2009 Vol. 19, No. 3

Display Method:
Objective and Framework for Territorial Development in China
LU Dadao
2009, 19(3): 195-202. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0195-9
This paper analyzes the present situation of China's territorial development and holds that the spatial framework for socio-economic development can not be naturally extended under the present conditions. Hence it is necessary to strengthen rationally spatial agglomeration. The basic concept and framework for future territorial devel-opment are raised based on the elaboration of factors affecting the territorial development of China.
Cassini Growth of Population Between Two Metropolitan Cities——A Case Study of Beijing-Tianjin Region, China
ZONG Yueguang, YANG Wei, MA Qiang, XUE Song
2009, 19(3): 203-210. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0203-0
The existing models of population distribution often focus on the region with a single city or even multiple centers,and lack the detailed explorations of the common and special type of urbanization areas with two centers Taking Beijing-Tia njin region of China,which is a distinct dual-nuclei metropolitan area in the world,as an example and choosing Landsat-5 TM image in 2005,population,etc.as the data,this paper devotes to comprehending and illustrating a model of Cassini growth of population between the two metropolitan cities through the research of spatial population distribution pattern,aided with RS and GIS techniques.Main technical processes include Kriging interpolation of the population data and character simulation of the Cassini ovals.According to the calculation of a/b,a key characteristic index ofCassini growth model,the spatial structures ofpopulation distribution were given.When a/b<1, it is a curve with two separated loops with a population density more than 3000 persons/km2.When a/b=1,it is a lem-niscate curve with a population density about 3000 persons/km2.When 12.When a/b=√2,it is an oblate curve with a population density about 500 persons/km2.Whena/b>√2,there is an oval-shaped convex curve with a population density less than 500 persons/km2. The results show that owing to the combined action and influence of the regional dual-nuclei,the population distribution of Beijing-Tianjin region is in accord with Cassini model significantly.Therefore,there is Cassini growth of population between the two metropolitan cities in Beijing-Tianjin region.In addition, the process of Cassini growth has extraordinarily instructive significance for judging the development stages of the dual-nuclei metropolitan areas.
Economic Vulnerability of Mining City——A Case Study of Fuxin City, Liaoning Province, China
LI He, ZHANG Pingyu, CHENG Yeqing
2009, 19(3): 211-218. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0211-0
The economic system of mining city is of typical vulnerability characteristics that can be manifested by its high economic sensitivity and lack of response capacity to the gradual depletion of regional mineral resources. Taking Fuxin City of Liaoning Province as a case, this paper established an economic vulnerability assessment method integrating BP neural network with vulnerability index, then carried out an economic vulnerability assessment of Fuxin during 1989-2006. The results indicate that: 1) Affected by the gradual depletion of regional mineral resources, the economic development of Fuxin had kept high economic sensitivity from 1995 to 2001, and the response capacity to cope with and adapt to the impacts of the perturbation of mineral resources was weak and relatively lag. The evolution of economic vulnerability can be divided into three stages: in 1989-1994, the economic vulnerability of Fuxin City decreased slowly;in 1995-2001, the beginning stage of economic transformation, the economic vulnerability of Fuxin City went up rapidly;in 2002-2006, the economic vulnerability of Fuxin City descended and showed a trend to be stable. 2) The influence of economic sensitivity on Fuxin's economic vulnerability is more evident than that of response capacity. 3) The decreasing supply of mineral resources and the simple industrial structure are main factors leading to the economic sensitivity of Fuxin. 4) The improvement of economic response capacity of Fuxin has typical characteristics of input-driven growth, and external assistance is of great importance to the rapid improvement of economic response capacity of Fuxin. And 5) the change from the simple industrial structure to diversified one of Fuxin is still unaccomplished, and the contribution of non-coal-based industry to local economic development is relatively limited.
Urban Fresh Water Resources Consumption of China
ZHU Peng, LU Chunxia, ZHANG Lei, CHENG Xiaoling
2009, 19(3): 219-224. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0219-5
From the point of view of urban consumption behavior, urban fresh water consumption could be classified as three types, namely, direct, indirect and induced water consumption. A calculation approach of urban fresh water consumption was presented based on the theory of urban basic material consumption and the input-output method, which was utilized to calculate urban fresh water consumption of China, and to analyze its structural change and causes. The results show that the total urban fresh water consumption increased 561.7×109m3, and the proportion to the total national fresh water resources increased by 20 percentage points from 1952 to 2005. The proportion of direct and induced water consumption had been continuously rising, and it increased by 15 and 35 percentage points separately from 1952 to 2005, while the proportion of indirect water consumption decreased by 50 percentage points. Urban indirect water consumption was mainly related to urban grain, beef and mutton consumption, and urban induced water consumption had a close relationship with the amount of carbon emission per capita. Finally, some countermeasures were put forward to realize sustainable utilization of urban fresh water resources in China.
Land Use Changes in Northeast China Driven by Human Activities and Climatic Variation
WANG Zongming, LIU Zhiming, SONG Kaishan, ZHANG Bai, ZHANG Sumei, LIU Dianwei, REN Chunying, YANG Fei
2009, 19(3): 225-230. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0225-7
Human-induced land use/cover change (LUCC) forms an important component of global environmental change. Therefore, it is important to study land use/cover and its change at local, regional and global scales. In this paper we conducted the study of land use change in Northeast China, one of the most important agricultural zones of the nation. From 1986 to 2000, according to the study results obtained from Landsat images, widespread changes in land use/cover took place in the study area. Grassland, marsh, water body and woodland decreased by 9864, 3973, 1367 and 10,052km2, respectively. By comparison, paddy field, dry farmland, and built-up land expanded by 7339, 17193 and 700km2, respectively. Those changes bore an interactive relationship with the environment, especially climate change. On the one hand, climate warming created a potential environment for grassland and marsh to be changed to farmland as more crops could thrive in the warmer climate, and for dry farmland to paddy field. On the other hand, the changed surface cover modified the local climate. Those changes, in turn, have adversely influenced the local environment by accelerating land degradation. In terms of socio-economic driving forces, population augment, regional economic development, and national and provincial policies were confirmed as main driving factors for land use change.
Livelihood Strategy Change and Land Use Change——Case of Danzam Village in Upper Dadu River Watershed, Tibetan Plateau of China
YAN Jianzhong, ZHANG Yili, ZHANG Liping, WU Yingying
2009, 19(3): 231-240. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0231-9
Land use change in rural China since the 1980s, induced by institution reforms, urbanization, industrialization and population increase, has received more attention. However, case studies on how institution reforms affect farmers' livelihood strategies and drive land use change are scarce. By means of cropland plots investigations and interviews with farmers, this study examines livelihood strategy change and land use change in Danzam Village of Jinchuan County in the upper Dadu River watershed, eastern Tibetan Plateau, China. The results show that, during the collective system period, as surplus labor forces could not be transferred to the secondary and tertiary industries, they had to choose agricultural involution as their livelihood strategy, then the farmers had to produce more grains by land reclamation, increasing multiple cropping index, improving input of labor, fertilizer, pesticide and adopting advanced agricultural techniques. During the household responsibility system period, as labors being transferred to the secondary and tertiary industries, farmers chose livelihood diversification strategy. Therefore, labor input to grain planting was greatly reduced, which drove the transformation of grain to horticulture, vegetable or wasteland and decrease of multiple cropping index. This study provides a new insight into understanding linkages among institution reforms, livelihood strategy of
Effects of Land Management Practices on Labile Organic Carbon Fractions in Rice Cultivation
SHAO Jing'an, LI Yangbing, WEI Chaofu, XIE Deti
2009, 19(3): 241-248. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0241-7
A research trial with four land management practices, i.e., traditional tillage-fallow (TTF), traditional tillage-wheat (TTW), conservation tillage-fallow (CTF) and conservation tillage-wheat (CTW), was sampled in the 15th year after its establishment to assess the effects of different management practices on labile organic carbon fractions (LOCFs), such as easily oxidizable organic carbon (EOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in a typical paddy soil, Chongqing, Southwest China. The results indicated that LOCFs were significantly influenced by the combination of no-tillage, ridge culture and crop rotation. And, different combination patterns showed different effectiveness on soil LOCFs. The effects of no-tillage, ridge culture and wheat cultivation on EOC, DOC, POC and MBC mainly happened at 0-10cm. At this depth, soil under CTW had higher EOC, DOC, POC and MBC contents, compared to TTF, TTW and CTF, respectively. Moreover, the contents of LOCFs for different practices generally decreased when the soil depth increased. Our findings suggest that the paddy soil in Southwest China could be managed to concentrate greater quantities of EOC, DOC, POC and MBC.
Dynamic Evolvement of Agricultural System and Typical Patterns of Modern Agriculture in Coastal China: A Case of Suzhou
ZHAI Rongxin, LIU Yansui
2009, 19(3): 249-257. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0249-z
Based on dynamic theory of system, agriculture is a complex system composed by element, structure, function and development. Firstly, this paper analyzes their connotation and relationship, which could be simply described that in virtue of element integrating and structure optimizing, agricultural system may achieve multifunctionality to meet increasingly diverse demands. As a case study of Suzhou, it concludes that Suzhou has a LP-dependence on agricultural element, and the growth extent of agricultural productivity correlates to the ratio of agricultural labor reduc-ing rate to farmland reducing rate. Agricultural structure of Suzhou changed with time, and in the early 1980s and 2000s it was most notable. Correspondingly, agricultural function has experienced a succession process: 'production', 'production-living', and 'production-living-ecology'. At last, based on questionnaires and interviews, some new characteristics and problems of agricultural development in coastal developed region of China have been put forward. Meanwhile, some typical patterns of modern agriculture in Suzhou which adapt to system evolving are also brought up such as export-oriented agriculture, enterprises-leading agriculture, agricultural science and technology parks, characteristic and stereoscopic agriculture, tourism and sightseeing agriculture.
Impacts of Soil Fauna on Litter Decomposition at Different Succession Stages of Wetland in Sanjiang Plain, China
WU Haitao, LU Xianguo, JIANG Ming, BAO Xiao
2009, 19(3): 258-264. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0258-y
Litter decomposition is the key process in nutrient recycling and energy flow. The present study examined the impacts of soil fauna on decomposition rates and nutrient fluxes at three succession stages of wetland in the Sanjiang Plain, China using different mesh litterbags. The results show that in each succession stage of wetland, soil fauna can obviously increase litter decomposition rates. The average contribution of whole soil fauna to litter mass loss was 35.35%. The more complex the soil fauna group, the more significant the role of soil fauna. The average loss of three types of litter in the 4mm mesh litterbags was 0.3-4.1 times that in 0.058mm ones. The decomposition function of soil fauna to litter mass changed with the wetland succession. The average contribution of soil fauna to litter loss firstly decreased from 34.96% (Carex lasiocapa) to 32.94% (Carex meyeriana), then increased to 38.16% (Calamagrostics an-gustifolia). The contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition rates vary according to the litter substrata, soil fauna communities and seasons. Significant effects were respectively found in August and July on C. angustifolia and C. lasiocapa, while in June and August on C. meyeriana. Total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) contents and the C/N and C/P ratios of decaying litter can be influenced by soil fauna. At different wetland succession stages, the effects of soil fauna on nutrient elements also differ greatly, which shows the significant difference of influencing element types and degrees. Soil fauna communities strongly influenced the TC and TP concentrations of C. meyeriana litter, and TP content of C. lasiocapa. Our results indicate that soil fauna have important effects on litter decomposition and this influence will vary with the wetland succession and seasonal variation.
Evaluation on Tourism Ecological Security in Nature Heritage Sites——Case of Kanas Nature Reserve of Xinjiang, China
LIU Xuling, YANG Zhaoping, DI Feng, CHEN Xuegang
2009, 19(3): 265-273. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0265-z
The nature heritages are the precious legacy of nature with outstanding scientific and aesthetic value. They are quite different from other common ecotourism areas, because of its original and unique system, sensitive and vulnerable landscape, and peripheral cultural features. Therefore, the tourism development in the nature heritage sites should be on the premise of ecological security. The evaluation index system of tourism ecological security in nature heritage sites was constructed in this article by AHP and Delphi methods, including nature ecological security, landscape visual security and local culture ecological security, and the security thresholds of indices were also established. In the indices' weights of the evaluation model, the nature ecological security ranked the highest, followed by tourist landscape visual security and culture ecological security, which reflected the influence degree of the limited factor to tourism ecological security. Then, this paper carried out an empirical study of Kanas of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, which has the potential to be the World Nature Heritage. On the basis of the data attained from survey and observation on the spot, as well as questionnaire answered by tourists and local communities, the ecological security status in Kanas was evaluated. The result showed that the status of Kanas tourism ecological security was better, but there had some limiting factors. Lastly, effective measures were put forward to ensure its ecological security.
A New High-resolution Late Glacial-Holocene Climatic Record from Eastern Nanling Mountains in South China
XUE Jibin, ZHONG Wei, ZHENG Yanming, MA Qiaohong, CAI Ying, OUYANG Jun
2009, 19(3): 274-282. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0274-y
A 350-cm-long sediment core sequence from Dahu Swamp situated in the eastern Nanling Mountains was selected for high-resolution paleoclimatic reconstruction since the Late Glacial period. The multi-proxy records of this paper reveal several evidently dry and cold events that may coincide with the Oldest Dryas, the Older Dryas, the Younger Dryas in the late deglacial period. Two relatively wetter and warmer phases occurred in ca. 15,000-14,400 cal yr B.P. and 13,500-12,800 cal yr B.P. respectively may correspond to the Blling and Allerd warming events. The Younger Dryas event (ca. 12,800-11,500 cal yr B.P.) revealed by multi-proxies was characterized by relatively colder and drier climate. A warmer and wetter climate, occurred in ca. 10,000-6000 cal yr B.P., was consistent with the Holocene Optimum, which coincided with the maximum Northern Hemisphere insolation. The "8.2kyr cool event" and even the "8.8kyr cool event" were indicated as well from our sediment core. A dry mid-Holocene period (ca. 6000-3000 cal yr B.P.) indicated by multi-proxies does not follow the traditional concept of the wet mid-Holocene conditions observed in other regions in China.
Improvement of Urban Impervious Surface Estimation in Shanghai Using Landsat7 ETM+ Data
YUE Wenze
2009, 19(3): 283-290. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0283-x
This paper explores the potential to improve the impervious surface estimation accuracy using a multi-stage approach on the basis of vegetation-impervious surface-soil (V-I-S) model. In the first stage of Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) process, pixel purity index, a quantitative index for defining endmember quality, and a 3-dimensional endmember selection method were applied to refining endmembers. In the second stage, instead of obtaining impervious surface fraction by adding high and low albedo fractions directly, a linear regression model was built between impervious surface and high/low albedo using a random sampling method. The urban impervious surface distribution in the urban central area of Shanghai was predicted by the linear regression model. Estimation accuracy of spectral mixture analysis and impervious surface fraction were assessed using root mean square (RMS) and color aerial photography respectively. In comparison with three different research methods, this improved estimation method has a higher overall accuracy than traditional Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA) method and the normalized SMA model both in root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SE). However, the model has a tendency to overestimate the impervious surface distribution.