2009 Vol. 19, No. 2

Display Method:
China’s Potential of Grain Production Due to Changes in Agricultural Land Utilization in Recent Years
XIN Liangjie, LI Xiubin, ZHU Huiyi, TAN Minghong
2009, 19(2): 97-103. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0135-8
The changes in utilization of agricultural land have gradually grown into one of the major factors impacting grain output in China. This study explores the various components of agricultural production in China from the land utilization perspective, involving changes in grain production per unit area, multi-cropping index, and adjustment of agricultural structure. Compared with the record values, different research methodologies are used to analyze the potential of above three components. The results indicate that grain production potential of 65.68×109kg was unexploited in 2006, in which 45.8×109kg came from the restructuring in agriculture. So we can infer that the reduction of grain production in China could be primarily attributed to agricultural restructuring in recent years. So the productive potential can be fully restored by increasing agricultural investment, or recovering agricultural structure in favorable conditions. So we can say that China's current condition of food security is good.
Decomposition Analysis on Direct Material Input and Dematerialization of Mining Cities in Northeast China
QIU Fangdao, TONG Lianjun, ZHANG Huimin, ZHANG Na
2009, 19(2): 104-112. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0104-2
Material dematerialization is a basic approach to reduce the pressure on the resources and environment and to realize the sustainable development. The material flow analysis and decomposition method are used to calculate the direct material input (DMI) of 14 typical mining cities in Northeast China in 1995-2004 and to analyze the dematerialization and its driving factors in the different types of mining cities oriented by coal, petroleum, metallurgy and multi-resources. The results are as follows: 1) from 1995 to 2006, the increase rates of the DMI and the material input intensity of mining cities declined following the order of multi-resources, metallurgy, coal, and petroleum cities, and the material utilizing efficiency did following the order of petroleum, coal, metallurgy, and multi-resources cities; 2) during the research period, all the kinds of mining cities were in the situation of weak sustainable development in most years; 3) the pressure on resources and environment in the multi-resources cities was the most serious; 4) the petroleum cities showed the strong trend of sustainable development; and 5) in recent years, the driving function of economic development for material consuming has continuously strengthened and the controlling function of material utilizing efficiency for it has weakened. The key approaches to promote the development of circular economy of mining cities in Northeast China are put forward in the following aspects: 1) to strengthen the research and development of the technique of resources' cycling utilization, 2) to improve the utilizing efficiency of resources, and 3) to carry out the auditing system of resources utilization.
Grain-size Characteristics of Sediments Formed Since 8600 yr B.P. in Middle Reaches of Yarlung Zangbo River in Tibet and Their Paleoenvironmental Significance
ZHENG Yinghua, WU Yongqiu, LI Sen, TAN Lihua, GOU Shiwei, ZHANG Hongyan
2009, 19(2): 113-119. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0113-1
Widespread aeolian sediments have been found in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River, China. The grain-size characteristics of sediments from Cha'er Section in the area were analyzed. The results show that the section include one stratum of paleo-mobile dunes, four strata of paleo-semi-fixed dunes, two strata of paleo-fixed dunes, one stratum of sandy immature soils. The paleo-mobile and paleo-semi-fixed dune sand in this section are similar to modern aeolian sand in either grain-size composition or Mz and σ distribution. Compared the above types of dunes each other, the content of sand substance decreases, while the content of silt and clay increases for paleo-fixed dunes and sandy immature soils. Combined with age data for each stratum, the analysis shows that these strata are the products of climate changes and the evolution of aeolian landforms. The evolutionary sequence of the paleoclimate and of aeolian activities in the valley since 8600 yr B.P. reveals four stages: 8600-5700 yr B.P., when the paleoclimate was cold and dry, with strong winds, thereby activating dunes; 5700-3600 yr B.P., when it was warm and wet, with weak winds, causing dunes to undergo soil-forming processes; 3600-1900 yr B.P., when climate shifted from cold-dry with strong winds to warm-wet with weak winds, and activated dunes were fixed again; and 1900 yr B.P. -present, when the climate became fine, with weak winds, fixing dunes again.
An Improved Method for Modeling Spatial Distribution of δD in Surface Snow over Antarctic Ice Sheet
WANG Yetang, HOU Shugui, Bjorn GRIGHOLM, SONG Linlin
2009, 19(2): 120-125. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0120-2
Using the recent compilation of the isotopic composition data of surface snow of Antarctic ice sheet, we proposed an improved interpolation method of δD, which utilizes geographical factors (i.e., latitude and altitude) as the primary predictors and incorporates inverse distance weighting (IDW) technique. The method was applied to a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) to produce a grid map of multi-year mean δD values with 1km spatial resolution for Antarctica. The mean absolute deviation between observed and estimated data in the map is about 5.4‰, and the standard deviation is 9‰. The resulting δD pattern resembles well known characteristics such as the depletion of the heavy isotopes with increasing latitude and distance from coast line, but also reveals the complex topographic effects.
Spatio-temporal Analysis of Urban Spatial Interaction in Globalizing China—A Case Study of Beijing-Shanghai Corridor
WU Wenjie, ZHANG Wenzhong, JIN Fengjun, DENG Yu
2009, 19(2): 126-134. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0126-9
This paper aims to explore urban geography with a new perspective. Endowed with the urban geography connotations, an improved data field model is employed to integrate temporal dimension into spatial process of cities in a typical region in this article. Taking the Beijing-Shanghai Corridor including 18 cities as an example, the authors chose the city centricity index (CCI) and the spatial data field model to analyze the evolution process and features of sub-region and urban spatial interaction in this corridor based on the data of 1991, 1996 and 2002. Through the analysis, we found that: 1) with the improvement of the urbanization level and the development of urban economy, the cities' CCI grew, the urban spatial radiative potential enhanced and the radiative range expanded gradually, which reflects the urban spatial interaction's intensity has been increasing greatly; 2) although the spatial interaction intensity among the cities and sub-regions in the Beijing-Shanghai Corridor was growing constantly, the gap of the spatial interaction strength among different cities and sub-regions was widening, and the spatial division between the developed areas and the less developed areas was obvious; and 3) the intensity of the spatial interaction of Beijing, Shanghai and their urban agglomerations was far greater than that in small cities of other parts of the corridor, and it may have a strong drive force on the choice of spatial location of the economic activities.
Evolution Stages of Oasis Economy and Its Dependence on Natural Resources in Tarim River Basin
QIAO Xuning, YANG Degang, ZHANG Xinhuan
2009, 19(2): 135-143. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0135-8
This paper examines spatio-temporal characteristics of an oasis economy and its relationship with water and mineral resources in the Tarim River Basin from 1965 to 2005. A spatial autocorrelation model, the center of gravity model, and index system of the regional central city are used to probe the evolution laws of spatial structure of oasis economy. The study finds that: 1) The economic centre of gravity, whose variation track during this period follows linear rate law, was moving from headstream to middle reaches of the Tarim River. 2) Positive spatial autocorrelation which showed a waving and ascending trend of regional economy was significant and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was strengthened continuously. 3) The regional economic centre was located in Hotan City before 1980, moved to Aksu City during the 1980s and to Korla City after 1990. We conclude that above all, during the recent four decades the evolution of the oasis economy in this region has gone through three stages: a traditional agriculture stage (before 1980), oasis agriculture and agricultural product processing stage (1980-1990) and oasis energy industry stage (after 1990). Furthermore, the dependence degree of the oasis economy on natural resources in different stages are studied by using dominance index, regression model, and grey relation method, which shows that an oasis economy highly depends on water resources in the oasis agriculture and agricultural product processing stage while it depends more on mineral resources such as oil and natural gas during the oasis energy industry stage.
Comprehensive Evaluation on Urban Sustainable Development of Harbin City in Northeast China
CAI Chunmiao, SHANG Jincheng
2009, 19(2): 144-150. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0144-7
It is an effective way in realizing urban coordinated and sustainable development to establish a series of indicators and to evaluate urban environmental and socioeconomic development. According to the characteristics of Harbin City in Northeast China, an indicator system including five subsystems and 37 indicators was established for comprehensive evaluation on urban sustainable development. The development indexes of all urban subsystems and complex system were calculated quantitatively using the comprehensively integrated methods composed of Principle Component Analysis, Analytic Hierarchy Process and weighed index method, and then the comprehensive level of urban sustainable development and the degree of urban interior coordination were analyzed. The results indicated that 1) the overall urban development presented an uptrend, however, the interior development was not well balanced from 1996 to 2006; 2) the development in each subsystem presented a strong fluctuation; and 3) the development in resources subsystem showed a downtrend. Based on those results, the suggestions of urban sustainable development were put forward at the end.
Dynamics of Soil Fauna in Da Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China
ZHANG Xueping, SUN Yuan, HUANG Lirong
2009, 19(2): 151-157. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0151-8
The dynamics of soil animals was studied in seven representative forest communities in the north of the Da Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China. The results indicate that it was distinctive in the changes of the numbers of soil animals and groups and diversity in relationship with seasons for macrofauna and meso-micro fauna in the study area. The numbers of the observed soil animals in different months were: October>August>June. Group number was larger in August and October, but smaller in June. The change of diversity index in different months was: August>June>October. The biomass for macrofauna in different months was: October>June>August. The composition and number of each functional group was relatively stable. In the community of the predominant soil environment, the percentage of saprophagous animals was higher than carnivorous animals and herbivorous animals. The dynamics changes of saprophagous and carnivorous animals were distinctive, increasing from June to October, while the change of herbivorous animals was unremarkable.
Multiple Time Scale Analysis of River Runoff Using Wavelet Transform for Dagujia River Basin, Yantai, China
LIU Delin, LIU Xianzhao, LI Bicheng, ZHAO Shiwei, LI Xiguo
2009, 19(2): 158-167. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0158-1
Based on monthly river runoff and meteorological data, a method of Morlet wavelet transform was used to analyze the multiple time scale characteristics of river runoff in the Dagujia River Basin, Yantai City, Shandong Province. The results showed that the total annual river runoff in the Dagujia River Basin decreased significantly from 1966 to 2004, and the rate of decrease was 48×106m3/10yr, which was higher than the mean value of most rivers in China. Multiple time scale characteristics existed, which accounted for different aspects of the changes in annual river runoff, and the major periods of the runoff time series were identified as about 28 years, 14 years and 4 years with decreasing levels of fluctuation. The river runoff evolution process was controlled by changes in precipitation to a certain extent, but it was also greatly influenced by human activities. Also, for different time periods and scales, the impacts of climate changes and human activities on annual river runoff evolution occurred at the same time. Changes in the annual river runoff were mainly associated with climate change before the 1980s and with human activities after 1981.
Application of Matter-element Model in Soil Nutrient Evaluation of Ecological Fragile Region
TANG Jie, WANG Chenye, LIN Nianfeng, LI Zhaoyang, LI Haiyi, MAO Zilong
2009, 19(2): 168-176. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0168-z
On the basis of the soil environment investigation in Da'an City, Jilin Province, China, 40 soil samples from main land use types were obtained and tested by standard method. Soil organic matter (SOM), total N (TN), total P (TP), total K (TK), available N (AN), available P (AP) and available K (AK) were chosen as the evaluation factors. A regional soil nutrient evaluation model was developed based on the matter-element model. The results show that the soil samples with nutrient grade Ⅱ-Ⅴ respectively account for 10%, 30%, 32.5% and 27.5%, and those with grade Ⅳ and Ⅴ account for 60% in all samples. The relationship between soil nutrients and land types indicates that the nutrients of farmland are relatively good, with 41.7% of soil samples with the nutrient grade Ⅳ and Ⅴ. The nutrients of saline-alkali land and sandy land are the worst, with 100% of soil samples with the nutrient grade Ⅳ and Ⅴ. And the ratios of soil samples grade Ⅳ and Ⅴ in grassland and wasteland are respectively 62.5% and 54.55%. Generally speaking, the soil nutrients status in Da'an City is poor, 60% of soil samples are in poor and extremely poor conditions, indicating that the soil has been severely eroded. Being a relatively superior evaluation method with more accurate results and spatial distribution consistency, matter-element analysis is more suitable for regional soil nutrient evaluation than previous models.
Integrating TM and Ancillary Geographical Data with Classification Trees for Land Cover Classification of Marsh Area
NA Xiaodong, ZHANG Shuqing, ZHANG Huaiqing, LI Xiaofeng, YU Huan, LIU Chunyue
2009, 19(2): 177-185. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0177-y
The main objective of this research is to determine the capacity of land cover classification combining spectral and textural features of Landsat TM imagery with ancillary geographical data in wetlands of the Sanjiang Plain, Heilongjiang Province, China. Semi-variograms and Z-test value were calculated to assess the separability of grey-level co-occurrence texture measures to maximize the difference between land cover types. The degree of spatial autocorrelation showed that window sizes of 3×3 pixels and 11×11 pixels were most appropriate for Landsat TM image texture calculations. The texture analysis showed that co-occurrence entropy, dissimilarity, and variance texture measures, derived from the Landsat TM spectrum bands and vegetation indices provided the most significant statistical differentiation between land cover types. Subsequently, a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) algorithm was applied to three different combinations of predictors: 1) TM imagery alone (TM-only); 2) TM imagery plus image texture (TM+TXT model); and 3) all predictors including TM imagery, image texture and additional ancillary GIS information (TM+TXT+GIS model). Compared with traditional Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) supervised classification, three classification trees predictive models reduced the overall error rate significantly. Image texture measures and ancillary geographical variables depressed the speckle noise effectively and reduced classification error rate of marsh obviously. For classification trees model making use of all available predictors, omission error rate was 12.90% and commission error rate was 10.99% for marsh. The developed method is portable, relatively easy to implement and should be applicable in other settings and over larger extents.
Remote Sensing Monitoring of Tobacco Field Based on Phenological Characteristics and Time Series Image―A Case Study of Chengjiang County, Yunnan Province, China
PENG Guangxiong, DENG Lei, CUI Weihong, MING Tao, SHEN Wei
2009, 19(2): 186-193. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0186-x
Using three-phase remote sensing images of China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite 02B (CBERS02B) and Landsat-5 TM, tobacco field was extracted by the analysis of time series image based on the different phenological characteristics between tobacco and other crops. The spectral characteristics of tobacco and corn in luxuriant growth stage are very similar, which makes them difficult to be distinguished using a single-phase remote sensing image. Field film after tobacco seedlings transplanting can be used as significant sign to identify tobacco. Remote sensing interpretation map based on the fusion image of TM and CBERS02B's High-Resolution (HR) camera image was used as standard reference material to evaluate the classification accuracy of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) for time series image based on full samples test method. SAM has higher classification accuracy and stability than MLC in dealing with time series image. The accuracy and Kappa of tobacco coverage extracted by SAM are 83.4% and 0.692 respectively, which can achieve the accuracy required by tobacco coverage measurement in a large area.
Ecohydrology from Concepts to On-ground Actions:Report of Special Side Event on Ecohydrology-An Interdisciplinary Challenge, January 5-7, 2009 in Bangkok, Thailand
ZHOU Demin, Shahbaz KHAN
2009, 19(2): 194-195.