2015 Vol. 25, No. 2

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GIS-based Effect Assessment of Soil Erosion Before and After Gully Land Consolidation: A Case Study of Wangjiagou Project Region, Loess Plateau
LIU Yansui, GUO Yanjun, LI Yurui, LI Yuheng
2015, 25(2): 137-146. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0742-5
The Loess Plateau is one typical area of serious soil erosion in the world. China has implemented ‘Grain for Green’ (GFG) project to restore the eco-environment of the Loess Plateau since 1999. With the GFG project subsidy approaching the end, it is concerned that farmers of fewer subsidies may reclaim land again. Thus, ‘Gully Land Consolidation Project' (GLCP) was initiated in 2010. The core of the GLCP was to create more land suitable for farming in gullies so as to reduce land reclamation on the slopes which are ecological vulnerable areas. This paper aims to assess the effect of the GLCP on soil erosion problems by studying Wangjiagou project region located in the central part of Anzi valley in the middle of the Loess Plateau, mainly using the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) based on GIS. The findings show that the GLCP can help to reduce soil shipment by 9.87% and it creates more terraces and river-nearby land suitable for farming which account for 27.41% of the whole study area. Thus, it is feasible to implement the GLCP in places below gradient 15°, though the GLCP also intensifies soil erosion in certain places such as field ridge, village land, floodplain, natural grassland, and shrub land. In short, the GLCP develops new generation dam land and balances the short-term and long-term interests to ease the conflicts between economic development and environmental protection. Furthermore, the GLCP and the GFG could also be combined preferably. On the one hand, the GFG improves the ecological environment, which could offer certain safety to the GLCP, on the other hand, the GLCP creates more farmland favorable for farming in gullies instead of land reclamation on the slopes, which could indirectly protect the GFG project.
Effects of Forest Type and Urbanization on Carbon Storage of Urban Forests in Changchun, Northeast China
ZHANG Dan, ZHENG Haifeng, REN Zhibin, ZHAI Chang, SHEN Guoqiang, MAO Zhixia, WANG Peijiang, HE Xingyuan
2015, 25(2): 147-158. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0743-4
Rapid urbanization has led to dramatic changes in urban forest structures and functions, and consequently affects carbon (C) storage in cities. In this study, field surveys were combined with high resolution images to investigate the variability of C storage of urban forests in Changchun, Northeast China. The main objectives of this study were to quantify the C storage of urban forests in Changchun City, Northeast China and understand the effects of forest type and urbanization on C storage of urban forests. The results showed that the mean C density and the total C storage of urban forests in Changchun were 4.41 kg/m2 and 4.74 × 108 kg, respectively. There were significant differences in C density among urban forest types. Landscape and relaxation forest (LF) had the highest C density with 5.41 kg/m2, while production and management forest (PF) had the lowest C density with 1.46 kg/m2. These differences demonstrate that urban forest type is an important factor needed to be considered when the C storage is accurately estimated. Further findings revealed significant differences in different gradients of urbanization, and the mean C density decreased from the first ring (6.99 kg/m2) to the fourth ring (2.87 kg/m2). The total C storage increased from the first ring to the third ring. These results indicate that C storage by urban forests will be significantly changed during the process of urbanization. The results can provide insights for decision-makers and urban planners to better understand the effects of forest type and urbanization on C storage of urban forests in Changchun, and make better management plans for urban forests.
Spatial and Temporal Variability of Thermal Stress to China's Coral Reefs in South China Sea
ZUO Xiuling, SU Fenzhen, WU Wenzhou, CHEN Zhike, SHI Wei
2015, 25(2): 159-173. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0741-6
Coral bleaching, caused by elevated sea surface temperature (SST), is occurring more frequently and seriously worldwide. Due to the lack of field observations, we understand little about the large-scale variability of thermal stress in the South China Sea (SCS) and its effect on China's coral reefs. This paper used 4-km high resolution gap-filled SST (FilledSST) data and thermal stress data related to coral bleaching derived from Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of chronic thermal stress and acute thermal stress to China's coral reefs in SCS from 1982 to 2009. We analyzed the trend of SST in summer and the thermal stress frequency, intensity and duration during this period. The results indicate that, as a chronic thermal stress, summer mean SST in SCS shows an average upward trend of 0.2℃/decade and the spatial pattern is heterogeneous. Waters of Xisha Islands and Dongsha Islands of the northern SCS are warming faster through time compared to Zhongsha Islands and Nansha Islands sea areas of the southern SCS. High frequency bleaching related thermal stress events for these reefs are seen in the area to the northwest of Luzon Island. Severe anomaly thermal stress events are more likely to occur during the subsequent year of the El Niño year for these coral reefs. Besides, the duration of thermal stress varies considerably by anomaly year and by region.
Spatial Variation of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Soils of Riparian Wetlands and Responses to Hydro-geomorphologic Changes in Sanjiang Plain, China
XI Min, KONG Fanlong, LYU Xianguo, JIANG Ming, LI Yue
2015, 25(2): 174-183. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0744-3
Spatial variation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soils of riparian wetlands and responses to hydro-geomorphologic changes in the Sanjiang Plain were analyzed through in situ collecting soil samples in the Naoli River and the Bielahong River. The results showed that the average contents of DOC for soil layer of 0-100 cm were 730.6 mg/kg, 250.9 mg/kg, 423.0 mg/kg and 333.1 mg/kg respectively from riverbed to river terrace along the transverse directions of the Naoli watershed. The content of the soil DOC was the highest in the riverbed, lower in the high floodplain and much lower in the river terrace, and it was the lowest in the low floodplain. The difference in the content and vertical distribution of DOC between the riverbed and the three riparian wetlands was significant, while it was not significant among the low floodplain, the high floodplain and the river terrace. The variability of soil DOC was related to the hydrological connectivity between different landscape position of the riparian wetlands and the adjacent stream. Extremely significant correlations were observed between DOC and total organic carbon (TOC), total iron (TFe), ferrous iron (Fe(II)) whose correlation coefficients were 0.819, -0.544 and -0.709 in riparian wetlands of the Naoli River. With the increase of wetland destruction, soil pH increased and soil DOC content changed. The correlation coefficients between soil DOC and TOC, TFe, Fe(II) also changed into 0.759, -0.686 and -0.575 respectively in the Bielahong River. Under the impact of drainage ditches, the correlations between soil DOC and TFe, Fe(II) were not obvious, while the soil pH was weakly alkaline and was negatively correlated with soil DOC in the previous high floodplain. It indicates that riparian hydro-geomorphology is the main factor that could well explain this spatial variability of soil DOC, and the agricultural environmental hydraulic works like ditching also must be considered.
Spatio-temporal Pattern and Spatial Heterogeneity of Ecotones Based on Land Use Types of Southeastern Da Hinggan Mountains in China
YU Lingxue, ZHANG Shuwen, LIU Tingxiang, TANG Junmei, BU Kun, YANG Jiuchun
2015, 25(2): 184-197. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0671-8
Ecotones have received great attention due to its critical function in energy flux, species harbor, global carbon sequestration, and land-atmosphere interaction. This study investigated land use pattern and spatial heterogeneity of the ecotones among agricultural land, forest land, and grassland of the southeastern Da Hinggan Mountains in the northeastern China. The change of these delineated ecotones under different slopes and aridity conditions was analyzed by two landscape indices, edge density (ED) and core area percentage of landscape (CPL), to explore the inter-linkage between spatial structure of ecotones and socioeconomic development and land mana­ge­ment. Specifically, the ecotones such as agriculture-forest (AF) ecotone, forest-grassland (FG) ecotone, and agriculture-forest- grassland (AFG) ecotone moved from the arid southeast to the humid northwest. The flat area with small slope is more edge-fragmented than the steep area since the ED decreases as the slope increases. The AF ecotone mostly found in the humid region is moving to more humid areas while the agriculture-grassland (AG) ecotone mostly found in the dry region is moving towards the drier region.
Carbon Emission of Regional Land Use and Its Decomposition Analysis: Case Study of Nanjing City, China
ZHAO Rongqin, HUANG Xianjin, LIU Ying, ZHONG Taiyang, DING Minglei, CHUAI Xiaowei
2015, 25(2): 198-212. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0714-1
Through the matching relationship between land use types and carbon emission items, this paper estimated carbon emissions of different land use types in Nanjing City, China and analyzed the influencing factors of carbon emissions by Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) model. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) Total anthropogenic carbon emission of Nanjing increased from 1.22928 × 107 t in 2000 to 3.06939 × 107 t in 2009, in which the carbon emission of Inhabitation, mining & manufacturing land accounted for 93% of the total. 2) The average land use carbon emission intensity of Nanjing in 2009 was 46.63 t/ha, in which carbon emission intensity of Inhabitation, mining & manufacturing land was the highest (200.52 t/ha), which was much higher than that of other land use types. 3) The average carbon source intensity in Nanjing was 16 times of the average carbon sink intensity (2.83 t/ha) in 2009, indicating that Nanjing was confronted with serious carbon deficit and huge carbon cycle pressure. 4) Land use area per unit GDP was an inhibitory factor for the increase of carbon emissions, while the other factors were all contributing factors. 5) Carbon emission effect evaluation should be introduced into land use activities to formulate low-carbon land use strategies in regional development.
Monitoring Soil Salt Content Using HJ-1A Hyperspectral Data: A Case Study of Coastal Areas in Rudong County, Eastern China
LI Jianguo, PU Lijie, ZHU Ming, DAI Xiaoqing, XU Yan, CHEN Xinjian, ZHANG Lifang, ZHANG Runsen
2015, 25(2): 213-223. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0693-2
Hyperspectral data are an important source for monitoring soil salt content on a large scale. However, in previous studies, barriers such as interference due to the presence of vegetation restricted the precision of mapping soil salt content. This study tested a new method for predicting soil salt content with improved precision by using Chinese hyperspectral data, HuanJing-Hyper Spectral Imager (HJ-HSI), in the coastal area of Rudong County, Eastern China. The vegetation-covered area and coastal bare flat area were distinguished by using the normalized differential vegetation index at the band length of 705 nm (NDVI705). The soil salt content of each area was predicted by various algorithms. A Normal Soil Salt Content Response Index (NSSRI) was constructed from continuum-removed reflectance (CR-reflectance) at wavelengths of 908.95 nm and 687.41 nm to predict the soil salt content in the coastal bare flat area (NDVI705 < 0.2). The soil adjusted salinity index (SAVI) was applied to predict the soil salt content in the vegetation-covered area (NDVI705 ≥ 0.2). The results demonstrate that 1) the new method significantly improves the accuracy of soil salt content mapping (R2= 0.6396, RMSE = 0.3591), and 2) HJ-HSI data can be used to map soil salt content precisely and are suitable for monitoring soil salt content on a large scale.
Evaluation of Three-dimensional Urban Expansion: A Case Study of Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China
QIN Jing, FANG Chuanglin, WANG Yang, LI Guangdong, WANG Shaojian
2015, 25(2): 224-236. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0728-8
With rapid urban development in China in the last two decades, the three-dimensional (3D) characteristic has been the main feature of urban morphology. However, the vast majority of researches of urban growth have focused on the planar area (two-dimensional (2D)) expansion. Few studies have been conducted from a 3D perspective. In this paper, the 3D urban expansion of the Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China from 2003 to 2012 was evaluated based on Geographical Information System (GIS) tools and high-resolution remote sensing images. Four indices, namely weighted average height of buildings, volume of buildings, 3D expansion intensity and 3D fractal dimension are used to quantify the 3D urban expansion. The weighted average height of buildings and the volume of buildings are used to illustrate the temporal change of the 3D urban morphology, while the other two indices are used to calculate the expansion intensity and the fractal dimension of the 3D urban morphology. The results show that the spatial distribution of the high-rise buildings in Yangzhou has significantly spread and the utilization of the 3D space of Yangzhou has become more efficient and intensive. The methods proposed in this paper laid a foundation for a wide range of study of 3D urban morphology changes.
Empirical Research on Carrying Capacity of Human Settlement System in Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China
ZHENG Defeng, ZHANG Yu, ZANG Zheng, SUN Caizhi
2015, 25(2): 237-249. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0732-z
Using the theories of population carrying capacity and ecological elasticity in other fields for reference, the connotation of regional human settlement system was defined from the viewpoint of the complex relationship among the factors such as regional population, resources, environment and economic and social development in the context of China's rapid urbanization. Then the concept and characterization methods of the regional human settlement carrying capacity were proposed by means of population scale. Furthermore, a model of carrying capacity-pressure-state-response (CPSR) on regional human settlement system was established by referencing pressure-state-response (PSR) model, and the Catastrophe Theory was introduced to determine the corresponding standards of multi-criteria programming and evaluation. Taking Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China as an example, an empirical analysis on evaluation of human settlement system from 2000 to 2012 was carried out. The results showed that the carrying capacity of human settlement system in Dalian was fluctuating between 9.6 × 106 to 10 × 106 persons with a quantitative stage of the dynamic regulation. During the research period the load index of human settlement system in Dalian dropped from 0.96 to 0.84 with a lower pressure of human settlement system than the national average level. And the emergency response grades of human settlement system in Dalian were kept in grade Ⅱ (orange warning) or grade Ⅲ (yellow warning). Human settlement system of Dalian was in slight security state as a whole, but the load had a tendency of increase in recent years. The related departments should pay close attention to regional human settlement system and take active measures to improve human settlement by both intensity control and total quantity control. By comparison, analysis and discussion, it was considered that the results were basically accordded with the current situations of human settlement in Dalian, and the evaluation results were more reliable, visualized and easily applied in practice. Therefore, the above-mentioned concepts, characterization and evaluation methods of the regional human settlement system and carrying capacity could provide a new thought and method for quantitative evaluation of human settlement.
Characteristics and Driving Forces of Spatial Expansion of Oasis Cities and Towns in Hexi Corridor, Gansu Province, China
LIU Hailong, SHI Peiji, TONG Huali, ZHU Guofeng, LIU Haimeng, ZHANG Xuebin, WEI Wei, WANG Xinmin
2015, 25(2): 250-262. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0687-0
This paper presents an integrated study of urban spatial expansion in the Hexi Corridor, Gansu Province, China based on TM, ETM remote sensing data in 1987, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2006 and 2011. The study explores the characteristics of urban spatial expansion and dynamic mechanism by using expansion speed index, expansion intensity index, compact index, fractal dimension, and extended flexibility index. We built the index system of influencing factors of urban spatial expansion by using the grey incidence model. The results showed that urban spatial expansion rate in the Hexi Corridor has been on the upward trend since 1987. Expansion intensity showed an obvious upward trend, however, the upward trend varied in different urban areas. In addition, the urban structure was loose relatively, but the urban compactness was more obvious. The urban spatial form tended to be simple, and the urban land use tended to become more intensive. Urban spatial expansion experienced several stages: padding internally, external expansion and padding internally. The main driving factors of urban spatial expansion are not the urban water resources and the oasis scale, but one or several factors such as economy, traffic, population, resource and national policy.