2013 Vol. 23, No. 6

Display Method:
Effects of Afforestation on Carbon Storage in Boyang Lake Basin, China
WU Dan, SHAO Quanqin, LI Jia
2013, 23(6): 647-654. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0618-5
By using field survey data from the sixth forest inventory of Jiangxi Province in 2003, the biomass and carbon storage for three studied species (Pinus massoniana, Cunninghamia lanceolata, and Pinus elliottii) were estimated in Taihe and Xingguo counties of Boyang Lake Basin, Jiangxi Province, China. The relationship between carbon density and forest age was analyzed by logistic equations. Spatio-temporal dynamics of forest biomass and carbon storage in 1985-2003 were also described. The results show that total stand area of the three forest species was 3.10 × 105 ha, total biomass 22.20 Tg, vegetation carbon storage 13.07 Tg C, and average carbon density 42.36 Mg C/ha in the study area in 2003. Carbon storage by forest type in descending order was: P. massoniana, C. lanceolata and P. elliottii. Carbon storage by forest age group in descending order was: middle stand, young stand, near-mature stand and mature stand. Carbon storage by plantation forests was 1.89 times higher than that by natural forests. Carbon density of the three species increased 8.58 Mg C/ha during the study period. The carbon density of Taihe County was higher in the east and west, and lower in the middle. The carbon density of Xingguo County was higher in the northeast and lower in the middle. In general, the carbon density increased with altitude and gradient. Afforestation projects contribute significantly to increasing stand area and carbon storage. Appropriate forest management may improve the carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystems.
Boundary Shift of Potential Suitable Agricultural Area in Farming-grazing Transitional Zone in Northeastern China under Background of Climate Change During 20th Century
YE Yu, FANG Xiuqi
2013, 23(6): 655-665. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0638-1
Climate change affected the agricultural expansion and the formation of farming-grazing transitional patterns during historical periods. This study analyzed the possible range of the boundary shift of the potential suitable agriculture area in the farming-grazing transitional zone in the northeastern China during the 20th century. Based on modern weather data, 1 km-resolution land cover data, historical climatic time series, and estimation by using similar historical climatic scenes, the following was concluded: 1) The climate conditions of suitable agriculture areas in the farming-grazing transitional zone in the northeastern China between 1971 and 2000 required an average annual temperature above 1℃ or ≥ 0℃ accumulated temperature above 2500℃-2700℃, and annual precipitation above 350 mm. 2) The northern boundary of the potential suitable agriculture area during the relatively warmer period of 1890-1910 was approximately located at the position of the 1961-2000 area. The northern boundary shifted back to the south by 75 km on average during the colder period of the earlier 20th century, whereas during the modern warm period of the 1990s, the area shifted north by 100 km on average. 3) The western and eastern boundaries of the suitable agriculture area during the heaviest drought periods between 1920s and 1930s had shifted northeast by 250 km and 125 km, respectively, contrasting to the boundaries of 1951-2008. For the wettest period, that is, the 1890s to the 1910s, the shift of western and eastern boundaries was to the southwest by 125 km and 200 km, respectively, compared with that in the 1951-2008 period. This study serves as a reference for identifying a climatically sensitive area and planning future land use and agricultural production in the study area.
Assimilating ASAR Data for Estimating Soil Moisture Profile Using an En-semble Kalman Filter
YU Fan, LI Haitao, GU Haiyan, HAN Yanshun
2013, 23(6): 666-679. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0623-8
Active microwave remote sensing data were used to calculate the near-surface soil moisture in the vegetated areas. In this study, Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) observations of surface soil moisture content were used in a data assimilation framework to improve the estimation of the soil moisture profile at the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China. A one-dimensional soil moisture assimilation system based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), the forward radiative transfer model, crop model, and the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was developed. The crop model, as a semi-empirical model, was used to estimate the surface backscattering of vegetated areas. The DHSVM is a distributed hydrology-vegetation model that explicitly represents the effects of topography and vegetation on water fluxes through the landscape. Numerical experiments were conducted to assimilate the ASAR data into the DHSVM and in situ soil moisture at the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin from June 20 to July 15, 2008. The results indicated that EnKF is effective for assimilating ASAR observations into the hydrological model. Compared with the simulation and in situ observations, the assimilated results were significantly improved in the surface layer and root layer, and the soil moisture varied slightly in the deep layer. Additionally, EnKF is an efficient approach to handle the strongly nonlinear problem which is practical and effective for soil moisture estimation by assimilation of remote sensing data. Moreover, to improve the assimilation results, further studies on obtaining more reliable forcing data and model parameters and increasing the efficiency and accuracy of the remote sensing observations are needed, also improving estimation accuracy of model operator is important.
Mapping Detailed Soil Property Using Small Scale Soil Type Maps and Sparse Typical Samples
ZHANG Shujie, ZHU Axing, LIU Wenliang, LIU Jing, YANG Lin
2013, 23(6): 680-691. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0632-7
Soil type maps at the scale of 1︰1 000 000 are used extensively to provide soil spatial distribution information for soil erosion assessment and watershed management models in China. However, the soil property maps produced through conventional direct linking method usually suffer low accuracy as well as the lack of spatial details within a soil type polygon. This paper presents an effective method to produce detailed soil property map based on representative samples which were extracted from each polygon on the 1︰1 000 000 soil type map. The representative sample of each polygon is defined as the location that can represent the largest area within the polygon. The representativeness of a candidate sample is determined by calculating the soil-forming environment condition similarities between the sample and other locations. Once the representative sample of each polygon has been chosen, the property values of the existing typical samples are assigned to the corresponding representative samples with the same soil type. Finally, based on these representative samples, the detailed soil property map could be produced by using existing digital soil mapping methods. The case study in XuanCheng City, Anhui Province of China, demonstrated the proposed method could produce soil property map at a higher level of spatial details and accuracy: 1) The soil organic matter (SOM) map produced based on the representative samples can not only depict the detailed spatial distribution of SOM within a soil type polygon but also largely reduce the abrupt change of soil property at the boundaries of two adjacent polygons. 2) The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of the SOM map based on the representative samples is 1.61, and it is 1.37 for the SOM map produced by using conventional direct linking method. Therefore, the proposed method is an effective approach to produce spatial detailed soil property map with higher accuracy for environment simulation models.
Labile Organic Matter Content and Distribution as Affected by Six-year Soil Amendments to Eroded Chinese Mollisols
SUI Yueyu, JIAO Xiaoguang, CHEN Wenting, LIU Xiaobing, ZHANG Xingyi, DING Guangwei
2013, 23(6): 692-699. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0639-0
Labile organic carbon (LOC) is a fraction of soil organic carbon (SOC) with rapid turnover time and is affected by soil fertilization. This investigation characterized the SOC content, LOC content and LOC distribution in the treatment plots of surface soil erosion at five levels (0-, 5-, 10-, 20-and 30-cm erosion). The soil had received contrasting fertilizer treatments (i.e., chemical fertilizer or chemical fertilizer + manure) for 6 years. This study demonstrated that both SOC and various LOC fractions contents were higher in the plots with fertilizer + manure than in those with fertilizer alone under the same erosion conditions. The SOC and LOC contents decreased as the erosion depth increased. Light fraction organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, easily oxidizable organic carbon (KMnO4-oxydizable organic carbon), and microbial biomass carbon were 27%-57%, 37%-47%, 20%-25%, and 29%-33% higher respectively in the fertilizer + manure plots, than in the fertilizer alone plots. Positive correlations (p < 0.05) between SOC content and different fractions contents were observed in all plots except the correlation between total SOC content and water-soluble organic carbon content in the different fertilization treatments. Obviously, fertilizer + manure treatments would be conducive to the accumulation of LOC and SOC in the Black soil of Northeast China.
A Sand Control and Development Model in Sandy Land Based on Mixed Experiments of Arsenic Sandstone and Sand: A Case Study in Mu Us Sandy Land in China
WANG Ni, XIE Jiancang, HAN Jichang
2013, 23(6): 700-707. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0640-7
Serious desertification caused by human activity and climate change, in addition to water loss and soil erosion related to arsenic sandstone in the Mu Us Sandy Land, lead to severe scarcity of soil and water resources, which causes worse local agricultural conditions accordingly. Many physical properties of arsenic sandstone is complementary with that of sand, arsenic sandstone is therefore supposed to be blended to enhance water productivity and arability of sandy land. Container experiments are carried out to study the enhancement of water holding capacity of the mixture, the blending ratio of arsenic sandstone and sand, and the proper size of the arsenic sandstone particles, respectively. The results of the experiments show that particle size of 4 cm with a ratio of 1∶2 between arsenic sandstone and sand are the proper parameters on blending. Both water content and fertility increase after blending. Water use efficiency in the mixture is 2.7 times higher than that in sand by the water release curves from experiments. Therefore, a new sand control and development model, including arsenic sandstone blending with sand, efficient water irrigation management and reasonable farming system, is put forward to control and develop sandy land so that water-saving agriculture could be developed. Demonstration of potato planting about 153.1 ha in area in the Mu Us Sandy Land in China indicates that water consumption is 3018 m3/ha in the whole growth period. It means that about 61% of irrigation water can be saved compared with water use in coarse sand without treatment. Recycle economic mode and positive feedback of sand resource-crop planting-soil resource are constructed, which changes sand into arable soil and make it possible to develop water-saving agriculture on it. The proposed model will be helpful for soil-water resources utilization and management in the Mu Us Sandy Land.
Effects of Crude Oil Contamination on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Momoge Wetland of China
WANG Ying, FENG Jiang, LIN Qianxin, LYU Xianguo, WANG Xiaoyu, WANG Guoping
2013, 23(6): 708-715. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0641-6
Large oilfields are often coincidentally located in major river deltas and wetlands, and potentially damage the structure, function and ecosystem service values of wetlands during oil exploration. In the present study, the effects of crude oil contamination during oil exploration on soil physical and chemical properties were investigated in marshes of the Momoge National Nature Reserve in Jilin Province, China. The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the marsh soil near the oil wells are significantly higher than those in the adjacent control marsh. Soil water contents in oil-contaminated marshes are negatively correlated with soil temperature and are significantly lower than those in the control area, especially in fall. Crude oil contamination significantly increases the soil pH up to 8.0, and reduces available phosphorus concentrations in the soil. The concentrations of total organic carbon are significantly different among sampling sites. Therefore, crude oil contamination could potentially alkalinize marsh soils, adversely affect soil fertility and physical proper-ties, and cause deterioration of the marshes in the Momoge National Nature Reserve. Phyto-remediation by planting Calamagrostis angustifolia has the potential to simultaneously restore and remediate the petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated wetlands. Crude oil contamination affects the soil physical and chemical properties, so developing an effective restoration program in the Momoge wetland is neccesary.
Analyzing Land-use Change in Farming-pastoral Transitional Region Using Autologistic Model and Household Survey Approach
ZHU Likai, MENG Jijun, MAO Xiyan
2013, 23(6): 716-728. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0642-5
Land change science (LCS) strives to understand and model land-use change, which will further advance the understanding of multiple issues in the socio-ecological systems. Based on GIS/RS techniques, autologistic model, and household survey method, this study investigated major land use changes and their causes from 1978 to 2008 in Uxin Banner (county-level), Inner Mongolia in China and then developed an understanding of the relationships between household livelihood and land-use pattern. Results showed that cultivated land increased from 1988 to 2000, and leveled off after 2000. Built-up land increased stably for the period 1978-2008. The change of grassland and bare land differed among the three periods. From 1978 to 1988, grassland increased by 23.3%, and bare land decreased by 20.48%. From 1988 to 2000, bare land expanded by 1.7%, but grassland declined by 1.3%. From 2000 to 2008, an increase in grassland area by 1.8% was observed, but a decrease in bare land area by 9.0% was witnessed. The autologistic models performed better than logistic models as indicated by lower Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) values. Factors associated with human activities significantly correlated with the change of cultivated land, forest land, grassland, and built-up land. The produce prices and extensive cultivated land use are major issues in the farming area. This study suggests that completing land circulation systems and maintaining the stability of price are effective solutions. By contrast, reclamation and overgrazing are major concerns in the pastoral areas. Implementing environmental policies effectively, transferring population out of rural pastoral areas, and developing modern animal husbandry are effective ways to address these issues.
Non-coordination in China’s Urbanization: Assessment and Affecting Fac-tors
SUN Pingjun, SONG Wei, XIU Chunliang, LIANG Zhenming
2013, 23(6): 729-739. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0634-5
Urbanization is a comprehensive concept, a trinity process that is based on the interactions and mutual influences among the population urbanization, economic urbanization and space urbanization, in which, people are the central and leading players in this process, while economic activities serve as the driving force and space is the carrier—the physical or material setting as well as the product. So the coordination among these processes is crucial for a country or region's sustainable development. China is experiencing rapid growth of cities and a surge in urban population, with the basic national condition of many people and little land, which calls for a systematic study of the issue of coordinated urbanization from theoretical, methodological and practical perspectives. Based on the concept of urbanization and non-coordination of urbanization, this article built a quantitative method to identify and evaluate the urbanization and non-coordination of urbanization, and made an empirical analysis in China between 2000 and 2008. The results show that the non-coordination overall level of China's urbanization declined during the study period, because population urbanization, economic urbanization, and space urbanization exhibited different trajectories of change. This study also reveals that performance assessment system, household registration system, and urban land expropriation system, etc., are the main affecting factors. At the end, we put forward some suggestions to achieve sustainable development of China's urbanization from the aspects of improving the local government's objective function, implementing the urban planning system, enforcing public participation aspects and so on.
Urban Construction Land Suitability Evaluation Based on Improved Multi-criteria Evaluation Based on GIS (MCE-GIS): Case of New Hefei City, China
ZHANG Xiaorui, FANG Chuanglin, WANG Zhenbo, MA Haitao
2013, 23(6): 740-753. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0609-6
Urban construction land suitability evaluation (UCLSE) is a complex system engineering and the basis for rational use of the limited urban land resources in China. It has an important practical value on urban construction land use planning and management from the angle of methodology. As a widely used technique, traditional multi-criteria evaluation based on GIS (MCE-GIS), is not suitable for UCLSE. This study develops an improved MCE-GIS method which could be more suitable for UCLSE based on urban complex ecological system theory and the summary of the shortcomings of traditional MCE-GIS. The improvements include three aspects: a composite evaluation index system rather than natural indexes alone, an index weight calculated by using fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method rather than the common AHP method, and the integrated overlay rule, which includes selecting the minimum value, weighted linear combination (WLC) and simple summation. The main advantage of this improved technique is that it can make UCLSE more comprehensive, more operational and more reasonable. It can provide a scientific basis for decision making in the planning and management of urban construction land use. The improved MCE-GIS system has been adopted in the New Hefei City, Anhui Province, China. Based on the results of UCLSE in New Hefei, three functional areas including construction-appropriate areas, construction-restricted areas and construction-forbidden areas could be worked out, in which 36.90% of the total study area could be developed as urban construction land and the remaining 63.10% should be protected as reserves land or as ecological land. Furthermore, the results can provide scientific decision support for spatial planning and eco-environment protection in New Hefei.
Application of Multi-agent Models to Urban Expansion in Medium and Small Cities: A Case Study in Fuyang City, Zhejiang Province, China
ZHANG Jing, WANG Ke, SONG Gengxin, ZHANG Zhongchu, CHEN Xinming, YU Zhoulu
2013, 23(6): 754-764. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0636-3
In this study, three-phase satellite images were used to define rules for the allocation of time and space in construction land resources based on a complex adaptive system and game theory. The decision behavior and rules of government agent, enterprise agent and resident agent in construction land growth were explored. A distinctive and dynamic simulation model of construction land growth was built, which integrated multi-agent, GIS technology and RS data and described the interaction among influencing agents. Taking Fuyang City in the Changjiang River Delta as an example, an assessment process for the remote sensing data in construction land and scenario planning was constructed. Repast and ArcGIS were used as simulation platforms. A simulation of the spatial pattern in land-use planning and the setting of scenario planning were conducted by using the incomplete active game, which was based on different natural, social and economic levels. Through this model, a simulation of urban planning space and decision-making for Fuyang City was created. Relevant non-structured problems arising from urban planning management could be identified, and the process and logic of urban planning spatial decision-making could thus be improved. Cel1-by-cel1 comparison showed that the simulation accuracy was over 72%. This model has great potential for use by government and town planners in decision support and technique support in the policy-making process.
Evolvement Characteristics of Population and Economic Gravity Centers in Tarim River Basin, Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China
WANG Yang, CHEN Yaning, LI Zhi
2013, 23(6): 765-772. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0643-4
Using the data at the county level and the regional gravity center model, we calculated six key socio-economic gravity centers, namely population, GDP, output values of primary, secondary and tertiary industries, and arable land area in the Tarim River Basin for each year from 1980 to 2009. We inspected the spatial dynamics of these centers and found that the gravity centers of population and economy evolved simultaneously. The disproportional growth between the population and the economy is also analyzed. The results show that: 1) The gravity centers of the GDP, the output values of the main three industries and arable land area show migration trending from southwest to northeast, while the population gravity center shows an excessive growth in the southwest during the same time period. The migration amplitude of the GDP and output values of primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry are measurably higher than that of the population. 2) The population gravity center has a negative correlation with the gravity centers of secondary and tertiary industries output values in both longitudinal and latitudinal directions, and a positive correlation with that of primary industry output value in the longitudinal direction. Based on the analysis of correlation coefficient and offset distance, the imbalance between the population and the economy has increased since the 1980s, with regional economic differences now exceeding the international cordon.