2014 Vol. 0, No. 6

Display Method:
Examining Forest Net Primary Productivity Dynamics and Driving Forces in Northeastern China During 1982-2010
MAO Dehua, WANG Zongming, WU Changshan, SONG Kaishan, REN Chunying
2014, 0(6): 631-646. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0662-9
Forest net primary productivity (NPP) is a key parameter for forest monitoring and management. In this study, monthly and annual forest NPP in the northeastern China from 1982 to 2010 were simulated by using Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) sequences derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. To address the problem of data inconsistency between AVHRR and MODIS data, a per-pixel unary linear regression model based on least squares method was developed to derive the monthly NDVI sequences. Results suggest that estimated forest NPP has mean relative error of 18.97% compared to observed NPP from forest inventory. Forest NPP in the northeastern China increased significantly during the twenty-nine years. The results of seasonal dynamic show that more clear increasing trend of forest NPP occurred in spring and autumn. This study also examined the relationship between forest NPP and its driving forces including the climatic and anthropogenic factors. In spring and winter, temperature played the most pivotal role in forest NPP. In autumn, precipitation acted as the most important factor affecting forest NPP, while solar radiation played the most important role in the summer. Evaportranspiration had a close correlation with NPP for coniferous forest, mixed coniferous broadleaved forest, and broadleaved deciduous forest. Spatially, forest NPP in the Da Hinggan Mountains was more sensitive to climatic changes than in the other ecological functional regions. In addition to climatic change, the degradation and improvement of forests had important effects on forest NPP. Results in this study are helpful for understanding the regional carbon sequestration and can enrich the cases for the monitoring of vegetation during long time series.
Spatio-temporal Variability of Soil Water at Three Seasonal Floodplain Sites: A Case Study in Tarim Basin, Northwest China
Sven Grashey-Jansen, Martin Kuba, Bernd Cyffka, Ümüt Halik, Tayierjiang Aishan
2014, 0(6): 647-657. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0717-y
The floodplain vegetation of the Tarim River in Northwest China is strongly influenced by irrigated agriculture. The abstraction of river water disturbs the natural dynamics of the floodplain ecosystem. The human impact on the hydrological system by bank dams and the irrigation of cotton plantings have caused adverse changes of the Tarim River and its floodplains, so the current stocks of the typical Tugai vegetation show significant signs of degradation. Field studies of soils and statistical analysis of soil moisture data have shown that the vitality of the Tugai vegetation is primarily determined by its position to the riverbank and the groundwater. There exist complex interactions between soil hydrological conditions and the vitality of the vegetation. But the availability of water is not only influenced by the groundwater level and seasonal flood events. The spatial distribution of stocks at different states of vitality seems also to be decisively influenced by physical soil properties. Our results show that the water supply of plant communities is strongly influenced by the soil texture. Spatial differences of soil moisture and corresponding soil water tensions may be the decisive factors for the zonation of vegetation. Physical soil properties control the water retention and rising of capillary water from deeper soil layers and the phreatic zone and may supply the root systems of the phreatophytic vegetation with water.
Characteristics of Wind Erosion and Deposition in Oasis-desert Ecotone in Southern Margin of Tarim Basin, China
MAO Donglei, LEI Jiaqiang, ZENG Fanjiang, RAHMUTULLA Zaynulla, WANG Cui, ZHOU Jie
2014, 0(6): 658-673. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0725-y
The oasis-desert ecotone is a fragile ecological zone that is affected both by oasis and desert conditions. To understand the impact of the differences in wind power, and the influence of wind erosion and deposition on the ecotone, meteorological data and contemporaneous wind erosion and deposition data were collected on the southern margin of Tarim Basin with serious sand-blown hazards. The wind velocity, average wind velocity, sand drift potential (DP), resultant sand drift potential (RDP), and sand transportation rate decrease significantly and successively across four landscape types with increasing vegetation coverage (VC). Flat surfaces and areas of shifting sandy ground experience intense wind erosion with fast movement of mobile sand dunes; semi-fixed sand areas experience extensive wind deposition but only slight wind erosion; and fixed sand areas experience only slight wind erosion and deposition. Volume of wind erosion on bare newly reclaimed farmland is up to 6.96 times that of bare shifting sandy ground. Wind erosion volume per unit area and VC follow an exponential function relationship in natural conditions, while wind deposition volume per unit area does not conform to any functions which has close relationship with vary topography and arrangement patterns of vegetation besides for VC. The results indicate that the volume of wind erosion has a close correlation with VC, and different types and distribution patterns of topography and vegetation also profoundly influence the wind deposition volume in the field, and underground water tables in different landscape types control the plant community distribution.
Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Plant Functional Traits in Freshwater Wetland of Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China
MAO Rong, ZHANG Xinhou, SONG Changchun
2014, 0(6): 674-681. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0691-4
To clarify the responses of plant functional traits to nitrogen (N) enrichment, we investigated the whole-plant traits (plant height and aboveground biomass), leaf morphological (specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry mass content (LDMC)) and chemical traits (leaf N concentration (LNC) and leaf phosphorus (P) concentration (LPC)) of Deyeuxia angustifolia and Glyceria spiculosa following seven consecutive years of N addition at four rates (0 g N/(m2·yr), 6 g N/(m2·yr), 12 g N/(m2·yr) and 24 g N/(m2·yr)) in a freshwater marsh in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. The results showed that, for both D. angustifolia and G. spiculosa, N addition generally increased plant height, leaf, stem and total aboveground biomass, but did not cause changes in SLA and LDMC. Moreover, increased N availability caused an increase in LNC, and did not affect LPC. Thus, N addition decreased leaf C:N ratio, but caused an increase in leaf N:P ratio, and did not affect leaf C:P ratio. Our results suggest that, in the mid-term, elevated N loading does not alter leaf morphological traits, but causes substantial changes in whole-plant traits and leaf chemical traits in temperate freshwater wetlands. These may help to better understand the effects of N enrichment on plant functional traits and thus ecosystem structure and functioning in freshwater wetlands.
Development of an Instant Correction and Display System of Numerical Weather Prediction Products in China
ZHANG Lanhui, WANG Shigong, ZHANG Yu, HE Chansheng, JIN Xin
2014, 0(6): 682-693. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0672-7
This paper presents the development of numerical prediction products (NPP) correction and display system (NPPCDS) for rapid and effective post-processing and displaying of the T213 NPP (numerical prediction products of the medium range numerical weather prediction spectral model T213L31) through instant correction method. The NPPCDS consists of two modules: an automatic correction module and a graphical display module. The automatic correction module automatically corrects the T213 NPP at regularly scheduled time intervals, while the graphical display module interacts with users to display the T213 NPP and its correction results. The system helps forecasters extract the most relevant information at a quick glance without extensive post-processing. It is simple, easy to use, and computationally efficient, and has been running stably at Huludao Meteorological Bureau in Liaoning Province of China for the past three years. Because of its low computational costs, it is particularly useful for meteorological departments that lack advanced computing capacity and still need to make short-range weather forecasting.
Impact of Meteorological Drought on Streamflow Drought in Jinghe River Basin of China
ZHAO Lin, LYU Aifeng, WU Jianjun, Michael HAYES, TANG Zhenghong, HE Bin, LIU Jinghui, LIU Ming
2014, 0(6): 694-705. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0726-x
Under global climate change, drought has become one of the most serious natural hazards, affecting the ecological environment and human life. Drought can be categorized as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological or socio-economic drought. Among the different categories of drought, hydrological drought, especially streamflow drought, has been given more attention by local governments, researchers and the public in recent years. Identifying the occurrence of streamflow drought and issuing early warning can provide timely information for effective water resources management. In this study, streamflow drought is detected by using the Standardized Runoff Index, whereas meteorological drought is detected by the Standardized Precipitation Index. Comparative analyses of frequency, magnitude, onset and duration are conducted to identify the impact of meteorological drought on streamflow drought. This study focuses on the Jinghe River Basin in Northwest China, mainly providing the following findings. 1) Eleven meteorological droughts and six streamflow droughts were indicated during 1970 and 1990 after pooling using Inter-event time and volume Criterion method. 2) Streamflow drought in the Jinghe River Basin lagged meteorological drought for about 127 days. 3) The frequency of streamflow drought in Jinghe River Basin was less than meteorological drought. However, the average duration of streamflow drought is longer. 4) The magnitude of streamflow drought is greater than meteorological drought. These results not only play an important theoretical role in understanding relationships between different drought categories, but also have practical implications for streamflow drought mitigation and regional water resources management.
Effects of Industrial Relocation on Chinese Regional Economic Growth Disparities: Based on System Dynamics Modeling
WU Aizhi, LI Guoping, SUN Tieshan, LIANG Yusheng
2014, 0(6): 706-716. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0664-7
The economic growth of China has led to increasing growth disparities between regions. Such disparities are uncontrolled and are severely negative symptoms in the process of economic development. On the basis of system dynamics (SD) modeling and the relationship between industrial relocation and regional economic growth, we construct a model of the interrelationship between the two aforementioned phenomena. The model is an effective and creative exploration for examining effects of industrial relocation on Chinese regional economic growth disparities. The SD model is employed in this study to build an inter-regional labor migration SD model, an inter-regional capital migration SD model, an intra-industry SD model, an intra-regional population SD model, and an intra-regional SD model which are based on realities in labor and capital flow from the view of industrial relocation. VENSIM software is utilized to perform a system simulation based on the data of the eastern, middle, and western regions from 2000 to 2010. Results show that industrial relocation gradually narrows the relative disparity in GDP among the three regions. Moreover, the absolute one is enlarged continuously. The absolute and relative disparities in per capita GDP among eastern, middle, and western regions generally exhibit decreasing trends.
Measuring Spatial Differences of Informatization in China
SONG Zhouying, LIU Weidong, MA Li, Michael DUNFORD
2014, 0(6): 717-731. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0646-1
As the wide application of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) shows, the world is moving fast towards an information age. Since China was first connected to the Internet in 1994, the development of ICTs in China and around the world has been astonishingly fast, and yet there is a clear 'digital divide' among different regions in China. Although Chinese geographers have paid attention to regional differences in informatization, they usually employ a limited number of indicators, mainly focusing on the Internet. In fact, informatization is a much broader concept, covering not only the Internet, but also mobile phones as well as user ability. In the light of these considerations, this study provides a comprehensive examination of the development of informatization and its spatial differences in China. First, based on a literature review, the paper identifies 29 preliminary indicators for measuring informatization, and employs principal components analysis and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to streamline them into 12 indicators to form an ICTs Development Index (IDI). Second, by using the data from provincial statistical yearbooks and the China Internet Network Information Center, the paper calculates the IDI of each mega-region and each province in 2000-2010, and measures the changing spatial differences in the development of informatization in China. Lastly, the paper quantifies the relationship between informatization and economic growth. The empirical results show that the IDI of the western and central China has been increasing faster than that of the coastal region, indicating that the digital divide in China has been narrowing.
A Study of Resource Curse Effect of Chinese Provinces Based on Human Developing Index
HUANG Yue, FANG Yangang, ZHANG Ye, LIU Jisheng
2014, 0(6): 732-739. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0727-9
Traditional opinion considers that natural resources play an important positive role in economic development, while resource curse theory holds that natural resources usually obstruct economic increase. This debate needs further exploration. In most of empirical studies on resource curse theory, the economic development of an area is mainly evaluated by the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), however, the social and cultural contents of economic development are seldom considered. Thus, the Human Developing Index (HDI) was chosen to describe the comprehensive developing situation of an area in our study. Based on the panel data from the year of 2000 to 2011, the relationship between Human Developing Index and resource exploitation degree (RED) of 30 provinces in China (Tibet, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao were not included because of the restriction of data acquisition) was investigated by correlation coefficient analysis and regression analysis. We found that resource curse did exist over the entire country and its effect on 30 provinces were not exactly the same. According to the effects of resource curse, these provinces could be classified into four types: no resource curse provinces, slight resource curse provinces, severe resource curse provinces, and extreme resource curse provinces. Testing from two short time periods 2000-2005, and 2006-2011, the resource curse effect was not prominent. However, testing from the entire period of 2000-2011, the effect was obvious among each province.
Urban Economic Cluster Template and Its Dynamics of Beijing, China
YANG Zhenshan, LIANG Jinshe, CAI Jianming
2014, 0(6): 740-750. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0686-1
Economic clusters have been a central focus of current urban and regional research, policies and practices. However, a methodology to identify and analyze policy-relevant economic cluster dynamics is still not well developed. Based on input-output (I-O) data of 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 of Beijing, this article presents an adapted principle component analysis for identifying the evolution of local economic cluster patterns. This research addresses the changes of economic interaction of industries with complementary and common activities over time. The identified clusters provide an insight into the reality of economic development in a diversifying urban economy: the increasing importance of services and the growing interaction between service and manufacturing industries. Our method therefore provides the analysts with a better understanding of the emergence, disappearance and development of economic clusters citywide. The results could be used to assist monitoring urban economic development and designing more practical urban economic strategies.
A Comparative Study of Methods for Delineating Sphere of Urban Influence: A Case Study on Central China
WANG Hao, DENG Yu, TIAN Enze, WANG Kaiyong
2014, 0(6): 751-762. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0678-1
A number of urban and regional plans have been developed with the advancement of urbanization and regional integration, among which the delineation of sphere of urban influence and improvement of integration between the city and its hinterland have become vital important for guiding practices. In terms of delineating sphere of urban influence, existing studies have been focused on static study by using single year data or single method, resulting in a lack of time-series longitudinal analysis or comprehensive analysis based on multiple methods. This study emphasizes on comparing two methods from both the theoretical and empirical perspective. Both gravity model and improved field model are applied to the selected study area for measurements and comparison, to explore their strengths and weaknesses. A research framework for comprehensive analysis on delineating sphere of urban influence is proposed. In the end, the differences of delineating methods are illustrated and the feasibility of comprehensive analysis is discussed. Recommendations are provided for selecting appropriate methods for delineating sphere of urban influence or developing regional hierarchy system plans and urban spatial structure schemes.