2010 Vol. 20, No. 5

Display Method:
Approximate Solution for Mechanism of Thermally and Wind-driven Ocean Circulation
MO Jiaqi, LIN Wantao, LIN Yihua
2010, 20(5): 383-388. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0411-7
The thermally and wind-driven ocean circulation is a complicated natural phenomenon in the atmospheric physics. Hence we need to reduce it using basic models and solve the models using approximate methods. A non-linear model of the thermally and wind-driven ocean circulation is used in this paper. The results show that the zero solution of the linear equation is a stable focus point, which is the path curve trend origin point as time (t) trend to infinity. By using the homotopic mapping perturbation method, the exact solution of the model is obtained. The homotopic mapping perturbation method is an analytic solving method, so the obtained solution can be used for analytic operating sequentially. And then we can also obtain the diversified qualitative and quantitative behaviors for corresponding physical quantities.
Chemical Characteristics and Environmental Significance of Fresh Snow Deposition on Urumqi Glacier No.1 of Tianshan Mountains, China
LI Zhongqin, LI Huilin, DONG Zhiwen, ZHANG Mingjun
2010, 20(5): 389-397. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0412-6
Ice and snow chemistry of alpine glaciers is crucial for the research of regional atmospheric environment change. Fresh snow samples were weekly collected from Urumqi Glacier No.1 in the Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China, and the chemical characteristics and seasonal variations of major ions, mineral dust, δ18O and trace metals were measured. Results show that the concentrations of major ions in the snow are Ca2+ > SO42-> NH4+ > NO3-> Cl-> Na+ > Mg2+ > K+, in which Ca2+ is the dominant cation, and SO42- is the dominant anion. All major ions have close positive correlations with each other except NO3-. δ18O shows positive correlation with air temperature change during the study period. Mineral dust particle and major ionic concentrations in fresh snow have obvious seasonal change, with high concentration in spring but low concentration in summer and autumn, which indicates that the chemical mass input from Asian dust activity to snow is very significant. Temporal changes of trace metals in fresh snow, e.g., Cd, Pb, Zn, Al, Fe, have shown that human-induced pollution of central Asian region also has large contribution to the snow chemistry on alpine glaciers of the Tianshan Mountains.
Simulating Mechanism of Interaction Between Ports and Cities Based on System Dynamics: A Case of Dalian, China
LUAN Weixin, CHEN Hang, WANG Yuewei
2010, 20(5): 398-405. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0413-5
Port-city system is a complex and integral system, and it can be simulated by system dynamic method, which is used to be employed to solve nonlinear problems. Based on the causality of the every element in the port-city system, the authors analyzed the feedback relation and logical relation among the system variables and system structure. A system-dynamic flow chart and correlation equations were put forward with VENSIM software, the quantitative relation was described, and the model was debugged. The development trend of the main influence factors in port-city system was simulated. By changing the parameters values of variables in the model, we studied the influence degree of each related factor. It is found that: 1) Foreign trade throughput of port play an important role in the development of export-oriented economy. 2) The development of primary industry and secondary industry affects most of the water transportation demand. With the constant increase of tertiary industry proportion in the industrial structure, the demand of national economy for water transportation decreases gradually. 3) Water transportation presents a kind of oversupply development situation, so port construction should properly slow down. 4) With the development of ports, its direct and indirect contribution to urban economy has been continuously increasing, but contribution rate will be continuously decreasing.
Field Capacity in Black Soil Region, Northeast China
DUAN Xingwu, XIE Yun, LIU Gang, GAO Xiaofei, LU Hongmei
2010, 20(5): 406-413. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0414-4
In this work, 23 black soil profiles were surveyed and 113 soil samples were collected to determine the field capacity (FC) of the black soil in Northeast China. The effectiveness of three methods measuring FC, the Wilcox method (WM), the undisturbed soil pressure plate method (PUM) and the air-dried sieved soil pressure plate method (PDM) were compared to select a suitable laboratory measurement method. Results show that the FC values measured by PDM are greater than those measured by PUM, and the values measured by PUM are greater than those measured by WM. PUM is more suitable for the determination of FC in the study area. One regression equation between PUM and PDM has been established through which undisturbed soil can be replaced by air-dried sieved soil, which is easier to get, to measure FC. FCs vary from 23.50% to 37.00%, with an average of 31.65%, which differ greatly among the 23 black soil profiles. FC is found to be significantly positively correlated with the silt content, clay content and bulk density of the soil, but significantly negatively correlated with the sand content. An empirical pedotransfer function is established to estimate the FC using available soil physical and chemical properties.
Utilization Pattern of Olympic Parks and Its Application in Beijing
HE Yan, CHEN Tian, ZHANG Meng
2010, 20(5): 414-422. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0415-3
With great promotion of mega-events in both quantities and qualities in China, the research of Mega-events has been increased. As a global hallmark event, the Olympics, with their enormous scale, universal attraction for the media and tremendous political significance, have increasingly drawn attention from the researchers. It is obvious that Beijing has been greatly impacted by the 2008 Olympic Games as the host. The event aroused close attention of researchers, especially the problem how the Olympic stadiums and facilities can be utilized after Olympic Games. The paper employed 3 methods to conduct a survey, that is, sending questionnaires to tourists, interviewing with government officers, and collecting information about former Olympic Parks from Internet and literatures. The utilization of former Olympic Parks after Games was summarized and some experiences were refined. Besides, 3 main bodies including government, business operators and visitors which formed basic driving forces to influence the park's use were analyzed. At the same time, the paper believes that 3 topics affect the park's utilization involving ‘prepare to use', ‘how to use it' and ‘how to manage it', and Beijing Olympic Park can also follow that thinking and reference in the further practices. Based on it, suggestions are given that Beijing Olympic Park can be planned spatially from 3 layers, the point, line and area, based on their function and infrastructure in the Games, and the area would be shaped as a new urban center with multi-functions while Mega-events and sport events are still the main content of the park.
A GIS-based Modeling Approach for Fast Assessment of Soil Erosion by Water at Regional Scale, Loess Plateau of China
HU Liangjun, YANG Haijun, YANG Qinke, LI Rui
2010, 20(5): 423-433. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0416-2
The objective of this study is to develop a unique modeling approach for fast assessment of massive soil erosion by water at a regional scale in the Loess Plateau, China. This approach relies on an understanding of both regional patterns of soil loss and its impact factors in the plateau area. Based on the regional characteristics of precipitation, vegetation and land form, and with the use of Landsat TM and ground investigation data, the entire Loess Plateau was first divided into 3 380 Fundamental Assessment Units (FAUs) to adapt to this regional modeling and fast assessment. A set of easily available parameters reflecting relevant water erosion factors at a regional scale was then developed, in which dynamic and static factors were discriminated. ArcInfo GIS was used to integrate all essential data into a central database. A resulting mathematical model was established to link the sediment yields and the selected variables on the basis of FAUs through overlay in GIS and multiple regression analyses. The sensitivity analyses and validation results show that this approach works effectively in assessing large area soil erosion, and also helps to understand the regional associations of erosion and its impact factors, and thus might significantly contribute to planning and policymaking for a large area erosion control in the Loess Plateau.
Ecological Footprint and Major Driving Forces in West Jilin Province, Northeast China
WANG Mingquan, LIU Jingshuang, WANG Jinda, ZHAO Guangying
2010, 20(5): 434-441. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0417-1
The environmental impact caused by local people (ecological footprint of consumption, EFc) and the actual environmental impact that the ecosystem burdens (ecological footprint of production, EFp) in West Jilin Province, Northeast China from 1986 to 2006 were evaluated by using ecological footprint (EF) method. And the major driving forces of EFc and EFp were analyzed by STIRPAT model. Both EFc and EFp showed increasing trends in 1986-2006, accompanied by decreasing ecological deficits but expanding ecological overshoots. Population (P), GDP per capita (A1), quadratic term of GDP per capita (A2), urbanization (Ta1), and quadratic term of urbanization (Ta2) were important influencing factors of EFc, among which Ta2 and Ta1 were the most dominate driving forces of EFc. A1, A2 and Ta2 were important influencing factors of EFp, among which A2 and A1 were the most dominate driving forces of EFp. In 1986-2006, the classical Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis did not exist between A2 and EF (both EFc and EFp), but did between Ta2 and EF. The results indicate that enhancing the urbanization process and diversifying economic sources is one of the most effective ways to reduce the environmental impact of West Jilin Province. Moreover, importance should be attached to improve the eco-efficiency of resource exploitation and consumption.
Regional Difference in Social Capital and Its Impact on Regional Economic Growth in China
PAN Fenghua, HE Canfei
2010, 20(5): 442-449. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0418-0
Social capital has played an increasingly important role in regional development.China is a country with high stocks of social capital.Using several different indicators of social capital,this study tries to research the regional disparities in social capital and the influence of social capital on economic growth of China in 1978-2004.Measuring social capital with indicators of associations,charities and blood donation rates,this study finds significant regional disparities in social capital at provincial level in China.Those indicators for social capital are highly correlated with regional economic performance.Statistical analysis shows that social capital has a significant and positive effect on a long-term provincial economic growth.This relationship exists after controlling policy,macro location factors,and per capita GDP in the initial year.The empirical findings indicate that institutions,culture and social relations are critical for regional development in China.Therefore,the creation and support of social capital should be paid more attention to when making regional policy.
Social Construction Functions of Consumption Space under Stratification:The Case of Guangzhou
LIN Geng, WANG Lianjun, ZHANG Xiaoying
2010, 20(5): 450-460. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0419-z
As Chinese cities rapidly transformed themselves into consumerist societies,the relationship between consumers and consumption space under stratification has become a new research area in the field of urban social geography.Based on a consumer behavior analysis,this study explores the relationship between consumption space and the social strata of consumers in typical shopping malls in Guangzhou where the first shopping mall in China was built.The result shows that shopping malls have performed significant constructive functions of organizing consumers from different social classes into different consumption space.For middle-and upper-class consumers,the function of shopping malls centers on utilitarian consumption,identity recognition,and identity construction;whereas for lower-class consumers,its function revolves around pleasure and enjoyment.The symbolism of consumption space is the underlying reason for shopping malls to have their social constructive function.The findings of this research suggest that:1) a shopping mall is a productive consumption space and a geographical space with subjectivity;2) the micro-location of a shopping mall has social construction function;and 3) symbolic consumption is the core of social construction.
Gold Resources Potential Assessment in Eastern Kunlun Mountains of China Combining Weights-of-evidence Model with GIS Spatial Analysis Technique
HE Binbin, CHEN Cuihua, LIU Yue
2010, 20(5): 461-470. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0420-6
Resources potential assessment is one of the fields in geosciences,which is able to take great advantage of GIS technology as a substitution of traditional working methods.The gold resources potential in the eastern Kunlun Mountains,Qinghai Province,China was assessed by combining weights-of-evidence model with GIS spatial analysis technique.All the data sets used in this paper were derived from an established multi-source geological spatial database,which contains geological,geophysical,geochemical and remote sensing data.Three multi-class variables,i.e.,structural intersection,Indosinian k-feldspar granite and regional fault,were used in proximity analysis to examine their spatial association with known gold deposits.A prospectivity map was produced by weights-of-evidence model based on seven binary evidential maps,all of which had passed a conditional independence test.The study area was divided into three target zones of high potential,moderate potential and low potential areas,among which high potential areas and moderate potential areas accounted for 20% of the total area and contained 32 of the 43 gold deposits.The results show that the gold resources potential assessment in the eastern Kunlun Mountains has a higher precision.
Identification and Comparison of Aircraft Industry Clusters in China and United States
CHU Bo, ZHANG Hua, JIN Fengjun
2010, 20(5): 471-480. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0421-5
Aircraft industry is very important to the economy and security of a country,and aircraft industry clusters have already existed in the world.Based on Input-Output data and Czamanski's method,the aircraft industry clusters in China and USA were identified quantitatively in this paper.Furthermore,this article carried out comparison analyses of the identification results.The research finds out:1) a mature aircraft industry cluster would be generally composed of 7 industrial subgroups,including aircraft industry,metal making and products manufacturing industry,machinery and equipment industry,electronics industry,automobile industry,material industry and others,and electronics industrial subgroup will play a more and more important role in the cluster;2) in the range of industry-covering,the level of industry-linkage,and the economic performance,there is a tremendously large gap between the aircraft industry cluster of China and that of USA;3) the spatial evolution of these clusters or centers is highly consistent with the diffusion of a country's industrialization.Finally,based on those findings,the paper gives some advice on how to improve Czamanski's method and what China should do to develop its own competitive aircraft industry:1) China should employ institutional innovation,and turn to be market-oriented;2) China should abandon the traditional pattern of closed-development,and strengthen the interaction and collaboration between aircraft industry and related industries,especially the electronics industry;3) China should rectify and perfect its spatial development planning of aircraft industry.