[1] Amano A, Kuwae M, Agusa T et al., 2011. Spatial distribution and corresponding determining factors of metal concentrations in surface sediments of Beppu Bay, southwest Japan. Marine Environmental Research, 71(4): 247–256. doi:  10.1016/j.marenvres.2011.01.009
[2] Bai J, Cui B, Chen B et al., 2011. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from a typical plateau lake wetland, China. Ecological Modelling, 222(2): 301–306. doi:  10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.12.002
[3] Barhoumi S, Messaoudi I, Deli T et al., 2009. Cadmium bioaccumulation in three benthic fish species, Salaria basilisca, Zosterisessor ophiocephalus and Solea vulgaris collected from the Gulf of Gabes in Tunisia. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21: 980–984. doi:  10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62371-2
[4] Bergbäck B, Johansson K, Mohlander U, 2001. Urban metal flow—a case study of Stockholm. Review and conclusions. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus, 1(3–4): 3–24. doi:  10.1023/A:1017531532576
[5] Brady J P, Ayoko G A, Martens W N et al., 2014. Enrichment, distribution and sources of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 81: 248–255. doi:  10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.01.031
[6] Caeiro S, Costa M N, Ramos T B et al., 2005. Assessing heavy metal contamination in Sado Estuary sediment: an index analysis approach. Ecological Indicators, 5(2): 151–169. doi:  10.1016/j.ecolind.2005.02.001
[7] Chai L, Li H, Yang Z et al., 2017. Heavy metals and metalloids in the surface sediments of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan, China: distribution, contamination, and ecological risk assessment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(1): 874–885. doi:  10.1007/s11356-016-7872-x
[8] Chouvelon T, Strady E, Harmelin-Vivien M et al., 2019. Patterns of trace metal bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in a phytoplankton–zooplankton–small pelagic fish marine food web. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 146: 1013–1030. doi:  10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.07.047
[9] Cox M E, Preda M, 2005. Trace metal distribution within marine and estuarine sediments of western Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia: relation to land use and setting. Geographical Research, 43(2): 173–193. doi:  10.1111/j.1745-5871.2005.00312.x
[10] Dong J, Yu M, Bian Z et al., 2011. Geostatistical analyses of heavy metal distribution in reclaimed mine land in Xuzhou, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 62(1): 127–137. doi:  10.1007/s12665-010-0507-5
[11] Dong W, Liu B, Song Y et al., 2018. Occurrence and partition of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water and sediment from the Songhua River, China. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 74: 492–501. doi:  10.1007/s00244-017-0474-x
[12] Förstner U, Heise S, Schwartz R et al., 2004. Historical contaminated sediments and soils at the river basin scale: examples from the Elbe River Catchment Area. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 4(4): 247–260. doi:  10.1007/BF02991121
[13] Förstner U, Wittmann G T W, 1981. Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Berlin: Springer–Verlag. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-69385-4
[14] Fu J, Zhao C, Luo Y et al., 2014. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: their relations to environmental factors. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 270: 102–109. doi:  10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.01.044
[15] Gao Y, Li W, Zhang D et al., 2010. Bio–enhanced activated carbon filter with immobilized microorganisms for removing organic pollutants in the Songhua River. Water Science and Technology, 62(12): 2819–2828. doi:  10.2166/wst.2010.666
[16] Hakanson L, 1980. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Research, 14(8): 975–1001. doi:  10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8
[17] Hall L W Jr, Scott M C, Killen W D, 1997. A screening level probabilistic ecological risk assessment of copper and cadmium in the chesapeake bay watershed. Chesapeake Bay Program, Annapolis, MD: US EPA.
[18] Hao L, Liu H, Lu J et al., 2009. Vertical distribution of 137Cs and 210Pb and sedimentation rate in Songhua Lake. Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition), 39(3): 470–473. (in Chinese)
[19] Hester R E, Harrison R M, 2006. Risk assessment of metals in the environment. Issues in Environmental Science & Technology, 22: 102–131. doi:  10.1039/9781847552440-00102
[20] Hu B Q, Li J, Zhao J T et al., 2013. Heavy metal in surface sediments of the Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea: distribution, contamination, and sources. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(6): 5071–5083. doi:  10.1007/s10661-012-2926-0
[21] Islam M S, Hossain M B, Matin A et al., 2018. Assessment of heavy metal pollution, distribution and source apportionment in the sediment from Feni River estuary, Bangladesh. Chemosphere, 202: 25–32.
[22] Ke X, Gui S F, Huang H et al., 2017. Ecological risk assessment and source identification for heavy metals in surface sediment from the Liaohe River protected area, China. Chemosphere, 175: 473–481. doi:  10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.029
[23] Li Jian, Zheng Chunjiang, 1988. Databook of environmental background value. Chinese Environmental Science Press, Beijing, China, 342–348. (in Chinese)
[24] Li F, Huang J, Zeng G et al., 2013a. Spatial risk assessment and sources identification of heavy metals in surface sediments from the Dongting Lake, Middle China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 132: 75–83. doi:  10.1016/j.gexplo.2013.05.007
[25] Li K Y, Cui S, Zhang F X et al., 2020. Concentrations, possible sources and health risk of heavy metals in multi–media environment of the Songhua River, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5): 1766. doi:  10.3390/ijerph17051766
[26] Li N, Tian Y, Zhang J et al., 2017. Heavy metal contamination status and source apportionment in sediments of Songhua River Harbin region, Northeast China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(4): 3214–3225. doi:  10.1007/s11356-016-7132-0
[27] Li R Y, Li R L, Chai M W et al., 2015. Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk in Futian mangrove forest sediment in Shenzhen Bay, South China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 101(1): 448–456. doi:  10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.09.048
[28] Li X, Wang Y, Li B et al., 2013b. Distribution and speciation of heavy metals in surface sediments from the Yangtze estuary and coastal areas. Environmental Earth Science, 69(5): 1537–1547. doi:  10.1007/s12665-012-1988-1
[29] Li Y, Zhang H, Chen X et al., 2014a. Distribution of heavy metals in soils of the Yellow River Delta: concentrations in different soil horizons and source identification. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 14: 1158–1168. doi:  10.1007/s11368-014-0861-0
[30] Li Z Y, Ma Z W, Van der Kuijp T J et al., 2014b. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 468−469: 843–853. doi:  10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.090
[31] Liu B, Bi S, Dong D et al., 2014. Background values of certain heavy metal elements in the sediments of the upper reach of Songhua River. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University, 36(4): 454–459. (in Chinese)
[32] Liu B, Diao G, Han X et al., 2015. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from Songhua River. Science Technology and Engineering, 15(8): 140–145. (in Chinese)
[33] MacDonald D D, Ingersoll C G, Berger T A, 2000. Development and evaluation of consensus–based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 39(1): 20–31. doi:  10.1007/s002440010075
[34] Mustafa G, Komatsu S, 2016. Toxicity of heavy metals and metal–containing nanoparticles on plants. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Proteins and Proteomics, 1864(8): 932–944. doi:  10.1016/j.bbapap.2016.02.020
[35] Nriagu J O, 1996. A history of global metal pollution. Science, 272(5259): 223–224. doi:  10.1126/science.272.5259.223
[36] Nriagu J O, Pacyna J M, 1988. Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water, and soils by trace metals. Nature, 33(6169): 134–139.
[37] Omwene P I, Öncel M S, Çelen M et al., 2018. Heavy metal pollution and spatial distribution in surface sediments of Mustafakemalpaşa stream locaOryza sativated in the world's largest borate basin (Turkey). Chemosphere, 208: 782–792.
[38] Pedersen F, Bjørnestad E, Andersen H V et al., 1998. Characterization of sediments from Copenhagen Harbour by use of biotests. Water Science and Technology, 37(6–7): 233–240.
[39] Sadiq R, Husain T, Bose N et al., 2003. Distribution of heavy metals in sediment pore water due to offshore discharges: an ecological risk assessment. Environmental Modelling & Software, 18(5): 451–461. doi:  10.1016/S1364-8152(03)00010-0
[40] Saleem M, Iqbal J, Shah M H, 2015. Geochemical speciation, anthropogenic contamination, risk assessment and source identification of selected metals in freshwater sediments—a case study from Mangla Lake, Pakistan. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, 4: 27–36. doi:  10.1016/j.enmm.2015.02.002
[41] Satpathy D, Reddy M V, Dhal S P, 2014. Risk assessment of heavy metals contaminationin paddy soil, plants, and grains (Oryza sativa L.) at the East Coast of India. Biomed Research International, 1–11. doi:  10.1155/2014/545473
[42] Siddiqui E, Pandey J, 2019. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in water and surface sediment and evaluation of ecological risks associated with sediment contamination in the Ganga River: a basin-scale study. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(11): 10926–10940. doi:  10.1007/s11356-019-04495-6
[43] Statistics Bureau of Jilin Province, 2016. Available at http://tjj.jl.gov.cn/tjsj/tjnj/2016/ml/indexc.htm.
[44] Suresh G, Sutharsan P, Ramasamy V et al., 2012. Assessment of spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of the heavy metals in relation to granulometric contents of Veeranam lake sediments, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 84: 117–124. doi:  10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.06.027
[45] Tang W Z, Zhao Y, Wang C et al., 2013. Heavy metal contamination of overlying waters and bed sediments of Haihe Basin in China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 98: 317–323. doi:  10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.09.038
[46] Wang F, Wang W X, Huang X P, 2012. Spatial distribution of gut juice extractable Cu, Pb and Zn in sediments from the Pearl River Estuary, Southern China. Marine Environmental Research, 77: 112–119. doi:  10.1016/j.marenvres.2012.03.002
[47] Wang J W, Liu R M, Zhang P P et al., 2014. Spatial variation, environmental assessment and source identification of heavy metals in sediments of the Yangtze River Estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 87(1–2): 364–373. doi:  10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.07.048
[48] Yang Y, Jin Q, Fang J M et al., 2017. Spatial distribution, ecological risk assessment, and potential sources of heavy metal (loid)s in surface sediments from the Huai River within the Bengbu section, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(12): 11360–11370. doi:  10.1007/s11356-017-8732-z
[49] Zhang Z S, Sun X J, Wang Q C et al., 2010. Recovery from mercury contamination in the Second Songhua River, China. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 211(1–4): 219–229. doi:  10.1007/s11270-009-0294-3
[50] Zhang Z X, Lu Y, Li H P et al., 2018. Assessment of heavy metal contamination, distribution and source identification in the sediments from the Zijiang River, China. Science of the Total Environment, 645: 235–243. doi:  10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.026
[51] Zhang Z Y, Li J Y , Mamat Z et al., 2016. Sources identification and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bortala River, Northwest China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 126: 94–101. doi:  10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.12.025