2011 Vol. 21, No. 6

Display Method:
NH3-N Degradation Dynamics and Calculating Model of Filtration Bed Height in Constructed Soil Rapid Infiltration
XU Wenlai, ZHANG Jianqiang, LIU Yun
2011, 21(6): 637-645.
The research on Constructed Soil Rapid Infiltration (CSRI) system is in its infancy at home and abroad. There are several
details about the mechanism and application of CSRI system needed to be further studied. A major limitation in the current research is
the absence of degradation dynamics of pollutants, and the height of filtration bed in CSRI system currently determined by empirical
judgment lacks accuracy and logicality. To solve these two problems, the soil column of CSRI system was utilized to treat domestic
wastewater, meanwhile, the NH3-N degradation dynamics were studied according to the Monod equation, the research of Mann A T and
the NH3-N degradation law. Then the mathematical model of filtration bed height was built based on NH3-N degradation dynamics
equation in the soil column. It has been proven that within a limited range this model can calculate the appropriate height of filtration bed
accurately in order to optimize technological parameters of hydraulic load and the concentration of influent NH3-N, improving the effluent
quality of CSRI system.
Water Quality Model Establishment for Middle and Lower Reaches of Hanshui River, China
WANG Qinggai, ZHAO Xiaohong, YANG Mushui, et al.
2011, 21(6): 646-655.
With the development of industry and agriculture, nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients in the Hanshui River greatly
increase and eutrophication has become an important threat to the water quality of the Hanshui River, especially in the middle and lower
reaches. The primary objective of this study was to establish the water quality model for the middle and lower reaches of the Hanshui
River based on the model of MIKE 11. The main pollutants migration and transformation process could be simulated using the water
quality model. The rainfall-runoff model, hydrodynamic model and water quality model were established using MIKE 11. The pollutants,
such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, phosphorus, dissolved
oxygen (DO), were simulated and predicted using the above three models. A set of methods computing non-point source pollution load of
the Hanshui River Basin was proposed in this study. The simulated and observed values of COD, BOD5, ammonia, nitrate, DO, and total
phosphorus were compared after the parameter calibration of the water quality model. The simulated and observed results match better,
thus the model can be used to predict water quality in the future for the Hanshui River. The pollution trend could be predicted using the
water quality model according pollution load generation. It is helpful for government to take effective measures to prevent the water
bloom and protect water quality in the river.
Fusion and Classification of Beijing-1 Small Satellite Remote Sensing Image for Land Cover Monitoring in Mining Area
DU Peijun, YUAN Linshan, XIA Junshi, et al.
2011, 21(6): 656-665.
In order to promote the application of Beijing-1 small satellite (BJ-1) remote sensing data, the multispectral and panchromatic
images captured by BJ-1 were used for land cover classification in Pangzhuang Coal Mining. An improved Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS)
fusion algorithm is proposed to fuse panchromatic and multispectral images, in which intensity component and panchromatic image are
combined using the weights determined by edge pixels in the panchromatic image identified by grey absolute correlation degree. This
improved IHS fusion algorithm outperforms traditional IHS fusion method to a certain extent, evidenced by its ability in preserving spectral
information and enhancing spatial details. Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory was adopted to combine the outputs of three member
classifiers to generate the final classification map with higher accuracy than that by any individual classifier. Based on this study, we
conclude that Beijing-1 small satellite remote sensing images are useful to monitor and analyze land cover change and ecological
environment degradation in mining areas, and the proposed fusion algorithms at data and decision levels can integrate the advantages of
multi-resolution images and multiple classifiers, improve the overall accuracy and produce a more reliable land cover map. 
An AMSR-E Data Unmixing Method for Monitoring Flood and Waterlogging Disaster
GU Lingjia, ZHAO Kai, ZHANG Shuang, et al.
2011, 21(6): 666-675.
Spectral remote sensing technique is usually used to monitor flood and waterlogging disaster. Although spectral remote sensing
data have many advantages for ground information observation, such as real time and high spatial resolution, they are often interfered by
clouds, haze and rain. As a result, it is very difficult to retrieve ground information from spectral remote sensing data under those
conditions. Compared with spectral remote sensing technique, passive microwave remote sensing technique has obvious superiority in
most weather conditions. However, the main drawback of passive microwave remote sensing is the extreme low spatial resolution.
Considering the wide application of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) data, an AMSR-E
data unmixing method was proposed in this paper based on Bellerby′s algorithm. By utilizing the surface type classification results with
high spatial resolution, the proposed unmixing method can obtain the component brightness temperature and corresponding spatial
position distribution, which effectively improve the spatial resolution of passive microwave remote sensing data. Through researching the
AMSR-E unmixed data of Yongji County, Jilin Provinc, Northeast China after the worst flood and waterlogging disaster occurred on July
28, 2010, the experimental results demonstrated that the AMSR-E unmixed data could effectively evaluate the flood and waterlogging
Changes and Effecting Factors of Grain Production in China
CHEN Yuqi, LI Xiubin, WANG Jing
2011, 21(6): 676-684.
 Based on the data from the Cost-benefit Data of Farm Produce and the China Agricultural Yearbook, this paper aims to examine
the spatial and temporal change characteristics of total grain production and its affecting factors. The results show that: 1) During 1980
to 2007, total grain production increased from 3.20 × 108 t to 5.02 × 108 t in China, with annual increasing rate of 1.68%. From the
regional disparities, most of the regions present increasing trend of total grain production except for several regions with higher level of
economic development; 2) Grain sown area decreased from 1.17 × 108 ha in 1980 to 1.06 × 108 ha in 2007, which has negative effect
on total grain production; 3) The increase of grain yield per unit area caused by land use intensity changes contributed to the increase of
total grain yield greatly. However, as the land use intensity showed that farmers pay more attention to labor-saving input but not yield-
increasing input, the less enthusiasm of farmers in grain production may become an important constraint on future grain production
increase in China; 4) Based on the results, this paper proposed different land management policies in different regions, for example, the
government should protect cultivated land, promote large scale production. As to the less developed regions, the government should pay
more attention to agricultural subsidies to promote farmers′ enthusiasm in grain production.
Estimation of Land Production and Its Response to Cultivated Land Conversion in North China Plain
JIANG Qun′ou, DENG Xiangzheng, ZHAN Jinyan, et al.
2011, 21(6): 685-694.
 Food safety and its related influencing factors in China are the hot research topics currently, and cultivated land conversion is
one of the significant factors influencing food safety in China. Taking the North China Plain as the study area, this paper examines the
changes of cultivated land area using satellite images, estimates land productivity from 1985 to 2005 using the model of Estimation
System for Land Productivity (ESLP), and analyzes the impact of cultivated land conversion on the land production. Compared with the
grain yield data from statistical yearbooks, the results indicate that ESLP model is an effective tool for estimating land productivity. Land
productivity in the North China Plain showed a slight decreasing trend from 1985 to 2005, spatially, increased from the north to the south
gradually, and the net changes varied in different areas. Cultivated land area recorded a marginal decrease of 8.0 × 105 ha, mainly
converted to other land uses. Cultivated land conversion had more significant negative impacts on land production than land productivity
did. Land production decreased by about 6.48 × 106 t caused by cultivated land conversion between 1985 and 2005, accounting for
91.9% of the total land production reduction. Although the land productivity increased in Anhui and Jiangsu provinces, it can not offset
the overall adverse effects caused by cultivated land conversion. Therefore, there are significant meanings to control the cultivated land
conversion and improve the land productivity for ensuring the land production in the North China Plain.
Measurement and Spatio-temporal Distribution of Urbanization Development Quality of Urban Agglomeration in China
WANG Deli, FANG Chuanglin, GAO Boyang, et al.
2011, 21(6): 685-707.
Urbanization development quality (UDQ) of urban agglomeration (UA) is one of the important indexes to evaluate if the UA
urbanization speed is reasonable, if the population urbanization process is sound, if the economic urbanization process is efficient, if the
social urbanization process is harmonious and fair, which is generally composed of three parts, including economic urbanization
development quality, social urbanization development quality and spatial urbanization security quality. With the research of evolution
rules of UDQ, through the analysis on the interactive coordination relation between UDQ and urbanization level, the paper proposes three
dimensional index ball and standard value of comprehensive measures of UDQ, which is composed of three categories of indexes. By
introducing Atkinson model, this paper constructs the sub-element measure model and segmental measure model of UDQ, and further
makes an overall evaluation on the characteristic of UDQ of UAs in China. Results show that: 1) UDQ of UAs lied at optimization and
upgrading phase during 1995–2008 and the quality was low. Population urbanization level did not reflect the UDQ of UAs; 2) the improving
speed of the spatial urbanization security quality was higher than the social urbanization development quality, and the improving speed of
economic urbanization development quality was the lowest; 3) the coordination between UDQ and urbanization level was not so good; 4)
there was a weak correlation relation between UDQ and UA scale, and it was not true that the bigger the UA was, the better the UDQ
Empirical Study on Effect of Industrial Structure Change on Regional Economic Growth of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region
CHEN Hongxia, LI Guoping
2011, 21(6): 708-714.
Based on the data of gross domestic product (GDP), industrial added value and the proportion of industrial employees from
2000 to 2008, this paper studies the effect of industrial structure change on the regional economic growth of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei
Metropolitan Region in China using the shift-share method. The results show that: 1) In the 21st century, the industrial output of three
industries, namely, primary, secondary, and tertiary, and the GDP grew rapidly in the study period. The tertiary industry grew the fastest;
it had the largest contribution to the GDP and meanwhile had become the most competitive industry in the metropolitan region. 2) The
development of cities within the region was not balanced. Firstly, compared with Tianjin, Beijing, as one of the two core cities, was more
rational in the industrial structure. Secondly, the surrounding eight cities, which are Shijiazhuang, Qinhuangdao, Tangshan, Langfang,
Baoding, Cangzhou, Zhangjiakou, and Chengde, were all uncompetitive than the two core cities. 3) There was a great industrial gradient
in the region (especially between the two core cities and the cities of Tangshan, Baoding, Zhangjiakou, Chengde, Cangzhou, and
Langfang). As a result, it is foreseeable that the industry transfer in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region will be one of the
trends in regional development, and the industry transfer is inevitably to promote the regional integration.
Regional Disparity and Convergence of China′s Inbound Tourism Economy
WANG Shuxin, HE Yuanqing, WANG Xueding, et a.
2011, 21(6): 715-722.
Comprehending regional characteristics and influencing factors of China′s inbound tourism economy is important to make
effective policies that will help inbound tourism develop harmoniously and shrink regional disparity. This paper studied the regional
disparity and convergence of China′s inbound tourism economy during 1996–2008 with the methods of σ-convergence, club convergence
and β-convergence. The results indicate that 1) inbound tourism receipts per capita (ITRPC) of the whole country, the eastern, central
and western regions presented the rapid increasing trend; 2) ITRPC of the whole country was characterized by convergence; 3) the
eastern region presented club convergence, but the central and western regions did not show this trend; 4) the star-hotel levels and
investment in fixed assets for the tourism industry per capita had a same trend to growth rates of ITRPC, promoting inbound tourism
development, and there was no difference among the 31 provinces (municipalities) in the mainland of China; 5) but the proportion of
employed persons in the tourism industry accounting for total population and the proportion of the tertiary industry accounting for GDP
had a reversal trend to growth rates of ITRPC, shrinking the provincial disparity in inbound tourism economy, and there were differences
between the developed provinces and the developing provinces. Based on these analyses, we put forward some suggestions for the
developing provinces to speed up inbound tourism economy.
Quantitative Simulation on Soil Moisture Contents of Two Typical Vegetation Communities in Sanjiang Plain, China
LI Shanghua, ZHOU Demin, LUAN Zhaoqing, et al.
2011, 21(6): 723-733.
Different types of vegetation occupy different geomorphology and water gradient environments in the Sanjiang plain, indicating
that the soil moisture dynamics and water balance patterns of the different vegetation communities might differ from each other. In this
paper, a lowland system, perpendicular to the Nongjiang River in the Honghe National Nature Reserve (HNNR), was selected as the study
area. The area was occupied by the non-wetland plant forest and the typical wetland plant meadow. The Microsoft Windows-based finite
element analysis software package for simulating water, heat, and solute transport in variably saturated porous media (HYDRUS), which
can quantitatively simulate water, heat, and/or solute movement in variably-saturated porous media, was used to simulate soil moisture
dynamics in the root zone (20–40 cm) of those two plant communities during the growing season in 2005. The simulation results for soil
moisture were in a good agreement with measured data, with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.44–0.69 and root mean square
error (RMSE) ranging between 0.0291 cm3/cm3 and 0.0457 cm3/cm3, and index of agreement (d) being from 0.612 to 0.968. During the
study period, the volumetric soil moisture content of meadow increased with the depth and its coefficient of variation decreased with the
depth (from 20 cm to 40 cm), while under the forest the soil moisture content at different depths varied irregularly. The calculated result
of water budget showed that the water budget deficit of the meadow was higher than that of the forest, suggesting that the meadow is
more likely to suffer from water stress than the forest. The quantitative simulation by HYDRUS in this study did not take surface runoff
and plant growth processes into account. Improved root water uptake and surface runoff models will be needed for higher accuracy in
further researches.
Impact of Land Use Change on Groundwater Recharge in Guishui River Basin, China
PAN Yun, GONG Huili, ZHOU Demin, et al.
2011, 21(6): 734-743.
It is important to understand how land use change impacts groundwater recharge, especially for regions that are undergoing
rapid urbanization and there is limited surface water. In this study, the hydrological processes and recharge ability of various land use
types in Guishui River Basin, China (in Beijing Municipality) were analyzed. The impact of land use change was investigated based on
water balance modeling, WetSpass and GIS. The results indicate that groundwater recharge accounts for only 21.16% of the
precipitation, while 72.54% is lost in the form of evapotranspiration. The annual-lumped groundwater recharge rate decreases in the
order of cropland, grassland, urban land, and forest. Land use change has resulted in a decrease of 4 × 106 m3 of yearly groundwater
recharge in the study area, with a spatially averaged rate of 100.48 mm/yr and 98.41 mm/yr in 1980 and 2005, respectively. This
variation has primarily come from an increase of urban area and rural settlements, as well as a decrease of cropland.

Economic Value Evaluation of Wetland Service in Yeyahu Wetland Nature Reserve, Beijing
ZHU Lin, CHEN Yun, GONG Huili, et al.
2011, 21(6): 744-752.
 Based on multi-source data, this paper evaluated the economic value of ecological services in the Yeyahu Wetland Nature
Reserve, Beijing, China. The ecological services of wetland included gas regulation, water quality improvement, biodiversity maintenance,
erosion control, water supply, recreational opportunity, raw material supply and existence value. Multiple conventional evaluation
methods were used to calculate the value of eight wetland services. The results showed that significant values came from biodiversity
maintenance and recreational opportunity. The main reasons were as follows. Firstly, Yeyahu Wetland Nature Reserve was the habitat for
migrant birds, and government had payed more efforts to protect precious birds. Secondly, the population is large in Beijing. People
enjoyed going outside and enjoyed the natural and artificial wetland scenes. At the same time, most people were prepared to pay for
wetland conservation. The decline of vegetation cover made the economic value of erosion control the lowest. While the shrink of water
resource and the deteriorative water quality caused the economic value of water supply lower. The evaluation results could help
decision-makers understand the present status of the Yeyahu Wetland Nature Reserve and provide a scientific basis for strategic
Spatial-temporal Characteristics of Land Subsidence Corresponding to Dynamic Groundwater Funnel in Beijing Municipality, China
CHEN Beibei, GONG Huili, LI Xiaojuan, et al.
2011, 21(6): 753-764.
Due to long-term over-exploitation of groundwater in Beijing municipality, regional groundwater funnels have formed and land
subsidence has been induced. By combining a groundwater monitoring network, GPS monitoring network data, radar satellite SAR data,
GIS and other new technologies, a coupled process model based on the dynamic variation of groundwater and the deformation response
of land subsidence has been established. The dynamic variation of groundwater funnels and the land subsidence response process were
analyzed systematically in Beijing. Study results indicate that current groundwater funnel areas are distributed mainly in the southwest of
Shunyi District, the northeast of Chaoyang District and the northwest of Tongzhou District, with an average decline rate of groundwater
level of 2.66 m/yr and a maximum of 3.82 m/yr in the center of the funnels. Seasonal and interannual differences exist in the response
model of land subsidence to groundwater funnels with uneven spatial and temporal distribution, where the maximum land subsidence rate
was about –41.08 mm/yr and the area with a subsidence rate greater than 30 mm/yr was about 1637.29 km2. Although a consistency
was revealed to exist between a groundwater funnel and the spatial distribution characteristics of the corresponding land subsidence
funnel, this consistency was not perfect. The results showed that the response model of land subsidence to the dynamic variation of
groundwater was more revealing when combining conventional technologies with InSAR, GIS, GPS, providing a new strategy for
environmental and hydrogeological research and a scientific basis for regional land subsidence control.