2010 Vol. 20, No. 2

Display Method:
Release of Mercury from Intertidal Sediment to Atmosphere in Summer and Winter
LIU Ruhai, WANG Yan, SHAN Changqing, Ling Min, SHAN Hongxian
2010, 20(2): 99-105. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0099-8
The release of mercury from intertidal sediment to atmosphere was studied based on the simulated experiment. The experiment samples were collected from the Haibo Estuary (S1) and the Licun Estuary (S2) of the Jiaozhou Bay in China,which are seriously polluted with mercury. The results show that the mercury in sediment releases rapidly to atmosphere under solar radiation. After 8 hours of solar radiation,mercury concentrations decrease from 5.62 μg/g and 2.92 μg/g to 2.34 μg/g and 1.39 μg/g in S1 and S2 sediments respectively in summer,and decrease from 5.62 μg/g and 2.92 μg/g to 4.58 μg/g and 2.13 μg/g respectively in winter. The mercury species in the sediment change markedly under solar radiation. The concentrations of mercury bound to organic matter decrease significantly from 2.73 μg/g to 0.31 μg/g in S1 and from 2.07 μg/g to 0.31 μg/g in S2,and the released mercury mainly comes from mercury bound to organic matter. Mercury flux shows distinguishing characteristic of diurnal change,and it increases rapidly in the morning with the rising of solar radiation intensity,but decreases in the afternoon. The mercury flux increases with sediment temperature and solar radiation intensity. The rapid release of mercury in intertidal sediment plays an important role in the regional mercury cycle.
Vertical Distribution of Soil Nematode Communities under Different Tillage Systems in Lower Reaches of Liaohe River
HOU Xuekun, HU Ning, ZHANG Xiaoke, LIANG Lei, ZHAI Ruichang
2010, 20(2): 106-110. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0106-0
Vertical distribution of soil nematode communities under conventional tillage (CT),no-tillage (NT) and fallow field (FF) treatments in the Lower Reaches of the Liaohe River was investigated at six soil depths (0-5 cm,5-15 cm,15-30 cm,30-50 cm,50-75 cm and 75-100 cm). The results show that total nematode abundance gradually decreases with depth,and the highest number of total nematodes is observed at 0-5 cm depth under NT and FF treatments. The number of fungivores and plant parasites is significantly higher under FF and NT treatments than under CT treatment at the 0-5 cm depth. There is significant soil depth effect on the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators,which exhibits a similar trend to that of total nematodes; whereas,no significant tillage effect is found. Tillage effect on soil nematode communities can be reflected by values of relative tillage response of index V. Results of index V indicate that total nematodes,bacterivores,fungivores and plant parasites are mildly inhibited,and omnivores-predators is moderately inhibited under CT treatment; while,under FF treatment total nematodes is mildly,and fungivores and plant parasites are moderately stimulated,respectively.
Simulation of Morphological Development of Soil Cracks in Yuanmou Dry-hot Valley Region, Southwest China
XIONG Donghong, YAN Dongchun, LONG Yi, LU Xiaoning, HAN Jianning, HAN Xueqin, SHI Liangtao
2010, 20(2): 112-122. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0112-2
Soil cracking is an important process influencing water and solutes transport in the Yuanmou Dry-hot Valley region of Southwest China. Studying the morphological development of soil cracks helps to further reveal the close relationship between the soil cracking process and water movement in such semi-arid regions. Here we report regular changes on surface morphology of soil cracks with decreasing water in four different soils (Typ-Ustic Ferrisols,Ver-Ustic Ferrisols,Tru-Ustic Vertisols and Typ-Ustic Vertisols) through simulation experiments. Our results indicate the following: 1) Different soils ultimately have different development degrees of soil cracks,according to their various values of crack area density. Soil cracks in Typ-Ustic Ferrisols can only develop to the feeble degree,while those in the other three soils are capable of developing into the intensive degree,and even into the extremely intensive degree. 2) Soil crack complexity,as expressed by the value of the area-weighted mean of crack fractal dimension (AWMFRAC),is found to continuously decrease as a whole through the whole cracking process in all the studied soils. 3) Soil crack connectivity shows a uniform trend in the studied soils,that is to say,connectivity gradually increases with soil crack development.
Improvement of Mono-window Algorithm for Retrieving Land Surface Temperature from HJ-1B Satellite Data
ZHOU Ji, ZHAN Wenfeng, HU Deyong, ZHAO Xiang
2010, 20(2): 123-131. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0123-z
The thermal infrared channel (IRS4) of HJ-1B satellite obtains view zenith angles (VZA) up to ±33°. The view angle should be taken into account when retrieving land surface temperature (LST) from IRS4 data. This study aims at improving the mono-window algorithm for retrieving LST from IRS4 data. Based on atmospheric radiative transfer simulations,a model for correcting the VZA effects on atmospheric transmittance is proposed. In addition,a generalized model for calculating the effective mean atmospheric temperature is developed. Validation with the simulated dataset based on standard atmospheric profiles reveals that the improved mono-window algorithm for IRS4 obtains high accuracy for LST retrieval,with the mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) being 1.0 K and 1.1 K,respectively. Numerical experiment with the radiosonde profile acquired in Beijing in winter demonstrates that the improved mono-window algorithm exhibits excellent ability for LST retrieval,with MAE and RMSE being 0.6 K and 0.6 K,respectively. Further application in Qinghai Lake and comparison with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST product suggest that the improved mono-window algorithm is applicable and feasible in actual conditions.
Spatiotemporal Evolution of Urban Land Uses in Modern Urbanization of China
ZHANG Shumin, ZHANG Baolei, ZHANG Lei, LU Chunxia, CHENG Xiaoling
2010, 20(2): 132-138. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0132-y
Taking social statistic data as basic data,this paper extended the meaning of urban land uses,highlighted the meaning of urban land uses in modern urbanization,which includes direct,indirect and induced land uses,quantitatively simulated the indirect and induced land uses by the substitution method of agricultural consumption and urban carbon emission and then,analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution of urban land uses in China during 1952-2005 by spatial analysis tool of Geographic Information System. The results indicate that the area of urban land use in China had been increasing since 1952,showing an inversed pyramid structure,i.e.,the direct
Changes of Soil Labile Organic Carbon in Different Land Uses in Sanjiang Plain, Heilongjiang Province
ZHANG Guilan
2010, 20(2): 139-143. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0139-4
In the Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China,the natural wetland is undergoing a rapid conversion into agricultural land,which has resulted in drastic ecological changes in the region. To investigate the effects of different land uses on soil labile organic carbon,soils of Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland,Carex lasiocarpa wetland,dry farmland,paddy field,forest land and abandoned cultivated land were collected for measuring the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC),dissolved organic carbon (DOC),readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) and carbohydrate carbon (CHC). The results show that soil organic carbon contents follow the order: Carex lasiocarpa wetland>Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland>forest land>paddy field>dry farmland. The contents of MBC and DOC in Calamagrostis angustifolia and Carex lasiocarpa wetlands are significantly higher than those in other land use types. The contents of CHC and ROC are the highest in Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland and the lowest in dry farmland. The contents of all the labile organic carbon increase along with the years of abandonment of cultivated land. The ratios of MBC,DOC and ROC to SOC also follow the order:Carex lasiocarpa wetland>Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland>forest land>paddy field>dry farmland,while the ratio of CHC to SOC is paddy field>forest field>Carex lasiocarpa wetland>Carex lasiocarpa wetland>dry farmland. When natural wetlands were cultivated,the activity of soil organic carbon tends to reduce in some extent due to the disappearance of heterotrophic environment and the reduction of vegetation residue. Thus,the abandonment of cultivated land is an effective way for restoring soil organic carbon.
A New Carbon and Oxygen Balance Model Based on Ecological Service of Urban Vegetation
YIN Kai, ZHAO Qianjun, LI Xuanqi, CUI Shenghui, HUA Lizhong, LIN Tao
2010, 20(2): 144-151. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0144-7
The application of human induced oxygen consumption and carbon emission theory in urban region was summed up and on this base a new model of urban carbon and oxygen balance (UCOB) was constructed by calculating the carbon and oxygen fluxes. The purpose was to highlight the role of vegetation in urban ecosystems and evaluate the effects of various human activities on urban annual oxygen consumption and carbon emission. Hopefully,the model would be helpful in theory to keep the regional balance of carbon and oxygen,and provide guidance and support for urban vegetation planning in the future. To test the UCOB model,the Jimei District of Xiamen City,Fujian Province,China,a very typical urban region,was selected as a case study. The results turn out that Jimei′s vegetation service in oxygen emission and carbon sequestration could not meet the demand of the urban population,and more than 31.49 times of vegetation area should be added to meet the whole oxygen consumption in Jimei while 9.60 times of vegetation area are needed to meet the carbon sequestration targets. The results show that the new UCOB model is of a great potential to be applied to quantitative planning of urban vegetation and regional eco-compensation mechanisms.
Responses of River Runoff to Climate Change Based on Nonlinear Mixed Regression Model in Chaohe River Basin of Hebei Province, China
JIANG Yan, LIU Changming, ZHENG Hongxing, LI Xuyong, WU Xianing
2010, 20(2): 152-158. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0152-7
Taking the nonlinear nature of runoff system into account,and combining auto-regression method and multi-regression method,a Nonlinear Mixed Regression Model (NMR) was established to analyze the impact of temperature and precipitation changes on annual river runoff process. The model was calibrated and verified by using BP neural network with observed meteorological and runoff data from Daiying Hydrological Station in the Chaohe River of Hebei Province in 1956-2000. Compared with auto-regression model,linear multi-regression model and linear mixed regression model,NMR can improve forecasting precision remarkably. Therefore,the simulation of climate change scenarios was carried out by NMR. The results show that the nonlinear mixed regression model can simulate annual river runoff well.
Dynamics of Saline-alkali Land and Its Ecological Regionalization in Western Songnen Plain, China
YANG Jiuchun, ZHANG Shuwen, LI Ying, BU Kun, ZHANG Yubo, CHANG Liping, ZHANG Yangzhen
2010, 20(2): 159-166. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0159-0
As the important reserve land resources for food production,saline-alkali land should play a significant role to ensure the national food security in the context of global food crisis. The western Songnen Plain is one of main distribution regions of saline-alkali land in China,with great potential in agricultural development. In this study,the extent,transformation,spatial distribution and temporal change of saline-alkali land in the western Songnen Plain during 1954-2005 were investigated by using remote sensing and GIS spatial analysis methods. Saline-alkali land change was detected from a temporal series of topographic maps in 1954,satellite images of Landsat MSS in 1976,Landsat TM/ETM in 1988,2000 and 2005 through artificial visual interpretation. The results indicated a significant expansion in saline-alkali land area and aggravation in salinization. The area of saline-alkali land had increased from 401.48×103 ha in 1954 to 1 097.45×103 ha in 2005. While the ratio of light,moderate and serious salinized land areas changed from 6.72:2.92:1.00 to 1.25:1.06:1.00 in the study period. Grassland,cropland,swampland and water body were the major land use and land cover types from which saline-alkali land transformed. And the secondary salinization occured mainly in Da'an City,Tongyu County,Changling County,Daqing City,Dorbod Mongolian Autonomous County and Zhaoyuan County. Finally,seven large ecoregions and 14 corresponding sub-ecoregions were delineated out based on spatio-temopral dynamic characteristics of saline-alkali land and geo-relational environmental attributes. According to the results,measures of amelioration and ways of development of saline-alkali land in the western Songnen Plain were put forward.
Vegetation Change of Ecotone in West of Northeast China Plain Using Time-series Remote Sensing Data
2010, 20(2): 167-175. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0167-0
Multi-temporal series of satellite SPOT-VEGETATION normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference water index (NDWI) data from 1998 to 2007 were used for analyzing vegetation change of the ecotone in the west of the Northeast China Plain. The yearly and monthly maximal values,anomalies and change rates of NDVI and NDWI were calculated to reveal the interannual and seasonal changes in vegetation cover and vegetation water content. Linear regression method was adopted to characterize the trends in vegetation change. The yearly maximal NDVI decreased from 0.41 in 1998 to 0.37 in 2007,implying the decreasing trend of vegetation activity. There was a significant decrease of maximal NDVI in spring and summer over the study period,while an increase trend was observed in autumn. The vegetation-improved regions and vegetation-degraded regions occupied 17.03% and 20.30% of the study area,respectively. The maximal NDWI over growing season dropped by 0.027 in 1998-2007,and about 15.15% of the study area showed a decreasing trend of water content. Vegetation water stress in autumn was better than that in spring. Vegetation cover and water content variations were sensitive to annual precipitation,autumn precipitation and summer temperature. The vegetation degradation trend in this ecotone might be induced by the warm-drying climate especially continuous spring and summer drought in the recent ten years.
Land Use Allocation Based on Interval Multi-objective Linear Programming Model: A Case Study of Pi County in Sichuan Province
WANG Hongrui, GAO Yuanyuan, LIU Qiong, SONG Jinxi
2010, 20(2): 176-183. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0176-z
Adjusting and optimizing land use structure is one of the essential approaches to solve the conflict between land supply and demand. In this study,an uncertain interval multi-objective linear programming model was established and applied to analyzing the suitability of land use structure in Pi County of Sichuan Province. An adjustment scheme for optimizing land use structure was proposed on the basis of development planning drawn up by the local government. The results are summarized as follows: 1) the optimal adjustment scope for cropland area ranges from 27 976.75 ha to 31 029.08 ha,and the current area is less than the lower limit of the scope; 2) the optimal adjustment scope for garden land area ranges from 4 736.49 ha to 12 967.11 ha,and the current area is less than the lower limit; 3) the optimal adjustment scope for construction land ranges from 7 761.95 ha to 10 393.18 ha,and the current area is greater than the upper limit; 4) the optimal adjustment scope for industry and mining land ranges from 557.29 ha to 693.54 ha,and the current area exceeds the upper limit; and 5) the areas of forest land,grassland and other agricultural land are within the optimal adjustment scope. In order to maximize comprehensive benefit with the limited resources and the demand of sustainable development,the areas of cropland and garden land are supposed to be expanded properly,while the construction land should be controlled and reduced gradually,and the forest land and other agricultural land can be maintained at the current level in short period.
Economic Transformation Capacities and Developmental Countermeasures of Coal-resource-based Counties of China
WANG Shijun, JIANG Lili
2010, 20(2): 184-192. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0184-z
In China,the economic systems of many small-scale resource-based regions are confronted with realizing sustainable development through economic transformation. This paper,taking 37 coal-resource-based counties in China as objects,evaluates the economic transformation capacities of the counties by principal component analysis (PCA). Based on the comprehensive principal component values of >1,0-1 and <0,the economic transformation capacities of the counties are classified into strong,common and weak grades. Then,the paper proposes the developmental countermeasures according to different transformation capacities. For the counties with strong transformation capacities,it is crucial to make scientific positioning and rationally exploite resources in view of the developing characteristics and modes of those counties; as for the counties with common transformation capacities,the preparation and perfection of basic transformation conditions are still important aspects; as for the counties with weak transformation capacities,shifting from "passive transfromation" to "active transformation" in light of resources conditions is necessary.