF into several parts:imported EF,exported EF,and producible EF,which is the solution to the problem of abnormality in original EF results and can explain abnormal phenomena reasonably.2) Considering the actual situa-tion of Shanghai,amended equivalence factor is brought forward and a matrix is formed with equivalence factors.The measure can reduce the deviation between the fact and the results.3) The calculation compares local yield with global average yield to analyze the effects of yields.And based on local yields in different years,the results are more accurate.Finally,the calculation method is applied to calculating EF of Shanghai from 1980 to 2003,and the subsequent detailed analysis is presented.Available data and results suggest a statistically significant correlation coefficient between EF and GDP,population density and urbanization level.Through analyzing the process of calculating EF and its results,it can be seen that EF,as a macro-indicator,can not exactly indicate whether development within a region can meet the re-quests of sustainable development,which can be explained by the fact that the result of EF is impacted greatly by sub-jective factors including national policy,available technology,population,etc.Nevertheless,EF can demonstrate,at least to some degree,the regional status in terms of resources and energy consumption,as well as developmental potential.The calculation of EF,therefore,deserves further research to achieve more far-reaching significance in application.
Shrinking and Drying up of Baiyangdian Lake Wetland:A Natural or Human Cause?
LIU Chunlan, XIE Gaodi, HUANG Heqing
2006, 16(4): 314-319.
The shrinking and drying up of wetlands in arid and semiarid areas of China have been widely observed in the recent years,but there has been no consensus on whether the aggravation is caused by human activities or by global climate warming.For a better understanding of the cause,this study investigates the dynamic changes of Baiyangdian Lake wetland over the last 40 years.It is shown that since the 1980s,Baiyangdian Lake has suffered from an insufficient water input and shrunk considerably.By using SPSS11.0,this study undertakes a detailed analysis on the significance of the effects of the possible driving factors for the degradation.It is identified that the North China Plain has been warming up significantly in recent years,which causes a significant reduction in the precipitation and inflow to the lake.Although human disturbances such as the irrigation and storage of water in reservoirs do not play a decisive role,they accelerate the degradation and their effects should be minimized.
Effect of Uncertainty of Grid DEM on TOPMODEL:Evaluation and Analysis
WANG Peifa, DU Jinkang, FENG Xuezhi, KANG Guoding
2006, 16(4): 320-326.
TOPMODEL,a semi-distributed hydrological model,has been widely used.In the process of simulation of the model,Digital Elevation Model(DEM) is used to provide the input data,such as topographic index and distance to the drainage outlet;thus DEM plays an important role in TOPMODEL.This study aims at examining the impacts of DEM uncertainty on the simulation results of TOPMODEL.In this paper,the effects were evaluated mainly from quantitative and qualitative aspects.Firstly,DEM uncertainty was simulated by using the Monte Carlo method,and for every DEM realization,the topographic index and distance to the drainage outlet were extracted.Secondly,the obtained topographic index and the distance to the drainage outlet were input to the TOPMODEL to simulate seven rain-storm-flood events,and four evaluation indices,such as Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency criterion(EFF),sum of squared residuals over all time steps(SSE),sum of squared log residuals over all time steps(SLE) and sum of absolute errors over all time steps(SAE) were recorded.Thirdly,these four evaluation indices were analyzed in statistical manner(minimum,maximum,range,standard deviation and mean value),and effect of DEM uncertainty on TOPMODEL was quantitatively analyzed.Finally,the simulated hydrographs from TOPMODEL using the original DEM and realizations of DEM were qualitatively evaluated under each flood cases.Results show that the effect of DEM uncertainty on TOPMODEL is inconsiderable and could be ignored in the model's application.This can be explained by:1) TOPMODEL is not sensitive to the distribution of topographic index and distance to the drainage outlet;2) the distri-bution of topographic index and distance to the drainage outlet are slightly affected by DEM uncertainty.
Features of Sand-dust Deposits in Harbin City, China
XIE Yuanyun, ZHANG Yan, HE Kui, ZHOU Jia, KANG Chunguo
2006, 16(4): 327-333.
From the sedimentologic view,this paper analyses the grain-size distribution and the chemical composition of the deposits from sand-dust storm,occurring in Harbin on March 20,2002.The result indicates that there exist plentiful coarse matters in the sand-dust deposits in Harbin,and the sand-dust composition presents obvious three peak distribu-tion characteristics,indicating that the sand-dust in Harbin is composed of multi-origin components.The grain-size composition consists of silt(4-8Ф),accounting for 71.18% of the total,sand(>4Ф),21.70%,and clay(<8Ф),only 7.13%.The average grain size(Mz) is 5.14Ф.The chemical elements of the deposits are mainly SiO2 and Al2O3 and Fe2O3,totally occupying 77.8%.The enrichment factors(EF) of Mg,K,Si,Fe,Mn,P,Ti,Co,Ni and V elements are all about 1,which mainly come from lithosphere source,while parts of Cu,Pb,Zn,Cr and Se elements are from pollution sources out of lithosphere source,and As,Cd and Sb elements are mainly from pollution sources.Based on the com-prehensive analysis of grain-size,chemical composition,enrichment factor(EF),discriminant function(DF) and matter source index(PI),this paper points out that the grain-size distribution and element composition of the sand-dust deposits in Harbin are evidently different from the loess and sand-dust in Lanzhou,and that matter source of the sand-dust in Harbin is different from the loess in Northwest China and the sand-dust in Lanzhou.The sand-dust deposits in Harbin are an admixture of coarse grains transmitted in short distance and fine grains transported in long distance.The plentiful coarse grains of the sand-dust deposits in Harbin origin from sand of local spot,and are the near-source deposits transported by low altitude airflow.
Vegetation NPP Distribution Based on MODIS Data and CASA Model——A Case Study of Northern Hebei Province
YUAN Jinguo, NIU Zheng, WANG Chenli
2006, 16(4): 334-341.
Net Primary Productivity (NPP) is one of the important biophysical variables of vegetation activity, and it plays an important role in studying global carbon cycle, carbon source and sink of ecosystem, and spatial and temporal distribution of CO2. Remote sensing can provide broad view quickly, timely and multi-temporally, which makes it an attractive and powerful tool for studying ecosystem primary productivity, at scales ranging from local to global. This paper aims to use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to estimate and analyze spatial and temporal distribution of NPP of the northern Hebei Province in 2001 based on Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model. The spatial distribution of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (APAR) of vegetation and light use efficiency in three geographical subregions, that is, Bashang Plateau Region, Basin Region in the northwestern Hebei Province and Yanshan Mountainous Region in the Northern Hebei Province were analyzed, and total NPP spatial distribution of the study area in 2001 was discussed. Based on 16-day MODIS Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) product, 16-day composite NPP dynamics were calculated using CASA model; the seasonal dynamics of vegetation NPP in three subregions were also analyzed. Result reveals that the total NPP of the study area in 2001 was 25.1877×106gC/(m2·a), and NPP in 2001 ranged from 2 to 608gC/(m2·a), with an average of 337.516gC/(m2·a). NPP of the study area in 2001 accumulated mainly from May to September (DOY 129–272), high NPP values appeared from June to August (DOY 177–204), and the maximum NPP appeared from late July to mid-August (DOY 209–224).
Characteristics of Channeling Flow in Cultivated Horizon of Saline Rice Soil
LUO Jinming, DENG Wei, ZHANG Xiaoping, YANG Fan, LI Xiujun
2006, 16(4): 342-346.
By applying bromide ion as tracer,the channeling flow has been quantitatively described in saline rice soil and alkaline soil of Da,an City,Jilin Province of China.Breakthrough curves of bromide ion in the saline rice soils after 1-year cultivation and 5-year cultivation and alkaline soil have been attained.Results show that the rice cultivation practice can improve the alkaline soil structure,however,it can accelerate the development of channeling flow pathway.Therefore,the channeling flow pathway has been developed widely in saline rice soil,but rarely in the alkaline soil.Three models of convection-dispersion equation(CDE),transfer functional model(TFM) and Back-Progation Network(BP Network) were used to simulate the transportation process of bromide ion.The peaks of probability density function of saline rice soil are higher with left skewed feature compared with that of the alkaline soil.It shows that the TFM and CDE can simulate the transportation process of the bromide ion in saline rice soil after 5-year cultivation,however,some deviation exists when it was used to simulate transportation process of bromide ion in saline rice soil after 1-year cul-tivation and alkaline soil;BP network can effectively simulate transportation process of bromide ion in both saline rice soil and alkaline soil.
Homotopic Mapping Solving Method for Perturbed Mechanism of Western Boundary Undercurrents in Equator Pacific
MO Jiaqi, WANG Hui, LIN Wantao
2006, 16(4): 347-350.
The perturbed boundary undercurrent is an exceptional event in the tropical atmosphere and ocean.It is a complicated nonlinear system.Its appearance badly affects not only natural conditions such as climate and environment,but also global economic development and human living,and brings about many calamities.Thus there is very attractive study on its rules in the international academic circles.Many scholars made more studies on its local and whole be-haviors using different methods,such as self-anamnestic principle,Fokker-Plank Equation method,higher order singular pedigree and predictable study,rapid change on boundary,indeterminate adaptive control,multi-cogradient method and so on.Nonlinear perturbed theory and approximate method are very attractive studies in the international academic circles.Many scholars considered a class of nonlinear problems for the ordinary differential equation,the reaction dif-fusion equations,the boundary value of elliptic equation,the initial boundary value of hyperbolic equation,the shock layer solution of nonlinear equation and so on.In this paper,a class of perturbed mechanism for the western boundary undercurrents in the equator Pacific is considered.Under suitable conditions,using a homotopic mapping theory and method,we obtain a simple and rapid arbitrary order approximate solution for the corresponding nonlinear system.For example,a special case shows that using the homotopic mapping method,there is a high accuracy for the computed value.It is also provided from the results that the solution for homotopic mapping solving method can be used for analyzing operator for perturbed mechanism of western boundary undercurrents in the equator Pacific.
Characteristics of Spatial and Temporal Variations of Monthly Mean Surface Air Temperature over Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
ZHANG Qianggong, KANG Shichang, YAN Yuping
2006, 16(4): 351-358.
The recorded meteorological data of monthly mean surface air temperature from 72 meteorological stations over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the period of 1960-2003 have been analyzed by using Empirical Orthogonal Function(EOF) method,to understand the detailed features of its temporal and spatial variations.The results show that there was a high consistency of the monthly mean surface air temperature,with a secondarily different variation between the north and the south of the plateau.Warming trend has existed at all stations since the 1960s,while the warming rates were different in various zones.The source regions of big rivers had intense warming tendency.June,November and De-cember were the top three fast-warming months since the 1960s;while April,July and September presented dramatic warming tendency during the last decade.
Urbanization of Jilin Province and Its Spatial Pattern
WANG Bo, GUO Qinghai, Dou Sen
2006, 16(4): 359-364.
Urbanization is a crucial criterion of assessing a nation's or a particular region's level of modernization.It has been accelerated all over the world in the 21th century.The main purpose of this research is to provide a strategy of spatial pattern of urbanization for rural areas in Jilin Province based on the reality of economic development in Jilin and the im-balance of natural resources distribution.The strategy divides the nine central cities of Jilin Province into three economic circles.The outer economic circle,open circle,includes Yanbian,Baishan,Tonghua and Baicheng,covering the eastern and western parts of Jilin Province.The middle one includes Jilin,Liaoyuan,Siping and Songyuan.The inner one,centring as Changchun,includes Gongzhuling,Yitong,Nong'an,Jiutai and Dehui.It needs to centre as Changchun which has the good foundation of economic development and more economic increase,then by economic effect extending out gradually,other areas develop subsequently.To construct Jilin as a green ecological province,cultivation in the outer circle should be con-trolled,with the main aim to recover grassland.Large population should be moved to other places by developing labor economy.From economy and ecology,to decrease the load of the land can reduce the loss of the resources and benefit the balance of ecology.Subsequently,the whole province's economy will be developed sustainably.
Development and Conservation of Glacier Tourist Resources——A Case Study of Bogda Glacier Park
LIU Xuling, YANG Zhaoping, XIE Ting
2006, 16(4): 365-370.
Glacier is one kind of the most beautiful geological sightseeing in the world as well as a special kind of tourism resources.The characters of glacier tourism include scarcity,frangibility,localization of tourist activity,scientific connotation,and integrated function and value.The paper summarizes the latest researches in developing glacier tourism resources.Regarding the Bogda Glacier Park as an example,the authors analyze the characteristics of glacier tourism resources in detail and the conditions and potential threats of glacier tourism development.Suggestions on glacier tourism development and protection are given as follows:1) to plan function subarea scientifically and rea-sonably;2) to combine tourism,scientific research with ecological education;3) to take countermeasures of environ-mental protection;4) to integrate tourism resources and strengthening regional cooperation.Finally,emphases are put forward on resources conformity along the tourism line and cooperation of tourism management.The paper aims to seek after the coordination path in exploitation and protection of glacier tourism resources to guide the exploitation of other glacier tourism destinations.
Image of Landscapes in Ancient Water Towns——Case Study on Zhouzhuang and Tongli of Jiangsu Province
LI Yabing, ZHANG Jie, CHEN Youjun
2006, 16(4): 371-377.
Researchers in several disciplines and fields agree that the image establishing has both perceptual and affec-tive evaluations.The paper comparatively analyzes the image of landscapes in ancient water towns held by 1619 tourists after the investigations of Zhouzhuang and Tongli of Jiangsu Province.Based on the elements of the image of urban landscapes,the perceptual/cognitive image of tourist landscapes in water towns is developed including path,node,landmark,important courtyard,district and edge.Particularly the important courtyard plays the great role on the per-ceptive image of tourists,however,the perceptual/cognitive images of the district and the edge are obviously weak.Meanwhile,the finding showed that the affective images of tourist landscapes in Zhouzhuang differ with those of Tongli by the method of paired comparison.The main reason is that the affective images are influenced by the impressive scenery spots.Furthermore,the commercialization of streets and pollution of rivers are easy to be functioned negatively.
Regional Evolution Features and Coordinated Development Strategies for Northeast China
MEI Lin, XU Xiaopo, CHEN Mingxiu
2006, 16(4): 378-382.
Northeast China,as the most important production base of agriculture,forestry,and livestock-breeding as well as the old industrial base in the whole country,has been playing a key role in the construction and development of China's economy.However,after the policy of reform and open-up was taken in China,the economic development speed and efficiency of this area have turned to be evidently lower than those of coastal area and the national average level as well,which is so-called ‘Northeast Phenomenon' and ‘Neo-Northeast Phenomenon'.In terms of those phenomena,this paper firstly reviews the spatial and temporal features of the regional evolution of this area so as to unveil the profound forming causes of ‘Northeast Phenomena' and ‘Neo-Northeast Phenomena'.And then the paper makes a further ex-ploration into the status quo of this region and its forming causes by analyzing its economy gross,industrial structure,product structure,regional eco-categories,etc.At the end of the paper,the authors put forward the basic coordinated development strategies for Northeast China,namely we can revitalize this area by means of adjustment of economic structure,regional coordination,planning urban and rural areas as a whole,institutional innovation,etc.