2021 Vol. 31, No. 1

Display Method:
Applying the Hidden Markov Model to Analyze Urban Mobility Patterns: An Interdisciplinary Approach
Becky P Y LOO, Feiyang ZHANG, Janet H HSIAO, Antoni B CHAN, Hui LAN
2021, 31(1): 1-13. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1173-0
With the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), there has been a proliferation of urban studies using big data. Yet, another type of urban research innovations that involve interdisciplinary thinking and methods remains underdeveloped. This paper represents an attempt to adopt a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) toolbox developed in Computer Science for the analysis of eye movement patterns in Psychology to answer urban mobility questions in Geography. The main idea is that both people’s eye movements and travel behavior follow the stop-travel-stop pattern, which can be summarized using HMM. Methodological challenges were addressed by adjusting the HMM to analyze territory-wide travel survey data in Hong Kong, China. By using the adjusted toolbox to identify the activity-travel patterns of working adults in Hong Kong, two distinctive groups of balanced (38.4%) and work-oriented (61.6%) lifestyles were identified. With some notable exceptions, working adults living in the urban core were having a more work-oriented lifestyle. Those with a balanced lifestyle were having a relatively compact zone of non-work activities around their homes but a relatively long commuting distance. Furthermore, working females tend to spend more time at home than their counterparts, regardless of their marital status and lifestyle. Overall, this interdisciplinary research demonstrates an attempt to integrate spatial, temporal, and sequential information for understanding people’s behavior in urban mobility research.
Delineation of an Urban Community Life Circle Based on a Machine-Learning Estimation of Spatiotemporal Behavioral Demand
Chunjiang LI, Wanqu XIA, Yanwei CHAI
2021, 31(1): 27-40. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1174-z
Delineating life circles is an essential prerequisite for urban community life circle planning. Recent studies combined the environmental contexts with residents’ global positioning system (GPS) data to delineate the life circles. This method, however, is constrained by GPS data, and it can only be applied in the GPS surveyed communities. To address this limitation, this study developed a generalizable delineation method without the constraint of behavioral data. According to previous research, the community life circle consists of the walking-accessible range and internal structure. The core task to develop the generalizable method was to estimate the spatiotemporal behavioral demand for each plot of land to acquire the internal structure of the life circle, as the range can be delineated primarily based on environmental data. Therefore, behavioral demand estimation models were established through logistic regression and machine learning techniques, including decision trees and ensemble learning. The model with the lowest error rate was chosen as the final estimation model for each type of land. Finally, we used a community without GPS data as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the estimation models and delineation method. This article extends the existing literature by introducing spatiotemporal behavioral demand estimation models, which learn the relationships between environmental contexts, population composition and the existing delineated results based on GPS data to delineate the internal structure of the community life circle without employing behavioral data. Furthermore, the proposed method and delineation results also contributes to facilities adjustments and location selections in life circle planning, people-oriented transformation in urban planning, and activity space estimation of the population in evaluating and improving the urban policies.
Examination and Interpretation of the Quantitative Validity in China’s Corporate-based Urban Network Analysis
2021, 31(1): 41-53. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1175-y
As a matter of expediency, most existing corporate-based urban networks can only be quantitatively measured by either counting the number of linkages or calculating the product of estimated service values. However, the impreciseness arising due to the limits of quantitative analysis may prove fatal to studies about non-market economies like China. Employing the capital investment dataset as an example, we build a capital-weighted intervention network as well as an unweighted control network to carry out an examination of the quantitative validity in China’s corporate-based urban network analysis. Both the overall spatial pattern and top city-dyads within the capital-weighted network witness Beijing, as the most dominant city, overshadow the performance of the others, and the unweighted network shows multilateral interactions between China’s top cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou. To further interpret the noticeable differences, we divide the overall network into two subnetworks, inferred by focusing on state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and private enterprises. The results show that the public and private sectors have separately created vastly different subnetworks in China and that SOEs play a much more significant role in terms of capital. Besides fresh insights into China’s urban network, this study provides a cautionary tale reminding researchers of the essentiality and complexity when making a quantitative distinction between different linkages.
Spatial Interaction Between the Industrial Undertaking Capacity and Global Value Chain Position of East Asian Countries
Binbin ZHU, Fangyuan CHI, Lei DU
2021, 31(1): 81-92. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1176-x
A comprehensive understanding of the spatial interaction between the industrial undertaking capability and the position of the global value chain of the 12 East Asian countries is conducive to strengthening regional cooperation, gaining a say in foreign trade and becoming the dominant player in the global division of labor system. The article reveals the operating rules of the interaction between the industrial undertaking capacity and the global value chain position of East Asian countries by calculating the Global Moran Index (Moran’s I), coupling coordination degree and other indicators. The results show that: in time, the values of industrial undertaking capacity and the positions of global value chain in East Asian countries showed a sustained and stable growth trend, and have a consistent trend of change. Spatially, both of the two indexes had significant positive spatial correlation, with Moran’s I showing an ‘inverted U’ pattern, and the spatial aggregation distribution of global value chain position lagged behind the spatial aggregation distribution of industrial undertaking capacity by one year. In terms of spatial coupling coordination, the coupling coordination values of the two indicators show a steady upward trend. Combined with the comparative advantage of each country, this paper provides suggestions for promoting the positions of Chinese and other East Asian industries in the global value chain from the perspectives of enhancing independent innovation capability and upgrading industrial structure.
Rapid Urbanization Induced Extensive Forest Loss to Urban Land in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, China
Chao YANG, Huizeng LIU, Qingquan LI, Aihong CUI, Rongling XIA, Tiezhu SHI, Jie ZHANG, Wenxiu GAO, Xiang ZHOU, Guofeng WU
2021, 31(1): 93-108. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1177-9
China has experienced rapid urbanizations with dramatic land cover changes since 1978. Forest loss is one of land cover changes, and it induces various eco-environmental degradation issues. As one of China’s hotspot regions, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) has undergone a dramatic urban expansion. To better understand forest dynamics and protect forest ecosystem, revealing the processes, patterns and underlying drivers of forest loss is essential. This study focused on the spatiotemporal evolution and potential driving factors of forest loss in the GBA at regional and city level. The Landsat time-series images from 1987 to 2017 were used to derive forest, and landscape metrics and geographic information system (GIS) were applied to implement further spatial analysis. The results showed that: 1) 14.86% of the total urban growth area of the GBA was obtained from the forest loss in 1987–2017; meanwhile, the forest loss area of the GBA reached 4040.6 km2, of which 25.60% (1034.42 km2) was converted to urban land; 2) the percentages of forest loss to urban land in Dongguan (19.14%), Guangzhou (18.35%) and Shenzhen (15.81%) were higher than those in other cities; 3) the forest became increasingly fragmented from 1987–2007, and then the fragmentation decreased from 2007 to 2017); 4) the landscape responses to forest changes varied with the scale; and 5) some forest loss to urban regions moved from low-elevation and gentle-slope terrains to higher-elevation and steep-slope terrains over time, especially in Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Urbanization and industrialization greatly drove forest loss and fragmentation, and, notably, hillside urban land expansion may have contributed to hillside forest loss. The findings will help policy makers in maintaining the stability of forest ecosystems, and provide some new insights into forest management and conservation.
Sustainable Intensification of Cultivated Land Use and Its Influencing Factors at the Farming Household Scale: A Case Study of Shandong Province, China
Shandong NIU, Xiao LYU, Guozheng GU, Xiaoping ZHOU, Wenlong PENG
2021, 31(1): 109-125. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1178-8
Promoting the sustainable intensification of cultivated land use (SICL) has become crucial for ensuring a sufficient supply of grain and important agricultural products, as well as for the sustainable use of resources. Taking widely used areas of Shandong Province in China as examples, an analytical scale and level framework for SICL is constructed in this study. It measures the level of SICL through material flow analysis, constructs Tobit models to analyze the influencing factors of SICL at the farming household scale, and analyzes the transition mechanisms of SICL. The results show that the overall level of SICL in Shandong Province is low, and the spatial distribution is uneven. There are relatively more farmers participating in unsustainable intensification than in medium or low levels of SICL, with farmers working at a high level of SICL making up the smallest proportion. The factors that determine the level of SICL at which farmers work vary significantly. More male farmers operate at a low SICL level than female farmers, while females outnumber males at a high SICL level. This is mainly related to the regional distribution of age and population. Meanwhile, with larger cultivated land areas, there is a lower degree of land fragmentation, with a higher level of SICL corresponding to a smaller distance to the nearest town closer within 1–5 km from the town center. We can see the level of SICL and its processes themselves are closely related to time and space scales. Based on the above analysis, it is necessary to clarify the standard processes of SICL to adapt them to local conditions. This includes instructing managers on how to improve resource utilization, increase the sustainable development of cultivated land and establish a comprehensively efficient and functional SICL mechanism. The sustainable intensification of cultivated land use and its specific application in the new era are conducive to enriching the frontier theories and methodology of sustainable development, and are of great significance to the advancement of green agriculture and the decision-making of rural high-quality development.
Spatio-temporal Changes and Associated Uncertainties of CENTURY-modelled SOC for Chinese Upland Soils, 1980−2010
Xiaoyu LIU, Yongcun ZHAO, Xuezheng SHI, Shihang WANG, Xiang FENG, Fang YAN
2021, 31(1): 126-136. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1179-7
Detailed information on the spatio-temporal changes of cropland soil organic carbon (SOC) can significantly contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and mitigate climate change. Nonetheless, information and knowledge on the national scale spatio-temporal changes and the corresponding uncertainties of SOC in Chinese upland soils remain limited. The CENTURY model was used to estimate the SOC storages and their changes in Chinese uplands from 1980 to 2010. With the Monte Carlo method, the uncertainties of CENTURY-modelled SOC dynamics associated with the spatial heterogeneous model inputs were quantified. Results revealed that the SOC storage in Chinese uplands increased from 3.03 (1.59 to 4.78) Pg C in 1980 to 3.40 (2.39 to 4.62) Pg C in 2010. Increment of SOC storage during this period was 370 Tg C, with an uncertainty interval of –440 to 1110 Tg C. The regional disparities of SOC changes reached a significant level, with considerable SOC accumulation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China and SOC loss in the northeastern China. The SOC lost from Meadow soils, Black soils and Chernozems was most severe, whilst SOC accumulation in Fluvo-aquic soils, Cinnamon soils and Purplish soils was most significant. In modelling large-scale SOC dynamics, the initial soil properties were major sources of uncertainty. Hence, more detailed information concerning the soil properties must be collected. The SOC stock of Chinese uplands in 2010 was still relatively low, manifesting that recommended agricultural management practices in conjunction with effectively economic and policy incentives to farmers for soil fertility improvement were indispensable for future carbon sequestration in these regions.
Spatial Differences and Influencing Factors of Dissolved Gaseous Mercury in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea in Spring
Ruhai LIU, Wen ZHENG, Xixi CHONG, Yan WANG, Dan YI
2021, 31(1): 137-148. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1180-1
From 28 March to 17 April, 2018, different forms of mercury (Hg) in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea were measured to study the influencing factors on the distribution and transformation of Hg in spring using a shared cruise. The mean concentration of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in the surface water of the Yellow and Bohai Seas was (44.3 ± 43.9) pg/L, which was close to that in mid-latitude oceans and deep seas. The ratio of DGM to THg (total mercury) was lower than in the oceans and in the Yellow and Bohai Seas in summer or fall. DGM concentrations in surface water were highest in the central part of the South Yellow Sea and were higher than those in the Bohai Sea, and their spatial distributions were consistent with RHg (reactive mercury). DGM and RHg correlated positively with water temperature in surface seawater (r = 0.506, P < 0.01; r = 0.278, P < 0.05). The concentrations of both DGM and RHg in surface water were controlled by solar radiation and water temperature. Foggy weather did not benefit the production of DGM and RHg. DGM in the bottom seawater was mainly affected by Dissolved Oxygen and water temperature (r = −0.366, P < 0.01; r = 0.331, P < 0.01), produced mainly by anaerobic reactions of the bottom seawater and sediment microorganisms. The bottom DGM concentrations in the Yellow and Bohai Seas were the highest, and DGM produced in bottom seawater and sediment plays a more important role than the surface water in spring. The concentrations of DGM and RHg in the surface and bottom water in the South Yellow Sea were all higher than those in the middle layer. Vertical variations in the North Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea were small. The production and distribution of DGM and RHg were influenced by differences of latitude and by the Yellow Sea warm current in spring.
Equity of Accessibility to Health Care Services and Identification of Underserved Areas
Donghua WANG, Xiaoshu CAO, Xiaoyan HUANG
2021, 31(1): 167-180. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1181-0
Characterizing the availability of opportunities to residents has been a long-term aim in health care geographic investigation. It is important to measure the degree of inequity in health care accessibility and to identify underserved areas, due to the uneven distribution of health care services. In this study, JavaScript was used to calculate travel time based on Amap, as this can provide a more reliable data support to measure the health care accessibility in Xi’an communities, China. Based on the overall equity, herein, an attempt was made to quantify the equity of health care accessibility, and to identify health care underserved areas inside the different communities. Results show that the accessibility to low-level health care services is high in the northern areas and low in the southern areas, while the accessibility to high-level and comprehensive health care services shows a clear core-periphery spatial structure. Moreover, the overall equity of the health care accessibility is relatively low, and the inequity of high-level health care accessibility is further aggravated. Furthermore, the quantified equity of accessibility to high-level and comprehensive health care services in the central urban areas is better; however low-level health care services are relatively inadequate. There are significant differences among health care underserved areas, in particular, for the worst equity and the lowest accessibility areas (A1) and the worse equity and the lowest accessibility areas (B1) in high-level underserved areas. Notably, the sharing of health care services and the reasonable flow of health technical personnel among different levels of health institutions can make the high-level health care services in the central urban areas have a greater trickle effect on the surrounding areas.
Spatial Variation and Risk Assessment of Arsenic and Heavy Metals in Surface Water and Suspended Particulate Matter in Tail Reaches of the Yellow River, China
Zhigao SUN, Jing LI, Liping TIAN, Bingbing CEHN, Xingyun HU
2021, 31(1): 181-196. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1182-z
To determine the pollution levels and potential toxic risks of arsenic (As) and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in tail reaches (including freshwater reach and low-salinity reach) of the Yellow River as the Flow-Sediment Regulation Project (FSRP) has been carried out for approximately 15 yr, the surface water and SPM were sampled at pre-flood (April) and post-flood seasons (October). Results showed that similar changes of As and metal levels in water and SPM were observed along the tail reaches at pre-flood or post-flood season. Compared to pre-flood season, the levels of As, Cu, Cr and Ni in freshwater reach and the concentrations of Cr and Ni in low-salinity reach rose greatly at post-flood season. The levels of As and metals in SPM of freshwater reach or low-salinity reach at pre-flood season were significantly higher than those at post-flood season (P < 0.01). The pollutions of As and metals in surface water of tail reaches at pre-flood or post-flood season were not serious. The SPM in freshwater reach at pre-flood season were polluted by Cd, As, Cr, Cu and Ni while those in low-salinity reach were polluted by Cd and Cr. The SPM in freshwater reach at post-flood season were polluted by Cd and Pb while those in low-salinity reach were polluted by Cd and Cr. Cd was identified as heavy metal of primary concern at both pre-flood and post-flood seasons. Combined with the existed data reported in present research, this study found that the toxic risk of As and metals in SPM of tail reaches at pre-flood season was higher than that at post-flood season, implying that the implementation of FSRP during flooding season, to a great extent, reduced the toxic risk of these elements. With the long-term implementation of FSRP, the pollution levels of As and metals (particularly for Cd) in SPM of tail reaches might be elevated and the potential toxic risk primarily produced by Cr, Ni and As might be increased if effective measures were not taken in future.
Big Data and Urban Study
Analyzing Asymmetric City Connectivity by Toponym on Social Media in China
YE Xinyue, GONG Junfang, LI Shengwen
2021, 31(1): 14-26. doi: 10.1007/s11769-020-1172-6
The connectedness between cities has become one of the most widely discussed topics in urban and regional research in the mobile and big data era. One problem identified is the asymmetric city connectivity, partially due to data availability. We present a data-driven approach based on location and toponym (place name) extracted from social media data, to assess the asymmetric connectivity between cities. The assumption is that a higher frequency of occurrences of the name of city i in posts located in city j would imply that the city i is more influential than other cities upon city j. In addition, we’ve developed a group of measurements such as the relatedness index, impact index, link strength index, dependence index, and structure similar index to characterize such interactions. This framework of connectivity measurements can also be used to support smart planning taking into account the evolving interplay among cities. The space-time structure of urban systems in China is examined as the case study.
Travel Behaviours of Sharing Bicycles in the Central Urban Area Based on Geographically Weighted Regression: The Case of Guangzhou, China
WEI Zongcai, ZHEN Feng, MO Haitong, WEI Shuqing, PENG Danli, ZHANG Yuling
2021, 31(1): 54-69. doi: 10.1007/s11769-020-1159-3
Mobile information and communication technologies (MICTs) have fully penetrated everyday life in smart societies; this has greatly compressed time, space, and distance, and consequently, reshaped residents’ travel behaviour patterns. As a new mode of shared mobility, the sharing bicycle offers a variety of options for the daily travel of urban residents. Extant studies have mainly examined the travel characteristics and influencing factors of public bicycles with piles, while the travel patterns for sharing bicycles and their driving mechanisms have been largely ignored. Using one week’s travel data for Mobike, this study investigated the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of sharing bicycle travel behaviours in the central urban area of Guangzhou, China; furthermore, it identified the influences of built environment density factors on sharing bicycle travel behaviours based on the geographically weighted regression method. Obvious morning and evening peaks were observed in the sharing bicycle travel patterns for both weekdays and weekends. The old urban area, which had a high degree of mixed function, dense road networks, and cycling-friendly built environments, was the main travel area that attracted sharing bicycles on both weekdays and weekends. Furthermore, factors including the point of interest (POI) for the density of public transport stations, the functional mixing degree, and the density of residential POIs significantly affected residents’ travel behaviours. These findings could enrich discourse regarding shared mobility with a Chinese case characterised by rapidly developing MICTs and also provide references to local authorities for improving slow traffic environments.
Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Urbanization in China Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data from 1992-2013
XU Pengfei, LIN Muying, JIN Pingbin
2021, 31(1): 70-80. doi: 10.1007/s11769-020-1169-1
Understanding the dynamics of urbanization is essential to the sustainable development of cities. Meanwhile the analysis of urban development can also provide scientifically and effective information for decision-making. With the long-term Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light images, a pixel level assessment of urbanization of China from 1992 to 2013 was conducted in this study, and the spatio-temporal dynamics and future trends of urban development were fully detected. The results showed that the urbanization and urban dynamics of China experienced drastic fluctuations from 1992 to 2013, especially for those in the coastal and metropolitan areas. From a regional perspective, it was found that the urban dynamics and increasing trends in North Coast China, East Coast China and South Coast China were much more stable and significant than that in other regions. Moreover, with the sustainability estimating of nighttime light dynamics, the regional agglomeration trends of urban regions were also detected. The light intensity in nearly 50% of lighted pixels may continuously decrease in the future, indicating a severe situation of urbanization within these regions. In this study, The results revealed in this study can provided a new insight in long time urbanization detecting and is thus beneficial to the better understanding of trends and dynamics of urban development.
Spatial Pattern and Development of Protected Areas in the North-south Transitional Zone of China
LI Xiang, MA Beibei, LU Chunxia, YANG He, SUN Mengyu
2021, 31(1): 149-166. doi: 10.1007/s11769-020-1170-8
The north-south transitional zone in China mainly consists of the Qinling-Daba Mountains. It is the most important West-East geo-ecological space in China, containing protected areas vital for biodiversity conservation and ecological security of China. The protection and rational development of its natural habitat is of great significance to China’s ecological security and integration of protected areas based on mountain forest ecosystems on a global scale. In this study, five important types of protected areas in the transitional zone were selected, and their spatial patterns were analysed. Spatial analysis methods, such as kernel density estimation and accessibility analysis, were employed for both point and areal data, and focused on four aspects: land use scale, shift in the centre of gravity, spatial agglomeration, and accessibility. In addition, policy background and evolution of spatial and temporal characteristics of the protected area system in the transitional zone from 1963 to 2017 were also examined. We analysed the characteristics and geographical significance of the West-east corridor using the spatial pattern of the protected area system from the perspective of ecological and economic spaces. We focused on spatial shape, type intersection, and key areas to analyse the spatial overlap of the protected areas. Protected area establishment was divided into three stages: initial (1956–1980), rapid development (1981–2013), and national park transformation (2014–present). These stages reflected the change in the concept of ‘simple protection—sustainable use—integration and upgrade’ for protected areas of China. The spatial centre of gravity of the protection zone system was located in the west Qinling-Daba Mountains, and its high-density core exhibited a relatively stable N-shaped structure composed of four gathering areas. Affected by factors such as geographic environment and socio-economic development density, the average access time for protected areas was high (1.56 h); wetland parks and scenic areas are located closer to the city centre. As the West-east corridor in the transitional zone extends from west to east, there is a clear spatial dislocation between the development of protected areas and the intensity of human activities. During development, differentiated goal orientation should be adopted based on the idea of zoning and classified governance. With the advancement of the construction of protected areas, the spatial overlap of protected areas in the transition zone has become more prominent. At present, the spatially overlapped protected areas in the transitional zone remain prominent, with inclusion overlap being the most common, and forest parks exhibiting the highest probability of overlap with other protected areas, we should focus on in the integration process of the corridor-type ecological space based on the mountain forest ecosystem.