2009 Vol. 19, No. 1

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Evolution of Transitional Institutions for Urban Land Redevelopment in China——Case in Guangzhou
LIU Xuan
2009, 19(1): 1-7. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0001-8
Building effective institutions for markets is a great challenge to China's transitional economy. China's experience in establishing urban land markets is characterized by trial and error and the gradual evolution of transitional institutions. Based on archive data and interviews in a neighborhood(Jinhuajie) of Guangzhou,this research reveals that China's land redevelopment in the past two decades has followed an approach of partial and gradual reform,which was structured by the gradual evolution of transitional institutions to speed up local land redevelopment within the existing property rights system. Transitional institutions,including highly compensated residents' land use rights,in-kind land lease payment,flexible control on development rights of developers and short-term actual ownership of work units,are generated by the local government sequentially to dispel existing land use rights of different land users and make further development be able to follow market mechanisms.
Social Effect of Environmental Pollution on Valley-cities in Western China
QU Tao, ZHANG Yun, LIU Ran, DONG Mali
2009, 19(1): 8-16. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0008-1
Accompanied with the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization,the large and medium-scale valley-cities in the western China are facing environmental problems at respective levels in common. The urban environmental pollution causes economic losses,and also brings out negative effects on urban society. Based on the social investigation method,this paper aims to study the harms to urban society brought by environmental pollution. After the investigation to the inhabitants of six typical valley-cities:Lanzhou,Xining,Chongqing,Baiyin,Luzhou and Zigong,we found that the urban environmental pollution has resulted in negative influences with different levels on residents' physical,psychological,work,recreations,studies and social activities. The problem of environmental pollution has become a serious restriction to sustainable development of cities mentioned above. Herewith,it has become urgent to strengthen the government regulations for controlling urban environmental pollution.
Relationship Between Economic Growth and Water Environmental Quality of Anshan City in Northeast China
GU Kangkang, LIU Jingshuang, WANG Yang
2009, 19(1): 17-24. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0017-0
Based on the decomposition model of environmental quality and univariate regression model,the relationships of industrial wastewater drainage with economic scale,economic structure,and technological level in Anshan,a mining city in Northeast China,were studied. The results showed that,due to scale effect,the drainage of three important industrial wastewater pollutants(COD,NH3-N and petroleum) increased 8505t,671t and 384t,respectively,and due to structure effect,those pollutants drainage increased 3996t,174t and 120t from 2001 to 2006. While due to technological effect,the drainage of COD,NH3-N and petroleum reduced 4452t,458t and 331t,and due to cross effect,those pollutants drainage reduced 7270t,575t and 476t simultaneously. Meantime,the relationships between household consumption structure and domestic sewage discharge were analyzed,and domestic sewage discharges in different income levels were also compared. The results showed that,the domestic sewage discharges would increase 376t with 1000 yuan(RMB) increased in the traffic and communication consumption,and they would be 344t,219t,428t,1873t,respectively,in housing consumption,food consumption,medical consumption,miscellaneous commodity consumption. The proportion of domestic sewage discharge increased for high income residents significantly,but reduced for lower income residents. The industrial wastewater pollutants drainage tends to be reduced by technical progress,while domestic sewage discharge will be a more important factor for urban water environment quality.
Alternatives of Strategic Environmental Assessment for Road Traffic Development Planning——Case of Changchun City, China
CHEN Chong, XU Ye, SHANG Jincheng, Gordon HUANG
2009, 19(1): 25-36. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0025-0
On analyzing the achievement of the goal in the modern urban road traffic development planning,the alternative of Strategic Environmental Assessment for urban traffic planning should include the basic scheme,the extended scheme and the environmental protection scheme. This study from different perspectives designed the alternatives for Changchun's county-level road and urban road system planning,and used the method of System Dynamics to simulate,optimize and analyze those alternatives. Thereafter,some methods including the correlation function method were used to comprehensively assess and rank those alternatives for recommending two best alternatives with the consideration to the indicators,such as the total emission amount of CO,the total emission amount of nitrogen oxides,the noise value,the road construction cost,the fossil oil consumption and the traffic capacity. The result showed that the study would provide substantial supports for decision-makers to make more scientific decisions and promote the sustainable urban traffic in Changchun City.
Development of a New Index for Integrating Landscape Patterns with Ecological Processes at Watershed Scale
CHEN Liding, TIAN Huiying, FU Bojie, ZHAO Xinfeng
2009, 19(1): 37-45. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0037-9
Understanding the relationship between landscape patterns and ecological processes has been a central yet challenging research theme in landscape ecology. Over the past decades,many landscape metrics have been proposed but few directly incorporated ecological processes. In this paper,we developed a landscape index,namely,location-weighted landscape index(LWLI) to highlight the role of landscape type in ecological processes,such as nutrient losses and soil erosion. Within the framework of the Lorenz curve theory,we develop this index by integrating landscape pattern and point-based measurements at a watershed scale. The index can be used to characterize the contribution of landscape pattern to ecological processes(e.g. nutrient losses) with respect to a specific monitoring point in a watershed. Through a case study on nutrient losses in an agricultural area in northeastern China,we found that nutrient losses tended to be higher for a watershed with a higher LWLI value,and vice versa. It implied that LWLI can be used to evaluate the potential risk of nutrient losses or soil erosion by comparing their values across watersheds. In addition,this index can be extended to characterize ecological processes,such as the effect of landscape pattern on wildlife inhabitation and urban heat island effect. Finally,we discuss several problems that should be paid attention to when applying this index to a heterogeneous landscape site.
Evaluation for Use Efficiency of Agricultural Resources in Grain Production:A Case Study of Changshu, Taihe and Ansai in China
SONG Wei, CHEN Baiming, CHEN Xiwei
2009, 19(1): 46-54. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0046-8
This paper aims to establish an index system for evaluation of agricultural resources use efficiency(ARUE) in grain production and discuss the causes of low efficiency and high consumption of agricultural resources in Changshu of Jiangsu Province,Taihe of Jiangxi Province and Ansai of Shaanxi Province in China by analyzing the data about meteorology,soil,water consumption and grain production. Agro-ecological Zone(AEZ) method was adopted to calculate the potential productivity,and synthetically multivariate equation was used to evaluate the ARUE of study areas. This paper can be concluded as:1) the agricultural resources in grain production can be classified into five categories,i.e.,climatic resources,water resources,land resources,biological resources and assistant resources,and 15 indexes were selected to evaluate their use efficiency in grain production;2) the values of ARUE in grain production are 0.5868,0.6368 and 0.5390 respectively in Changshu,Taihe and Ansai;and 3) Changshu ranks the highest among the three study areas in terms of the use efficiency of climatic resources and biological resources(evaluation values are 0.0277 and 0.1530),but Taihe tops the three in terms of the use efficiency of water resources,land resources and assistant resources(evaluation values are 0.0502,0.2945 and 0.1379 respectively). However,the ARUE remains always low in Ansai for all the resources. The inefficiencies are caused by poor grain revenue in Changshu,deficient agriculture investments in Taihe and unfavorable natural conditions in Ansai.
Value Estimation of Greenhouse Gases Exchange in Wetland Ecosystem of Sanjiang Plain, China
LIU Xiaohui, LU Xianguo, JIANG Ming, WANG Xigang
2009, 19(1): 55-61. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0055-7
The objective of this study is to quantify the values of greenhouse gases(GHGs) exchange in carbon equivalents of marshes and paddy fields in the Sanjiang Plain,Heilongjiang Province,China. We obtained the GHGs exchange values based on comparable price by calculating the carbon sequestration values and the GHGs emission values of marshes and paddy fields respectively in four periods of 1982,1995,2000 and 2005. It is noted that the GHGs emission values are always negative. In this study,the marshes areas decreased from 1438977.0 to 775,132.2ha and the paddy fields areas increased from 417195.8 to 934205.0ha. The values of GHGs exchange of marshes varied from 135877.156×106 to 136882.534×106 yuan(RMB) and those of paddy fields varied from 1006.256×106 to 2767.645×106 yuan. The GHGs exchange values of marshes decreased from 1982 to 2005 on the whole,reversely,those of paddy fields increased,but those in 2005 were lower than those in 2000. In different periods,the GHGs exchange values were always higher in marshes than in paddy fields. The contribution rate of GHGs exchange values per unit area of marshes was also very high in different periods,and the maximum was up to 98.35% in 2005. As far as the whole wetland ecosystem(including marshes and paddy fields),assuming a linear change in GHGs exchange values,it represented a cumulative increase of 20926.757×106 yuan from 1982 to 2005. By adding GHGs exchange values increased during those four periods,we obtained a cumulative net increase values of GHGs exchange of wetland ecosystem of 18200.860×106 yuan. The results will be useful for understanding the indirect services provided by marshes and paddy fields.
Spatial Variations in Depth-distribution of Trace Metals in Coastal Wetland Sediments from Quanzhou Bay, Fujian Province, China
WANG Aijun, CHEN Jian
2009, 19(1): 62-68. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0062-8
Four short cores were obtained from the coastal wetland of the Quanzhou Bay,Fujian Province,China,and sediment samples were analyzed with a Mastersizer 2000 for grain size analysis and an Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer(ICP-AES) for trace metal analysis. The results of grain size analysis show that the wetland sediments are mainly composed of silt and clay,and the distribution of median grain size is affected by human activities obviously. The results of trace metal analysis show that the wetland sediments mainly originate from terrestrial materials in the Luoyangjiang River estuary and from contaminants discharged from adjacent rivers in Shuitou area. The heavy metal contamination in Luoyangjiang estuary decreased from 1984 to 2004 due to industry transformation,but has increased since 2004 because of the discharge of contaminants to the Jinjiang River and much living sewerage to the bay,and a large number of trace metals are trapped within Spartina alterniflora marsh.
Daily Changes of Spatial Patterns of Meteorological Elements over Pearl River Delta Based on GIS and MM5
JIANG Xueding, XIA Beicheng, LIN Guangfa, LIN Wenshi
2009, 19(1): 69-76. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0069-1
The spatial distribution of meteorological elements is important for understanding the regional meteorology and climate changes. However,previous studies rarely focused on the daily changes of the spatial patterns of meteorological elements due to the limitation of remote sensing(RS) techniques and traditional meteorological methods. In this paper,the regional meteorological elements were simulated by the fifth-generation non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model(MM5),and the spatial patterns of meteorological elements and their diurnal variations were analyzed in landscape level over the Pearl(Zhujiang) River Delta(PRD),China. The results showed that there were several centers of urban heat islands,cold islands,dry islands,wet islands,high wind over the PRD at noon. The diurnal changes of Moran I of meteorological elements were obvious and they reached the extremum at noon and 2-3 hours after the sunrise. The landscape indices of meteorological elements,such as area-weighted mean Fractal Dimension Index(FRAC_AM),Landscape Shape Index(LSI),Shannon's Diversity Index(SHDI) and Contagion Index(CONTAG),were more variable at about the sunrise,noon and sunset. The occurrence of wave crests and vales of landscape indices was affected by the surface net radiation,turbulence and local circumfluence. The spatial patterns of meteorological elements correlated well with the land surface,thermal exchanges and local circumfluence. A new approach combining GIS,RS and numerical simulations technologies and the landscape ecology method was presented to analyze spatial patterns of meteorological elements,which may be useful for studying global and regional climate changes.
Retrieval of Total Suspended Matters Using Field Spectral Data in Shitoukoumen Reservoir, Jilin Province, Northeast China
XU Jingping, ZHANG Bai, LI Fang, SONG Kaishan, WANG Zongming, LIU Dianwei, ZHANG Guangxin
2009, 19(1): 77-82. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0077-1
From August to October in 2006,three times of field spectral measurements with a Field Spec FR spectroradiometer(Analytical Spectral Devices,Inc.,USA) were carried out in Shitoukoumen Reservoir,Jilin Province,Northeast China. Owing to the serious soil and water loss in the upstream,reflectance curves of the reservoir were characterized by high concentrations of total suspended matter(TSM). Extending the spectral analysis to 1200nm in the near-infrared band,this research revealed an obvious reflectance peak around 1070nm which was caused by the strong backscattering of high TSM. The method of partial least squares(PLS) regression was applied to retrieving the TSM. Reflectance in two spectral bands,i.e.,675-948nm and 1029-1105nm,were used as variables to develop PLS models. Traditional linear regression,first derivative model and logarithmic model were also used for the comparison of different models. Results showed that the PLS model based on Rrs(675)-Rrs(948) gave out best results with high precision and stability. Although the PLS model based on Rrs(1029)-Rrs(1105) did not have an outstanding performance due to lots of noise,the reflectance peak in the near-infrared band was an important TSM feature and its efficient exploitation would have a considerable significance in TSM remote sensing.
Alternative Fuzzy Cluster Segmentation of Remote Sensing Images Based on Adaptive Genetic Algorithm
WANG Jing, TANG Jilong, LIU Jibin, REN Chunying, LIU Xiangnan, FENG Jiang
2009, 19(1): 83-88. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0083-3
Remote sensing image segmentation is the basis of image understanding and analysis. However,the precision and the speed of segmentation can not meet the need of image analysis,due to strong uncertainty and rich texture details of remote sensing images. We proposed a new segmentation method based on Adaptive Genetic Algorithm(AGA) and Alternative Fuzzy C-Means(AFCM). Segmentation thresholds were identified by AGA. Then the image was segmented by AFCM. The results indicate that the precision and the speed of segmentation have been greatly increased,and the accuracy of threshold selection is much higher compared with traditional Otsu and Fuzzy C-Means(FCM) segmentation methods. The segmentation results also show that multi-thresholds segmentation has been achieved by combining AGA with AFCM.
Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Tarim River Basin, Xinjiang, China
MENG Lihong, CHEN Yaning, LI Weihong, ZHAO Ruifeng
2009, 19(1): 89-95. doi: 10.1007/s11769-009-0089-x
This paper explores the method of comprehensive evaluation of water resources carrying capacity and sets up an evaluation model applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Based on the data of nature,society,economics and water resources of the Tarim River Basin in 2002,we evaluated the water resources carrying capacity of the basin by means of the model. The results show that the comprehensive grades are 0.438 and 0.454 for Aksu and Kashi prefectures respectively,where the current water resources exploitation and utilization has reached a relative high degree and there is only a very limited water carrying capacity,0.620 for Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture,where water resources carrying capacity is much higher,and in between for Hotan Prefecture and Bayingolin Mongo-lian Autonomous Prefecture. As a whole,the comprehensive grade of the Tarim River Basin is 0.508 and the current water resources exploitation and utilization has reached a relative high degree. Thus,we suggest that the integrated management of the water resources in the basin should be strengthened in order to utilize water resources scientifically and sustainably.