2012 Vol. 22, No. 5

Display Method:
Temporal Variations of Water Discharge and Sediment Load of Huanghe River, China
LIU Feng, CHEN Shenliang, PENG Jun, CHEN Guangquan
2012, 22(5): 507-521.
 Based on the data from gauging stations, the changes in water discharge and sediment load of the Huanghe (Yellow) River
were analyzed by using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method. The results show that the periodic oscillation of water
discharge and sediment load of the Huanghe River occurs at the interannual, decadal, and multi-decadal scales, caused by the periodic
oscillations of precipitation, and El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects water discharge by influencing precipitation distribution and
contributes to periodic varations in precipitation and water discharge at interannual timescale. The water discharge and sediment load of
the Huanghe River have decreased since the 1960s under the influence of precipitation and huamn activities, and human activities
attribute more than precipitation to the reduction in the water discharge and sediment load, furthermore, water abstraction and water-
soil conservation practices are the main causes of the decrease in water discharge and sediment load, respectively. The reduction in
sediment load has directly impacted on the lower reaches of the Huanghe River and the river delta, causing considerable erosion of the
river channel in the lower reaches since the 1970s along with River Delta changing siltation into erosion around 2000.
Hydrological Impacts of Climate Change on Streamflow of Dongliao River Watershed in Jilin Province, China
ZHANG Lei, LU Wenxi, YANG Qingchun, AN Yongkai, LI Di, GONG Lei
2012, 22(5): 522-530.
 The impacts of future climate change on streamflow of the Dongliao River Watershed located in Jilin Province, China have been
evaluated quantitatively by using a general circulation model (HadCM3) coupled with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)
hydrological model. The model was calibrated and validated against the historical monitored data from 2005 to 2009. The streamflow was
estimated by downscaling HadCM3 outputs to the daily mean temperature and precipitation series, derived for three 30-year time slices,
2020s, 2050s and 2080s. Results suggest that daily mean temperature increases with a changing rate of 0.435℃ per decade, and
precipitation decreases with a changing rate of 0.761 mm per decade. Compared with other seasons, the precipitation in summer shows
significant downward trend, while a significant upward trend in autumn. The annual streamflow demonstrates a general downward trend
with a decreasing rate of 0.405 m3/s per decade. The streamflow shows significant downward and upward trends in summer and in
autumn, respectively. The decreasing rate of streamflow in summer reaches 1.97 m3/s per decade, which contributes primarily to the
decrease of streamflow. The results of this work would be of great benifit to the design of economic and social development planning in
the study area.
Stable Isotopes in Precipitation in Xilin River Basin, Northern China and Their Implications
WU Jinkui, DING Yongjian, YE Baisheng, YANG Qiyue, HOU Dianjiong, XUE Liyang
2012, 22(5): 531-540.
 Under the increasing pressure of water shortage and steppe degradation, information on the hydrological cycle in steppe region
in Inner Mongolia, China is urgently needed. An intensive investigation of the temporal variations of δD and δ18O in precipitation was
conducted in 2007–2008 in the Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia in the northern China. The δD and δ18O values for 54 precipitation
samples range from +1.1‰ to –34.7‰ and –3.0‰ to –269‰, respectively. This wide range indicates that stable isotopes in
precipitation are primarily controlled by different condensation mechanisms as a function of air temperature and varying sources of vapor.
The relationship between δD and δ18O defined a well constrained line given by , which is nearly identical to the Meteoric Water Line in
the northern China. The temperature effect is clearly displayed in this area. The results of backward trajectory of each precipitation day
show that the vapor of the precipitation in cold season (October to March) mainly originates from the west while the moisture source is
more complicated in warm season (April to September). A light precipitation amount effect existes at the precipitation event scale in this
area. The vapor source of precipitation with higher d-excesses are mainly from the west wind or neighboring inland area and precipitation
with lower d-excesses from a monsoon source from the southeastern China .
Carbon Storage and Vertical Distribution in Three Shrubland Communities in Gurbantünggüt Desert, Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, Northwest China
GONG Yanming, HU Yukun, FANG Fei, et al.
2012, 22(5): 541-549.
This study was carried out in the Gurbantünggüt Desert, Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, Northwest China in August,
2009. To quantify the storage, contribution and vertical distribution patterns of plant biomass carbon (PBC) and soil organic carbon (SOC)
in the study area, we investigated the carbon concentrations and its vertical distribution in three different desert shrubland communities
dominated by Reaumuria soongorica, Haloxylon ammodendron + R. soongorica and Tamarix ramosissima + R. soongorica, respectively. We
analyzed vertical distribution of root biomass carbon and soil carbon contents by excavating soil profiles for each dominated community.
The results show that SOC is considerably the larger carbon pool in the soil layers of 1.0–3.0 m (the mean value of three shrubland
communities is 38.46%) and 3.0–5.0 m (the mean value is 40.24%). In contrast, 70.74% of belowground biomass carbon storage in 0–1.0
m layer, and its content decrease with increasing soil depth. The Haloxylon ammodendron + R. soongorica shrubland community has the
highest belowground biomass carbon among three selected communities. This study highlights the importance of SOC stored in deep soil
layers (lower than 3.0 m from the surface) in arid shrubland communities in the global carbon balance. In addition, it provides the data
support for revealing deep soil solid carbon potential, and offers scientific basis for the further research in the carbon cycle of terrestrial
Potential Role of Feldspathic Sandstone as a Natural Water Retaining Agent in Mu Us Sandy Land, Northwest China
HAN Jichang, XIE Jiancang, ZHANG Yang
2012, 22(5): 550-555.
This paper analyzed the water-retention mechanism of feldspathic sandstone (fine- (< 1 mm diam.) and gravel-sized (2–3 cm
diam.) in Mu Us Sandy Land, Northwest China. The objective of this study is to study the effect of feldspathic sandstone amendment on
water retention in sandy land. The results showed that as the proportion of fine  feldspathic sandstone in the sandy land soil increased,
the soil texture changed from sand to silt loam, the capillary porosity gradually increased from 26.3% to 44.9%, and the soil saturated
hydraulic conductivity decreased from 7.10 mm/min to 0.07 mm/min. Feldspathic sandstone gravel formed micro-reservoirs in the sandy
land soil, playing the role of a ′water absorbent′ and ′water retaining agent′ in sandy land. Amendment with feldspathic sandstone can
increase water retention in the arable layer of sandy land by 67%. This study provides a theoretical basis for the amelioration of sandy
land on a large scale. It can be concluded that amendment with feldspathic sandstone can improve the physical properties of sandy land
soil and increase soil water retention.
Comparative Analysis of Influence Factors on Arable Land Use Intensity at Farm Household Level: A Case Study Comparing Suyu District of Suqian City and Taixing City, Jiangsu Province, China
LU Xiao, HUANG Xianjin, ZHONG Taiyang, et al.
2012, 22(5): 556-567.
Using data from the farm household survey conducted in 2009, arable land use intensity (ALUI) and its influence factors at farm
household level were investigated by the Tobit model. Suyu District of Suqian City and Taixing City of Jiansu Province, China were chosen
as the regions for comparison. The results show that: 1) On the average, the ALUI, labor intensity, yield-increasing input, and labor-
saving input are 15 238.14 yuan (RMB)/ha, 192 d/ha, 7233.01 yuan/ha, and 2451.32 yuan/ha in the less economically developed Suyu
District, and 13 020.65 yuan/ha, 181 d/ha, 5871.82 yuan/ha, and 2625.97 yuan/ha in more economically developed Taixing City. The
figures indicate that Suyu District has higher ALUI and labor intensity input but lower labor-saving input. 2) Comparing all the influence
factors, the total arable land area in available and average plot size have bigger effects on arable land intensive use; to a small degree,
family′s non-farm income affects labor intensity, yield-increasing input, and labor-saving input; the yield-increasing input decreases
significantly when the householder has higher education attainment; the commercialization rates of agricultural products and the planting
proportion of cash crops both have unstable influence on ALUI; the share of arable land rented in has few impacts on labor intensity,
yield-increasing input, and labor-saving input.   3) There are no differences found in the internal impact mechanism of influence factors
on the arable land intensive use behaviors of farm households. However, there are conspicuous disparities in the impact degrees and
statistical significance based on varying economic levels. 4) Using the results as bases, this study proposes that the government should
implement land management and agricultural policies according to local condition. And these policies should decrease land fragmentation
to promote scale management of land and arable land use intensification.
Urban Expansion and Its Influencing Factors in Natural Wetland Distribution Area in Fuzhou City, China
CAI Yuanbin, ZHANG Hao, PAN Wenbin, et al.
2012, 22(5): 568-577.
This paper principally focuses on land use dynamics, urban expansion and underlying driving forces in the Natural Wetland
Distribution Area (NWDA) of Fuzhou City in the southeastern China. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imageries and historical data,
relationships between urban land expansion and its influencing factors from 1989 to 2009 were analyzed by using an integrated approach
of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The results showed that built-up land increased from 151.16
km2 in 1989 to 383.76 km2 in 2009. Approximately 64.25% of the newly emerging built-up land was converted from cropland (29.47%),
forest and shrub (25.78%), water (3.73%), wetland (4.61%), and bare land (0.66%) during 1989 and 2009. With a remarkable decrease
in cropland, the proportion of non-agricultural population increased by 23.6%. Moreover, rapid development of infrastructures, facilities,
industrial parks, and urban and rural settlements along the Minjiang River resulted in the eastward and southward expansion of built-up
land. Additionally, the growth pattern of built-up land in the NWDA is highly correlated with socio-economic factors, including the gross
domestic product (GDP), GDP per capita, and structure of industry. As a result, the observed environmental degradation such as loss of
cropland and wetland due to heavy pressure of rapid urbanization have greatly impaired the carrying capacity of city. Thus, in addition to
scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization, coordination between the administrative agencies
should be urgently strengthened to balance the conflicts between urban development and ecological conservation to make sure the
sustainable land use.

Modeling Scenic Quality of Wetland Landscape Resources in South Dongting Lake, China
WANG Baozhong, HE Ping, AN Shuqing, et al.
2012, 22(5): 578-589.
This study introduces a method to quantify the scenic value of wetland landscapes and provides the guidance on the allocation
of efforts for the purpose of preserving the most important environments. Dongting Lake, a traditional tourist location, is one of the five
largest freshwater lakes in China and a Grade 5A National Scenic Region. This study objectively analyzes the scenic resources of South
Dongting Lake, and presents a model based on Quantification TheoryⅠto assess wetland scenic landscapes. Employing a multilinear
regression relationship between landscape factors and their associated scenic value, we built up the Wetland Landscape Quantification
Model (WLQM), which was used to classify 221 landscapes into five grades. Finally, some suggestions are proposed regarding quantitative
assessment and its use for the sustainable development of wetland environments.
Spatial Effect of Mineral Resources Exploitation on Urbanization: A Case Study of Tarim River Basin, Xinjiang, China
LI Xuemei, ZHANG Xiaolei, DU Hongru, CHU Shaolin
2012, 22(5): 590-601.
Mineral resources exploitation significantly affects the spatial structure and evolutive trend of urbanization in arid areas. In this
study, the spatial autocorrelation method and the spatial computation model were used to investigate the spatial impacts of mineral
resources excavation and processing on comprehensive level of urbanization in the Tarim River Basin, Xinjiang, China for the years of
2000, 2006 and 2008. The results are as follows: 1) There was a spatial correlation of the development of mineral resources industry and
the comprehensive level of urbanization in 2006 and 2008, with the spatial concentration trend rising significantly in 2006 and decreasing
in 2008. 2) The patterns of local spatial concentration of mineral resources industry and of the comprehensive level of urbanization were
relatively stable, and the two patterns showed signs of spatial correlationship. The higher was the degree of the concentration of mineral
resources industry, the stronger was its impact on the spatial clustering of urbanization. 3) In 2000, mineral resources excavation and
processing had a significant positive impact on the comprehensive level of urbanization in the region but not in its adjacent regions.
However, in 2008, mineral resources excavation and processing significantly raised the comprehensive level of urbanization not only in the
region but also in its neighboring regions. This research demonstrates that the development of mineral resources industry can strongly
affect the trends and spatial patterns of urbanization.

Urban Hierarchy of Innovation Capability and Inter-city Linkages of Knowledge in Post-reform China
LU Lachang, HUANG Ru
2012, 22(5): 602-616.
The 2000s has witnessed increasing interests in cities′ role of innovation in the era of knowledge-based economy. Compared
with substantial empirical analysis on the world city hierarchy of innovation, this paper attempts to examine the national urban hierarchy
of innovation capability in China, in terms of ranking systems, spatial pattern and inter-city linkages of knowledge during the post-reform
period since the late 1970s. Based on quantitative analysis such as principal component factor analysis and clustering analysis, this paper
identifies the five-tier hierarchy of innovation, which is headed by Beijing and Shanghai, followed by the capital cities of each province
and regional centre cities. The development of China′s urban hierarchy of innovation capability has been driven by such factors as the
scale of innovation, scientific scale, innovation potential and innovation environment. The paper further investigates the inter-city
linkages of knowledge measured by the number of co-authored papers among the cities. Beijing is positioned in the central position of the
knowledge diffusion and knowledge cooperation innovation. More knowledge diffusion among high level cities has occurred than that
among the low level cities as well as between the low level cities and high level cities, and provincial capital cities and the regional
central cities.
Revisiting and Rethinking Regional Urbanization in Changjiang River Delta, China
YANG Shangguang, Mark Yaolin WANG, WANG Chunlan
2012, 22(5): 617-625.
China is entering a critical and accelerating phase of urbanization. As one of the most urbanized regions in China, the
Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta has experienced dramatic urbanization and urban transformation. However, in the recent years, many
changes have taken place in this region and there is limited attention to the regional urbanization path evolution, its problems and the
way to solve these problems. Therefore, we should revisit the urbanization process in the Changjiang River Delta again. In this paper, we
revisited urbanization paths of the Changjiang River Delta by data analysis, influence factors of urbanization by the Gray Relational
Analysis, and major challenges to urbanization of the Changjiang River Delta by theoretical considerations. We found that the urbanization
of the Changjiang River Delta had experienced several stages of large-scale spatial and urban system restructuring. Within the Changjiang
River Delta, Shanghai, Zhejiang and Jiangshu had experienced different urbanization path with local characteristics. But with their
development model gradually converging, their urbanization model is also converging. We also found that the major influence factors
affecting the Changjiang River Delta urbanization were dynamic change and urbanization was driven by different key factors in different
socio-economic development stages. Meanwhile, the Changjiang River Delta urbanization is facing many problems such as existing
institutional arrangements, including the hukou (household registration) system and others which can not meet the needs of current
socio-economic development and urbanization. Therefore, it is imperative to promote institutional innovation and adopt a new
urbanization development strategy for the sake of the orderly and sustainable urbanization development in the Changjiang River Delta.

Environmental Effects of Foreign Trade and Its Spatial Variations in Mid-eastern Provinces and Cities of China
JIN Xianfeng, DONG Suocheng, LUO Lingjun, et al.
2012, 22(5): 626-636.
The studies on environmental effects of foreign trade and its spatial variations are helpful to design and implement
environmental protection countermeasures. In order to eliminate the adverse effects of insufficient observation values on the accuracy of
regression results and dynamic information quantity of fitting equation during empirical study, panel data of the mid-eastern provinces
and cities of China from 1985 to 2007 were selected based on the adjustment of classical regression model in this paper. Panel unit root
test and panel cointegration analysis method were applied to investigating the environmental effects of foreign trade and its spatial
variations in the mid-eastern provinces and cities of China and its three groups divided by foreign trade dependence. The results show
that all scale effects are positive, while all technical effects are negative and unable to counteract positive scale effects. Foreign trade
development is regarded as an important cause for outstanding eco-environmental problems in the mid-eastern provinces and cities of
China. Total effects and structural effects are significantly different among different groups because of spatial variations in environmental
policies, export destinations, source of FDI, etc. Following the principle of ′coordinating generality and considering differences
comprehensively′, it is essential to issue a series of policies and countermeasures corresponding to differences in regional environmental
effect of foreign trade, in order to coordinate the relationship between foreign trade development and eco-environment in each region.