2016 Vol. 26, No. 6

Display Method:
City Size Distribution and Its Spatiotemporal Evolution in China
SHI Lifeng, ZHANG Zengxiang, LIU Fang, ZHAO Xiaoli, WANG Xiao, LIU Bin, HU Shunguang, WEN Qingke, ZUO Lijun, YI Ling, XU Jinyong
2016, 26(6): 703-714. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0832-z
Based on the National Land Use/Cover Database of China (NLUD-C) in the end of the 1980s (the 1980s, hereafter), 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, 665 cities were selected to study the size distribution and its changes of urban lands in China. In this study, the spatiotemporal evolutions of urban land size distribution as well as the influence of administrative-level on these cities were explored by combining urban spatial positions and administrative-levels. Results indicate that:1) City size distribution using urban lands was more practical and reasonable than using non-agricultural population. 2) In the 1980s, cities with ascending urban land rank were centralized in Eastern China, specially the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta, the Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta, and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Cities in Central, Western, and Northeast China mainly indicated descending urban land rank. 3) The transfer of national development focus resulted in cities with ascending urban land rank becoming evenly distributed nationwide; however, this trend was slightly centralized around Chengdu, Chongqing, and Wuhan in different periods. 4) During the 1980s to 2010, the proportion of cities with ascending urban land rank in provincial capitals, municipalities, and special administrative regions (high-level cities, hereafter) was consistently higher than those in prefecture-and county-level cities except for 2005-2010. The ranks of the majority of the prefecture-and county-level cities were mainly descending, supported by ascending; the proportion of cities with unchanged rank is small. This study breaks through the bottleneck of traditional research in the area of city size distribution by examining urban land replacing the non-agricultural population. The current study also provides scientific explanation for the healthy and reasonable development of urban land as well as the coordinated development of population urbanization and land urbanization.
Urban Metabolic Efficiencies and Elasticities of Chinese Cities
SONG Tao, CAI Jianming, YANG Zhenshan, CHEN Mingxing, LIN Jing
2016, 26(6): 715-730. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0830-1
Urban metabolism is a complex system of materials, energy, population and environment, which usually can be measured by the Emergy Synthesis (ES) and the Slacks-Based Measure (SBM) approach. In this paper, by employing the two approaches of ES and SBM, as well as metabolic evolution index, urban metabolic stocks, efficiencies and elasticity of 31 Chinese cities are evaluated in a systematic way. The results imply that over the last decade (2000-2010), most of the cities, such as Chongqing, Nanjing, Shijiazhuang, Hangzhou, were experiencing drastic urban metabolic efficiency decline accompanied with a moderate decrease of industrial outputs. By contrast, metropolises and specialized cities have improved their urban metabolic performances, with higher output-input ratio and fewer undesirable outputs. However, their exported emergy experienced a substantial increase as well. It is concluded that local urban management might develop policies to diversify urban renewable supplies and address the undesirable output problems. The urban emergy of renewable resources should be specified as a prime focus for future research. In addition, mechanisms of different urban metabolic models will also be necessary for researchers.
Evaluation of Spectral Scale Effects in Estimation of Vegetation Leaf Area Index Using Spectral Indices Methods
DU Huishi, JIANG Hailing, ZHANG Lifu, MAO Dehua, WANG Zongming
2016, 26(6): 731-744. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0833-y
Spectral index methodology has been widely used in Leaf Area Index (LAI) retrieval at different spatial scales. There are differences in the spectral response of different remote sensors and thus spectral scale effect generated during the use of spectral indices to retrieve LAI. In this study, PROSPECT, leaf optical properties model and Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Layers (SAIL) model, were used to simulate canopy spectral reflectance with a bandwidth of 5 nm and a Gaussian spectral response function was employed to simulate the spectral data at six bandwidths ranging from 10 to 35 nm. Additionally, for bandwidths from 5 to 35 nm, the correlation between the spectral index and LAI, and the sensitivities of the spectral index to changes in LAI and bandwidth were analyzed. Finally, the reflectance data at six bandwidths ranging from 40 to 65 nm were used to verify the spectral scale effect generated during the use of the spectral index to retrieve LAI. Results indicate that Vegetation Index of the Universal Pattern Decomposition (VIUPD) had the highest accuracy during LAI retrieval. Followed by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Modified Simple Ratio Indices (MSRI) and Triangle Vegetation Index (TVI), although the coefficient of determination R2 was higher than 0.96, the retrieved LAI values were less than the actual value and thus lacked validity. Other spectral indices were significantly affected by the spectral scale effect with poor retrieval results. In this study, VIUPD, which exhibited a relatively good correlation and sensitivity to LAI, was less affected by the spectral scale effect and had a relatively good retrieval capability. This conclusion supports a purported feature independent of the sensor of this model and also confirms the great potential of VIUPD for retrieval of physicochemical parameters of vegetation using multi-source remote sensing data.
Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
ZHANG Shuo, ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, ZHAO Fang, QI Wenwen, HE Wenhui, WANG Jing
2016, 26(6): 745-754. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0834-x
Mass elevation effect (MEE) refers to the thermal effect of huge mountains or plateaus, which causes the tendency for tem-perature-related montane landscape limits to occur at higher elevations in the inner massifs than on their outer margins. MEE has been widely identified in all large mountains, but how it could be measured and what its main forming-factors are still remain open. This paper, supposing that the local mountain base elevation (MBE) is the main factor of MEE, takes the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) as the study area, defines MEE as the temperature difference (△T) between the inner and outer parts of mountain massifs, identifies the main forming factors, and analyzes their contributions to MEE. A total of 73 mountain bases were identified, ranging from 708 m to 5081 m and increasing from the edges to the central parts of the plateau. Climate data (1981-2010) from 134 meteorological stations were used to acquire △T by comparing near-surface air temperature on the main plateau with the free-air temperature at the same altitude and similar latitude outside of the plateau. The △T for the warmest month is averagely 6.15℃, over 12℃ at Lhatse and Baxoi. A multivariate linear regression model was developed to simulate MEE based on three variables (latitude, annual mean precipitation and MBE), which are all significantly correlated to △T. The model could explain 67.3% of MEE variation, and the contribution rates of three independent variables to MEE are 35.29%, 22.69% and 42.02%, respectively. This confirms that MBE is the main factor of MEE. The intensive MEE of the QTP pushes the 10℃ isotherm of the warmest month mean temperature 1300-2000 m higher in the main plateau than in the outer regions, leading the occurrence of the highest timberline (4900 m) and the highest snowline (6200 m) of the Northern Hemisphere in the southeast and southwest of the plateau, respectively.
A 150-year Isotopic Record of Lead Deposition in Yancheng Coastal Wetland, China
BAO Kunshan, SHEN Ji, QUAN Guixiang, LIU Fugang
2016, 26(6): 755-769. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0835-9
Radioactive markers are useful in dating lead (Pb) deposition patterns from industrialization in sedimentary archives. As a well-known natural reserve in the world, Yancheng coastal wetland in Jiangsu Province is one of areas most sensitive to global sea level change and is located in the most developed and polluted region of China. Two cores were collected in Yancheng wetland in October 2013 and dated using 210Pb and 137Cs radiometric techniques. Sediments in both cores were sectioned into depth bands and examined systematically for dry bulk density, water content, magnetic susceptibility and grain-size. Multiple elements including Pb were also measured using inductively coupled plasma systems. Unsupported 210Pb activities decreased with depth in both of the two cores, and 210Pb chronologies were established (covering 150 years) using the constant rate of supply (CRS) model. The measured Pb contents ranged from 14.97 mg/kg to 29.40 mg/kg with average values of 17.17-22.79 mg/kg, and the Pb fluxes ranged from 41.70 mg/(m2·yr) to 172.70 mg/(m2·yr) with averages of 95.59-123.41 mg/(m2·yr). Temporal variations of Pb flux, enrichment factors and Pb isotopes show a gradual and continuous increase over time and clearly reflect increased emissions from anthropogenic activities in the region. The Pb isotopic compositions show that most of Pb deposition in Yancheng wetland is input from natural sources by water flows and has the same levels of Pb as in the surface sediment of the Yangtze River and the Pacific mineral aerosol. We also stress the anthropogenic Pb contribution in Yangcheng wetland sediment and the reason of our Pb isotopes not showing anthropogenic signature is likely the instability of anthropogenic Pb in high Fe/Mn oxide conditions. Therefore, more attention should be paid to current local pollution problems, and society should take action to seek a balance between economic development and environmental protection.
Emissions of Biogenic Sulfur Gases (H2S, COS) from Phragmites australis Coastal Marsh in the Yellow River Estuary of China
LI Xinhua, ZHU Zhenlin, YANG Liping, SUN Zhigao
2016, 26(6): 770-778. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0836-8
Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases (hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS)) from Phragmites australis coastal marsh in the Yellow River estuary of China were determined during April to December in 2014 using static chamber-gas chromatography technique with monthly sampling. The results showed that the fluxes of H2S and COS both had distinct seasonal and diurnal variations. The H2S fluxes ranged from 0.09 μg/(m2·h) to 7.65 μg/(m2·h), and the COS fluxes ranged from -1.10 μg/(m2·h) to 3.32 μg/(m2·h). The mean fluxes of H2S and COS from the P. australis coastal marsh were 2.28 μg/(m2·h), and 1.05 μg/(m2·h), respectively. The P. australis coastal marsh was the emission source of both H2S and COS over the whole year. Fluxes of H2S and COS were both higher in plant growing season than in the non-growing season. Temperature had a dramatic effect on the H2S emission flux, while the correlations between COS flux and the environmental factors were not found during sampling periods. More in-depth and comprehensive research on other related factors, such as vegetation, sediment substrates, and tidal action is needed to discover and further understand the key factors and the release mechanism of sulfur gases.
Effects of Topography and Land Use Change on Gully Development in Typical Mollisol Region of Northeast China
LI Hao, Richard M CRUSE, LIU Xiaobing, ZHANG Xingyi
2016, 26(6): 779-788. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0837-7
Due to high intensity agricultural exploitation since the middle of the 20th century, farmland gullies have become a pervasive form of water erosion in Northeast China. Yet few researches are concentrated on how topography and land use affect long-term gully development in this region. In this study, gully distribution in a village with an area of 24.2 km2 in the central Mollisols area of Northeast China in different times were compared by Aerial photography (1968), Quickbird image (2009) and field survey, and factors affecting gully development including land use and topography were analyzed. The results showed that the total gully number decreased from 104 to 69, while occupying area rose from 34.8 ha to 78.4 ha from 1968 to 2009. Fundamental gully distribution had been formed by 1968 as most of 2009's gullies were evolved from 1968's gullies' merge and width expansion process, and new gullies those initiated after 1968 occupied only 7% of total gully area in 2009. Gully area increasing ratio in grassland was the highest and that in forestland was the lowest. The threshold catchment area between simple and complex gully development was around 15 ha to 25 ha. This threshold value sets apart catchment areas that will develop simple or complex gullies in areas with similar environmental conditions. Gully control measurements were urgent because if appropriate gully control implements would not be applied, present gully erosion crisis could be doubled within 50 years.
Evaluating Functions of Reservoirs' Storage Capacities and Locations on Daily Peak Attenuation for Ganjiang River Basin Using Xinanjiang Model
DU Jinkang, ZHENG Dapeng, XU Youpeng, HU Shunfu, XU Chongyu
2016, 26(6): 789-802. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0838-6
Flooding is the most prevalent and costly natural disaster in the world and building reservoirs is one of the major structural measures for flood control and management. In this paper, a framework was proposed to evaluate functions of reservoirs' locations and magnitudes on daily peak flow attenuation for a large basin of China, namely Ganjiang River Basin. In this study, the Xinanjiang model was adopted to simulate inflows of the reservoirs and flood hydrographs of all sub-catchments of the basin, and simple reservoir operation rules were established for calculating outflows of the reservoirs. Four reservoirs scenarios were established to analyze reservoirs' locations on daily peak flow attenuation. The results showed that:1) reservoirs attenuated the peak discharges for all simulated floods, when the flood storage capacities increase as new reservoirs were built, the peak discharge attenuation by reservoirs showed an increasing tendency both in absolute and relative measures; 2) reservoirs attenuated more peak discharge relatively for small floods than for large ones; 3) reservoirs reduced the peak discharge more efficiently for the floods with single peak or multi peaks with main peak occurred first; and 4) effect of upstream reservoirs on peak attenuation decreased from upper reaches to lower reaches; upstream and midstream reservoirs played important roles in decreasing peak discharge both at middle and lower reaches, and downstream reservoirs had less effect on large peak discharge attenuation at outlet of the basin. The proposed framework of evaluating functions of multiple reservoirs' storage capacities and locations on peak attenuation is valuable for flood control planning and management at basin scale.
Understanding Relationship Between Accessibility and Economic Growth: A Case Study from China (1990-2010)
JIAO Jingjuan, WANG Jiaoe, JIN Fengjun, DU Chao
2016, 26(6): 803-816. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0831-0
China's economy and transport infrastructure have both experienced rapid development since 1978, and especially since 1990. Today, China is the second-largest economic entity in terms of GDP and has the largest high-speed rail (HSR) network and the second-largest expressway network in the world. This paper explores the relationship between accessibility and economic growth in China from 1990 to 2010. In the study, the basic research units include 333 prefecture-level cities and four municipalities. We explore a bivariate analysis framework of accessibility and economic growth, and their increase rates, to examine this relationship using long-term panel data. The results indicate that, first, accessibility and economic growth show a significant positive relationship using both cross-section and panel data, while the increase rate in accessibility and GDP indicate no significant relationship using cross-section data and a poor significant relationship using panel data. Second, the distributions of local advantage are uneven. Cities with low local advantage with respect to accessibility and GDP are mainly located in China's eastern coastal region or the provincial capitals, while those with low local advantage in terms of their increase rates are located in the western region. Third, as China's economic growth and transport networks have evolved, the distribution of local advantage shows little change in terms of accessibility and GDP, but a greater change in terms of their increase rates, which is largely influenced by the distribution of expressway and HSR networks.
Tourism Competitiveness Evaluation and Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Chinese Border Counties
SHI Yuqing, ZHONG Linsheng, CHEN Tian, YU Hu
2016, 26(6): 817-828. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0822-1
Under the current government strategy of building a Silk Road economic belt, tourism in Chinese border counties has becoming increasingly popular. Studying tourism competitiveness in Chinese border counties is of sizable theoretical and practical importance, as there are several notable factors involved. In this study, we constructed a tourism competitiveness evaluation model based on eight factors:natural environment, tourism resource, location and transportation, social environment, tourism service facility, border port, tourism industrial cluster and tourism market. We then analyzed the spatial characteristics of tourism competitiveness in border counties and identified five types of border counties:resource advantage type (RA), border-port advantage type (PA), location advantage type (LA), agglomeration advantage type (AA), and relative balance type (RB), and examined the correlation between tourism market competitiveness and interior competitiveness factors in the counties from 2006 to 2011. Results showed that tourism resource, location and transportation, and tourism service facility are the most important competition factors for RA border counties during the study period. Competition factors in PA counties transferred from tourism resource, social environment and tourism service facility to border port and tourism industrial cluster; competition factors in LA counties transferred from natural environment and tourism resource to tourism service facility and tourism industrial cluster and border port. Competition factors in AA counties transferred from tourism service facility to tourism resource. Tourism industrial cluster, tourism service facility and tourism resource proved to be important competition factors in RB counties. The findings of this study can be used to target tourism strategies according to different county types.