2010 Vol. 20, No. 6

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Tree Planting:How Fast Can It Accelerate Post-fire Forest Restoration?——A Case Study in Northern Da Hinggan Mountains,China
LI Xiuzhen, HE Hong S, WANG Xugao, XIE Fuju, HU Yuanman, LI Yuehui
2010, 20(6): 481-490. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0436-y
In 1987,a catastrophic fire burned over 1330000 ha in the densely forested area of the Da Hinggan Mountains in the northeastern China.After the fire,intensive management including burned trunk harvesting and coniferous tree planting had been conducted to accelerate forest restoration.To study the long term effect of these activities on forest recovery,we used a simulation modeling approach to study long-term(300 years) forest dynamics under current planting and natural regeneration scenarios.Results indicate that under tree planting scenario in the severely burned area,the dominant species Dahurian larch(Larix gmelinii) can reach pre-fire level(60% of the area) within 20 years and the maximum abundance can reach nearly 90% within 100 years.While under natural regeneration scenario,it needs about 250 years to reach its pre-fire level.From the perspective of timber production,tree planting can bring twice as much timber volume as that under natural regeneration within 300 years,which is the average longevity of L.gmelinii.It needs about 70 years to reach the timber volume of pre-fire level under the planting scenario,whereas it requires at least 250 years to reach the timber volume of pre-fire level under natural regeneration scenario.Another dominant species Asian White birch(Betula platyphylla) responded negatively to the planting of coniferous species.In general,tree planting of coniferous species after fire can greatly accelerate forest restoration in terms of species abundance and target timber volume,with desirable ecological and economic returns.
Driving Factors for Forest Fire Occurrence in Durango State of Mexico:A Geospatial Perspective
Diana Avila-Flores, Marin Pompa-Garcia, Xanat Antonio-Nemiga, Dante A Rodriguez-Trejo, Eduardo Vargas-Perez, Javier Santillan-Perez
2010, 20(6): 491-497. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0437-x
Forest fire is one of the major causes of forest loss and therefore one of the main constraints for sustainable forest management worldwide.Identifying the driving factors and understanding the contribution of each factor are essential for the management of forest fire occurrence.The objective of this study is to identify variables that are spatially related to the occurrence and incidence of the forest fire in the State of Durango,Mexico.For this purpose,data from forest fire records for a five-year period were analyzed.The spatial correlations between forest fire occurrence and intensity of land use,susceptibility of vegetation,temperature,precipitation and slope were tested by Geographically Weighted Regression(GWR) method,under an Ordinary Least Square estimator.Results show that the spatial pattern of the forest fire in the study area is closely correlated with the intensity of land use,and land use change is one of the main explanatory variables.In addition,vegetation type and precipitation are also the main driving factors.The fitting model indicates obvious link between the variables.Forest fire was found to be the consequence of a particular combination of the environmental factors,and when these factors coexist with human activities,there is high probability of forest fire occurrence.Mandatory regulation of human activities is a key strategy for forest fire prevention.
Grain-size Characteristics of Sediment in Daniugou Peatland in Changbai Mountains,Northeast China:Implications for Atmospheric Dust Deposition
BAO Kunshan, JIA Lin, LU Xianguo, WANG Guoping
2010, 20(6): 498-505. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0427-z
The grain-size distribution characteristics and grain-size parameters of sediment in two vertical sections of Daniugou peatland in the Changbai Mountains were systematically investigated.A comparative analysis of the sediment granularity using a discriminative function with Hongyuan peat,red clay,loess-paleosol,fluvial deposit as well as lacustrine deposit was also conducted.It turns out that the vertical section of Daniugou peat ash is primarily constituted by clay and silt particles,and the content of sand is relatively small.Grain-size frequency curves generally show a single-peak modality while a bimodal pattern is detected in the upper layer.The grain-size component and peak pattern of grain-size frequency curves also illustrate that peat ash materials were transported to the peatland by long-range aeolian dust during the deposition process,while there existed short-distance dust influence in peat deposition of the upper layer.Comparisons of grain-size parameters and the discriminative Y-value of Daniugou peat ash with those of typical aeolian sediments show close similarities,suggesting the possibility that atmospheric dust transport processes were involved in the accumulation of peat again.Moreover,the variations of grain-size distribution suggest the local environmental deterioration which is just the driving force of local dust elevation.Grain-size analysis of peatland sediment is demonstrated to be one effective method to extract information about regional and global environmental evolution,and more attention should be paid to current local ecological environment and to seeking a balance between economic development and environmental protection in Northeast China.
Morphological Characteristics and Environmental Implications of Phytoliths in Topsoils from Different Vegetation Zones on Northern Slope of Changbai Mountains,China
QIAO Zhihe, JIE Dongmei, LIU Hongmei, GE Yong, ZHANG Hongyan
2010, 20(6): 506-512. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0424-2
The Changbai Mountains,located in the temperate monsoon climate zone of East Asia,is an ideal loca-tion for the research on timberline response to global changes.In this study,the topsoils were collected from different vertical vegetation zones on the northern slope of the Changbai Mountains,Northeast China in August 2009,and phytoliths in the soil samples were extracted by using wet oxidation method and identified with Motic 2.0 microscope in laboratory.The results show that phytoliths are abundant in the topsoils of the study area.The herbal phytoliths are primarily composed of elongated,tooth-shaped,point-shaped and hat-shaped phytoliths,as well as a small amount of fan-shaped and square-shaped ones.The elongated,tooth-shaped,point-shaped and hat-shaped phytoliths are representative of cold climate,while fan-shaped and square-shaped ones are representative of warm and humid climate.In the conifer broadleaved mixed forest zone,coniferous forest zone and broadleaf forest zone,there are close correlations between vegetation and woody phytoliths in the topsoils,indicating that the woody plants of a region can be reconstructed from the woody phytolith assemblages in the topsoils.Meanwhile,the topsoil phytolith assemblages can also be used to reconstruct the understory herbs effectively.The phytolith assemblages in the topsoils of the forest community and herbal community differ significantly,which can help indicate the historical location of the timberline.
Modeling All-sky Global Solar Radiation Using MODIS Atmospheric Products:A Case Study in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
ZHANG Hailong, LIU Gaohuan, HUANG Chong
2010, 20(6): 513-521. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0423-3
The surface solar radiation(SSR) is of great importance to bio-chemical cycle and life activities.However,it is impossible to observe SSR directly over large areas especially for rugged surfaces such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.This paper presented an improved parameterized model for predicting all-sky global solar radiation on rugged surfaces using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) atmospheric products and Digital Elevation Model(DEM).The global solar radiation was validated using 11 observations within the plateau.The correlation coefficients of daily data vary between 0.67-0.86,while those of the averages of 10-day data are between 0.79-0.97.The model indicates that the attenuation of SSR is mainly caused by cloud under cloudy sky,and terrain is an important factor influencing SSR over rugged surfaces under clear sky.A positive relationship can also be inferred between the SSR and slope.Compared with horizontal surfaces,the south-facing slope receives more radiation,followed by the west-and east-facing slopes with less SSR,and the SSR of the north-facing slope is the least.
Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Services:An Opportunity for Spatially Explicit Assessment
FENG Xiaoming, FU Bojie, YANG Xiaojun, LÜ Yihe
2010, 20(6): 522-535. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0428-y
Ecosystem service is an emerging concept that grows to be a hot research area in ecology.Spatially explicit ecosystem service values are important for ecosystem service management.However,it is difficult to quantify ecosystem services.Remote sensing provides images covering Earth surface,which by nature are spatially explicit.Thus,remote sensing can be useful for quantitative assessment of ecosystem services.This paper reviews spatially explicit ecosystem service studies conducted in ecology and remote sensing in order to find out how remote sensing can be used for ecosystem service assessment.Several important areas considered include land cover,biodiversity,and carbon,water and soil related ecosystem services.We found that remote sensing can be used for ecosystem service assessment in three different ways:direct monitoring,indirect monitoring,and combined use with ecosystem models.Some plant and water related ecosystem services can be directly monitored by remote sensing.Most commonly,remote sensing can provide surrogate information on plant and soil characteristics in an ecosystem.For ecosystem process related ecosystem services,remote sensing can help measure spatially explicit parameters.We conclude that acquiring good in-situ measurements and selecting appropriate remote sensor data in terms of resolution are critical for accurate assessment of ecosystem services.
Effect of Cropland Occupation and Supplement on Light-temperature Potential Productivity in China from 2000 to 2008
YANG Xiaohuan, CHENG Chuanzhou, LI Yuejiao
2010, 20(6): 536-544. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0429-x
There are more people but less land in China,so food safety has always been a most important issue government concerned.With continuous population increase,economic development and environment protection,cropland occupation and supplement are unavoidable.It not only leads to the variation of cropland area,but also makes the light-temperature potential productivity per unit area different due to regional climate differentiation,therefore impacts the total potential productivity and food output eventually.So,it is necessary to analyze the climate differentiation between occupation and supplement cropland areas and to study its impact on total potential productivity,which is significant to reasonably develop natural resources and instruct agricultural arrangement.This study firstly discussed the variation and distribution of occupation and supplement croplands in China from 2000 to 2008,then analyzed the climate differentiation between occupation and supplement cropland areas and its effect on light-temperature potential productivity.The results demonstrate:1) From 2000 to 2008,the cropland variation presented occupation in the south and supplement in the north,but overall decreased.Supplement cropland was mainly from ecological reclamation(77.78%) and was mainly distributed in Northeast China and Northwest China with poor climatic and natural conditions.Occupation cropland was mainly used for construction(52.88%) and ecological restoration(44.78%) purposes,and was mainly distributed in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain,and the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River with better climatic and natural conditions.2) The climate conditions were quite different in supplement and occupation cropland areas.The annual precipitation,annual accumulated temperature and average annual temperature were lower in the supplement cropland area,and its average po-tential productivity per unit was only 62% of occupation cropland area,which was the main reason for the decrease of total potential productivity.3) Cropland occupation and supplement led to the variation of total potential productivity and its spatial distribution.The productivity decreased in the south and increased in the north,but had a net loss of 4.38315×107 t in the whole country.The increase of cropland area was at the cost of reclaiming natural forest and grassland resources,and destroying natural ecological environment,while the decrease of cropland area was mainly due to a lot of cropland occupied by urban-rural construction,which threatened the sustainable use of cropland resources.
Characteristics and Mechanism of Agricultural Transformation in Typical Rural Areas of Eastern China:A Case Study of Yucheng City,Shandong Province
CHEN Yangfen, LIU Yansui, XU Keshuai
2010, 20(6): 545-553. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0430-4
Rural off-farm employment,rapid loss of agricultural land,and advanced technology popularization had led agricultural production in Chinese typical rural areas come at a critical transformation and upgrade stage.Based on sample survey data gathered from 401 households in Yucheng City,Shandong Province,this paper focuses on the characteristics and mechanism of agricultural transformation in typical rural areas of the eastern China.It was found that 74.3% of households surveyed kept at least one member engaging in off-farm employment,and 57.1% looked forward to expanding the operational scale of arable land,while just 13.7% had actually transferred their agricultural land.Since growing off-farm employment does not result in the collapse of traditional subsistence agriculture,therefore,agricultural production in Yucheng City is at an incomplete transformation phase from traditional small-holder farming to modern scale economy.It is caused by both macro environments and family characteristics,while urban-rural dual structure,imperfect rural development policy and agricultural technology popularization make peasant economy strengthen upon maintenance,and small-holder farming becomes peasant’s natural response owing to pluriactivity,local off-farm employment,reverse elimination,etc.In order to achieve smooth agricultural transformation of typical rural areas in the eastern China,it needs to promote professional differentiation among peasants,under clear policies adopted by central government.Providing comprehensive services for agricultural production and improving production skills and knowledge of farmers who are still living in the countryside will effectively stimulate the process of agricultural transformation.
Transportation Characteristics Change under Rapid Urban Expansion:A Case Study of Shanghai
LI Ye, YE Jianhong, CHEN Xiaohong, Mohamed A ABDEL-ATY P E, CEN Min
2010, 20(6): 554-561. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0431-3
This paper focuses on the economic development and urban morphology as well as its impact on the transportation system during the urban expansion of Shanghai in the last more than 20 years(1986-2008).Based on data from 3 comprehensive transport surveys of Shanghai since 1986,the changes in residential trip demand,vehicle use,and the spatial distribution of trips were studied to understand the demands on the transportation system.The factors contributing to those changes in transportation demand were discussed,by which the conclusions were arrived:1) economic development promotes population growth and stimulates residential trip demand greatly;2) unsynchronized migration of population and job from central district to periphery district of Shanghai make trips and congestion diffuse in the same way;and 3) urban sprawl from a city center encourages the single-occupant vehicle mode,which imposes greater pressure on the roadway system.It is concluded that urban development should coordinate with the transportation system planning and expansion.
Attractive Model and Marketing Implications of Theme Shopping Tourism Destination
LIU Jiaming, WANG Run
2010, 20(6): 562-567. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0422-4
This paper discusses the definition and connotation of Theme Shopping Tourism(TST) destination,and reveals the attractive distance of TST destination based on the utility function derived from the supposed demand function.An attractive model is deduced.According to this attractive model,it is can be known that the attractive distance is related to the price difference of the theme commodities between TST destination and tourist origin place,the average expenditure of transport,the demand elasticity of price,the actual price of sightseeing spot,the critical price that a tourist will afford,the number of nights that a tourist stays on the TST destination and the price level of accommodation in the TST destination.The change mechanism of attractive distance of TST destinations is revealed in this paper,and implications on TST marketing are put forward.First,theme commodities should be luxuries.Second,lower price is the primary pulling factor of theme shopping tourism.Third,the route combining with sightseeing spots is beneficial to shopping tourism.At last,TST development is one way of rejuvenating the falling destinations.
Gentrification and Residential Differentiation in Nanjing,China
SONG Weixuan, WU Qiyan
2010, 20(6): 568-576. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0432-2
The institutional environment in China has quite evidently changed during modern socio-economic transitions.Driven both by local government and by marketing force,urban social space was redistributed after the reform of urban land and real estate policies.Urban renewal makes for wide differential rent and therefore gentrification is occurring in China.This paper analyzes the background and institutional environment of gentrification in China,and further discusses the process,characteristics and evolutionary mechanisms in the case of Nanjing,through investigation of the attributes of 1075 residential communities built during the 1998-2008 at a macro level,and interviewing the residents and analyzing questionnaires in 6 different and typical communities at a micro level.As a socio-spatial course of two-way interaction,gentrification is divided into 3 stages of incubation,occurrence and fast development,according to the time of landmark events and policy reform on the leasehold of land in Nanjing during socio-economic transition.In terms of the socio-spatial characteristics of gentrification in Nanjing,the gentrification process under the trajectory of urban renewal makes urban social space present a new circle-layer structure;the rise of quite a number of gated communities results in the fragmentation of social space and privatization of public space;the management mode of modern communities and the change of life style have aggravated the indifference of neighborhood relationship of gentrified communities.Based on the empirical evidence of this study,this paper indicates that gentrification is quite different between China and western countries with respect to spatio-temporal order,dominant forces,paths of realization and spatial expression,and it further reveals the dynamic mechanism of gentrification developing in China at the present stage.