[1] Carter H J, Eslinger D L, 2004. Nonpoint Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool (N-SPECT) Technical Guide. NOAA-CSC.
[2] Chazdon R L, 2008. Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science, 320(5882): 1458-1460. doi:  10.1126/science.1155365
[3] Faulkner S, 2004. Urbanization impacts on the structure and function of forested wetlands. Urban Ecosystems, 7(2): 89-106. doi:  10.1023/B:UECO.0000036269.56249.66
[4] Feng X, Wang Y, Chen L et al., 2010. Modeling soil erosion and its response to land-use change in hilly catchments of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Geomorphology, 118(3-4): 239-248. doi:  10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.01.004
[5] Fu B, Liu Y, Lyu Y et al., 2011. Assessing the soil erosion control service of ecosystems change in the Loess Plateau of China. Ecological Complexity, 8(4): 284-293. doi: 10.1016/j.ecocom. 2011.07.003
[6] Grau H R, Aide T M, 2007. Are rural-urban migration and sustainable development compatible in mountain systems? Mountain Research and Development, 27(2): 119-123. doi:  10.1659/mrd.0906
[7] Grimm N B, Foster D, Groffman P et al., 2008. The changing landscape: ecosystem responses to urbanization and pollution across climatic and societal gradients. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6(5): 264-272. doi:  10.1890/070147
[8] Han Huali, 2010. Study on Land Use Changes and Its Ecological Effects in Mountainous Areas at China's Southwest Border Driven by the Project of Converting Farmland to Forest: a Case Study in Luxi City, Yunnan Province. Chongqing: Southwest University. (in Chinese)
[9] Jiang G, Liu M, Han N et al., 2003. Potential for restoration of degraded steppe in the Xilingol Biosphere Reserve through urbanization. Environmental Conservation, 30(3): 304-310. doi:  10.1017/S0376892903000304
[10] Jiang Z, Lian Y, Qin X, 2014. Rocky desertification in southwest China: impacts, causes, and restoration. Earth-Science Reviews, 132: 1-12. doi:  10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.01.005
[11] Li H, Aide T M, Ma Y et al., 2007. Demand for rubber is causing the loss of high diversity rain forest in SW China. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16(6): 1731-1745. doi:  10.1007/s10531-006-9052-7
[12] Li Jingbao, Zhong Saixiang, Yang Yan et al., 2005. Effects on the functions of ecosystem services of Dongting Lake from silt deposit and land reclamation. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 13(2): 179-182. (in Chinese)
[13] Liu Bingzheng, Liu Shihai, Zheng Suiding, 1999. Soil conservation and coefficient of soil conservation of crops. Research of Soil and Water Conservation, 6(2): 32-36, 113. (in Chinese)
[14] Liu J, Li S, Ouyang Z et al., 2008. Ecological and socioeconomic effects of China's policies for ecosystem services. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(28): 9477-9482. doi:  10.1073/pnas.0706436105
[15] Lyu Y, Fu B, Feng X et al., 2012. A policy-driven large scale ecological restoration: quantifying ecosystem services changes in the Loess Plateau of China. Plos One, 7(2): e31782. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0031782
[16] McDonald R I, 2008. Global urbanization: can ecologists identify a sustainable way forward? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6(2): 99-104. doi:  10.1890/070038
[17] Nagendra H, Sudhira H S, Katti M et al., 2014. Urbanization and its impacts on land use, biodiversity and ecosystems in India. Interdisciplina, 2(2): 305-313.
[18] Ouyang Zhiyun, Zheng Hua, 2009. Ecological mechanisms of ecosystem services. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29(11): 6183-6188. (in Chinese)
[19] Pimentel D, Harvey C, Resosudarmo P et al., 1995. Environ­mental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science, 267(5201): 1117-1123. doi: 10.1126/science. 267.5201.1117
[20] Rao E, Ouyang Z, Yu X et al., 2014. Spatial patterns and impacts of soil conservation service in China. Geomorphology, 207: 64-70. doi:  10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.10.027
[21] Rey Benayas J M, Newton A C, Diaz A et al., 2009. Enhancement of biodiversity and ecosystem services by ecological restora­tion: a meta-analysis. Science, 325(5944): 1121-1124. doi:  10.1126/science.1172460
[22] Ricardo G H, Aide M, 2008. Globalization and land-use transitions in Latin America. Ecology and Society, 13(2): 16.
[23] SCO (State Council Office), 2010. Training Manual of the First Nationwide Water Resources Survey: Census of Soil and Water Conservation. Beijing: China Water Power Press. (in Chinese)
[24] Shen W, Wu J, Grimm N B et al., 2008. Effects of urbanization-induced environmental changes on ecosystem functioning in the Phoenix metropolitan region, USA. Ecosystems, 11(1): 138-155. doi:  10.1007/s10021-007-9085-0
[25] Su C, Fu B, 2013. Evolution of ecosystem services in the Chinese Loess Plateau under climatic and land use changes. Global and Planetary Change, 101: 119-128. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha. 2012.12.014
[26] van Beynen P E, 2011. Karst Management. Netherlands: Springer. doi:  10.1007/978-94-007-1207-2
[27] Wang S J, Liu Q M, Zhang D F, 2004. Karst rocky desertification in southwestern China: geomorphology, landuse, impact and rehabilitation. Land Degradation & Development, 15(2): 115-121. doi:  10.1002/ldr.592
[28] Wang Y K, Fu B, Xu P, 2012. Evaluation the impact of earthquake on ecosystem services. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 13: 954-966. doi:  10.1016/j.proenv.2012.01.089
[29] Wei Hongbo, Li Rui, Yang Qinke, 2002. Research advances of vegetation effect on soil and water conservation in China. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 26(4): 489-496. (in Chinese)
[30] Wei Xingping, 2011. The Study on the Characteristics and Mechanism of Soil Erosion in Karst Valley Area, Chongqing. Chongqing: Southwest University. (in Chinese)
[31] Wischmeier W H, Smith D D, 1978. Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses: A Guide to Conservation Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
[32] Xu J, Yin R, Li Z et al., 2006. China's ecological rehabilitation: unprecedented efforts, dramatic impacts, and requisite policies. Ecological Economics, 57(4): 595-607. doi:  10.1016/j.ecole­con.2005.05.008
[33] Yang D, Kanae S, Oki T et al., 2003. Global potential soil erosion with reference to land use and climate changes. Hydrological Processes, 17(14): 2913-2928. doi:  10.1002/hyp.1441
[34] Yang Guishan, Ma Ronghua, Zhang Lu et al., 2010. Lake status, major problems and protection strategy in China. Journal of Lake Science, 22(6): 799-810. (in Chinese)
[35] Yang Miao, Xie Qiang, Tan Xiaorong et al., 2013. Assessment of restoration of soil and water conservation function in watershed in earthquake disaster area based on GIS/RS. Sichuan Environment, 32(1): 39-45. (in Chinese)
[36] Ye Y, Chen G, Fan H, 2003. Impacts of the ¢Grain for Green¢ project on rural communities in the Upper Min River Basin, Sichuan, China. Mountain Research and Development, 23(4): 345-352. doi: 10.1659/0276-4741(2003)023[0345:IOTGFG]2.0. CO;2
[37] Yin R, Zhao M, 2012. Ecological restoration programs and payments for ecosystem services as integrated biophysical and socioeconomic processes—China's experience as an example. Ecological Economics, 73: 56-65. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon. 2011.11.003
[38] Zhang Chunmin, Wang Genxu, 2008. Impacts of Wenchuan Earthquake disasters on ecosystem and its spatial pattern: case study of Qingchuan, Pingwu and Maoxian counties. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 28(12): 5833-5841. (in Chinese)
[39] Zhang K L, Shu A P, Xu X L et al., 2008. Soil erodibility and its estimation for agricultural soils in China. Journal of Arid Environments, 72(6): 1002-1011. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2007. 11.018
[40] Zhang Min, Zou Xiaoming, 2009. Comparison of soil C and N in rubber plantation and seasonal rain forest. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 20(5): 1013-1019. (in Chinese)
[41] Zheng Hua, Ouyang Zhiyun, Zhao Tongqian et al., 2003. The impact of human activities on ecosystem services. Journal of Natural Resources, 18(1): 118-126. (in Chinese)