2008 Vol. 18, No. 2

Display Method:
Analysis of Types and Changes of Village-level Economy in Rural Gongyi City, Henan Province Since 1990
QIAO Jiajun, KONG Yunfeng, LI Xiaojian
2008, 18(2): 101-108. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-0101-x
Based on the research on the rural living standard in China in terms of annual net income per capita, we define six types of village-level economy, i.e. "to be extremely poor", "to make a basic living", "to dress warmly and eat one's fill", "to try to enrich (to disengage poverty)", "to be well-off" and "to be affluent". The data of average annual net income of all the 292 villages between 1990 and 2004 in rural Gongyi City, Henan Province were collected, veri-fied and classified. By using standard deviation, coefficient of variation and regression analysis, it is found that the Gongyi's rural economy has boosted up remarkably from the relative-poverty and absolute-poverty stages in 1990 to the well-off in 2004. However, the absolute differences between villages present a trend of enlargement, while the rela-tive differences fluctuating. On the other hand, spatial analysis of village-level economy shows that most villages with relatively high economic development level were located along national expressway and most villages with abso-lute-poverty lay in remote mountainous areas in 1990. Since the 1990s, the rapid urbanization and industrialization have had strongly positive effects on rural economic growth. Initial economic foundation, natural resources and tradi-tional techniques also contribute to village economy. From the perspective of geography, villages with location advan-tages, such as near urban center or industrial parks, have more chances for their economic development and the "core-periphery" economic structure has been presented in the process of rural development.
Revitalizing Old Industrial Base of Northeast China:Process, Policy and Challenge
ZHANG Pingyu
2008, 18(2): 109-118. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-0109-2
Northeast China is the largest old industrial base of China that endured persistent influence of the past planned economy system. This region has lost its leading place since the reform and opening up, and became a backward region by contrast with the coastal areas. This paper elaborates the evolutionary process of the old industrial base of Northeast China, analyses the main reasons for the decline, gives a preliminary evaluation on the revitalizing polices in recent years, and points out major long-term challenges for future revitalization. It concludes that for Northeast China, a relative declining area: 1) it is indispensable to get the long-term policy support from the central government; 2) system reform and structure adjustment are the crucial strategies, particularly the reform of the large and medium state-owned enterprises; and devel-oping new industries is as important as upgrading traditional advantaged industries; 3) the local governments should play an indirect role, avoiding from any unnecessary intervention on economic activity; and 4) social security and investment climate must be improved simultaneously. In addition, the author stresses that the lack of knowledge on the nature of old industrial base had led to failures of the past initiatives, and revitalizing the old industrial base should be treated as a holis-tic regional project including economy growth, society progress and environment improvement.
Vulnerability and Sustainable Development Mode of Coal Cities in Northeast China
LI Bo, TONG Lianjun
2008, 18(2): 119-126. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-0119-0
In this study, by carrying on the spot investigation to the seven coal cities in Northeast China and interviewing with the local authority and the residents, the authors definite the vulnerability that is closed to exposure, sensitivity and resilience, and set up vulnerability model of coal cities in Northeast China. At the same time, the authors broadly illustrate how the components of natural-social-economic system act in the coal area, so as to probe the ways to reduce vulnerability more effectively, such as preferential national policy and so on. Furthermore, the article studies the relationship between vulnerability and sustainable development. Vulnerability is a spatio-temporal function of sustainable development. The regional sustainable development refrains the spiral ascending of vulnerability. And the regional vulnerability and sustainable development appear in turn. Then the article analyzes the natural vulnerability, social vulnerability and economic vulnerability of coal cities in Northeast China. At last, combing vulnerability model and situation of coal cities in Northeast China, the authors put forward regional technology innovation mode, multi-dimension structure transformation mode, attracting investment mode and recycling economy mode to reduce vulnerability.
Analysis of Social Integration Models of Tourism Labor Migrants——A Case Study of Jiuhua Mountain of Anhui Province, China
YANG Zhao, LU Lin
2008, 18(2): 127-136. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-0127-0
The grounded theory of qualitative methods was applied to researching the social integration of tourism labor migrants in the Jiuhua Mountain of Anhui Province, China. The research was conducted based on the in-depth interviewing of 15 samples, open-consultation and the analysis of secondhand data. The integration models of tourism labor migrants in the Jiuhua Mountain were formed through four processes including theoretic sampling, coding-analysis, cross-tabulation and contextualization. The result shows that modes of production and life styles decide self-integration orientation of tourism labor migrants in the Jiuhua Mountain. Cultural differences are fundamental dissimilarity between tourism labor migrants and natives. There are three kinds of integration models including rapid, free and gradually advancing integration. The differences among different types of migrants' integration models are remarkable. Taking the working integration as the abscissa and taking the life integration as the coordinate, an "S" model of integration matrix appears in the gradually advancing integration of intermediate and high administers from the working to the life which should be paid special attention to.
Landscape Dynamics and Driving Factors in Da'an County of Jilin Province in Northeast China During 1956–2000
WANG Zongming, ZHANG Yubo, ZHANG Bai, SONG Kaishan, GUO Zhixing, LIU Dianwei, LI Fang
2008, 18(2): 137-145. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-0137-y
The landscape pattern of Da'an County, Northeast China has undergone significant changes since the 1950s as a result of climatic change and human activities. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively study landscape pattern and its spatial dynamics of Da'an County at the landscape level over the nearly 50-year span. Patch dynamics were examined according to land use and land cover change processes built from a series of images, as well as topographic maps, and temporal patterns built from landscape pattern metrics. The transition matrix of landscape patch types and changes of various landscape metrics were applied. The results showed that, from 1956 to 2000, the landscape within the study area had undertaken a complicated evolution in landscape structure and composition. The outstanding characteristic is that saline-alkali land increased and grassland decreased. As some smaller patches amalgamated, the heterogeneity of patch decreased. All those changes were the synthetic result of both climatic and anthropogenic influences, but the predominant factor was different in different parts. In the southern part of the study area, the landscape pattern changes resulted from the modification of climate obviously, while in the northern part, the landscape pattern changes were mainly caused by human activities, such as the conversion between farmland and saline-alkali land. This phenomenon showed that human activities played more important role in the north than in the south of Da'an County.
Dynamics of Wetland Landscape Pattern in Kaifeng City from 1987 to 2002
CAO Xinxiang
2008, 18(2): 146-154. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-0146-x
It is very significant for urban development and urban wetland protection and utilization to probe into the process and reasons of urban wetland landscape dynamics. Taking the information of remote sensing and detailed land survey data as the basic information sources, with the help of RS and GIS, according to the principles and methods of landscape ecology, this paper analyzed wetland landscape pattern dynamics and its reasons in Kaifeng City, Henan Province of China, from 1987 to 2002. The results show that the total wetland area in Kaifeng City firstly reduced by 20.1% from 1987 to 1990 and then increased from 1990 to 2002, with an average annual growth rate of 3.3%. At the same time, landscape fragment degree and landscape dominance degree increased, respectively from 0.64 to 0.72 and from 0.3754 to 0.5563, but mean patch area, maximum patch area, patch fractal dimension reduced. As far as single landscape element concerned, from 1987 to 2002, patch area, patch number, patch density, patch shape and patch location changed in varying degrees in all wetland types in Kaifeng City, among which rice field changed most and others relatively less. In the recent 20 years, rice fields, lake wetlands, puddles and ponds had a higher stability, but river and bottomland wetlands were mostly transformed to land use types. The change of wetland landscape pattern was the result of the combined action of the Huanghe (Yellow) River, urban expansion, wide cultivation of rice, and rapid development of fishery. Among them human activities were the main driving factors for wetland landscape changes.
Comparative Study on Rain Splash Erosion of Representative Soils in China
CHENG Qinjuan, CAI Qiangguo, MA Wenjun
2008, 18(2): 155-161. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-0155-9
As the first event of soil erosion, rain splash erosion supplies materials for subsequent transportation and entrainment. The Loess Plateau, the southern hilly region and the Northeast China are subject to serious soil and water loss; however, the characteristics of rain splash erosion in those regions are still unclear. The objectives of the study are to analyze the characteristics of splash erosion on loess soil, red soil, purple soil and black soil, and to discuss the relationship between splash erosion and soil properties. Soil samples spatially distributed in the abovementioned regions were collected and underwent simulated rainfalls at a high intensity of 1.2mm/min, lasting for 5, 10, 15, and 20min, respectively. Rain splash and soil crust development were analyzed. It shows that black soil sample from Heilongjiang Province corresponds to the minimum splash erosion amount because it has high aggregate content, aggregate stability and organic matter content. Loess soil sample from Inner Mongolia corresponds to the maximum splash erosion amount because it has high content of sand particles. Loess soil sample from Shanxi Province has relatively lower splash erosion amount because it has high silt particle content and low aggregate stability easily to be disrupted under rainfalls with high intensity. Although aggregate contents of red soil and purple soil samples from Hubei and Guangdong provinces are high, the stability is weak and prone to be disrupted, so the splash erosion amount is medium. Splash rate which fluctuates over time is observed because soil crust development follows a cycling processes of formation and disruption. In addition, there are two locations of soil crust development, one appears at the surface, and the other occurs at the subsurface.
Evolving Neural Network Using Variable String Genetic Algorithm for Color Infrared Aerial Image Classification
FU Xiaoyang, P E R Dale, ZHANG Shuqing
2008, 18(2): 162-170. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-0162-x
Coastal wetlands are characterized by complex patterns both in their geomorphic and ecological features. Besides field observations, it is necessary to analyze the land cover of wetlands through the color infrared (CIR) aerial photography or remote sensing image. In this paper, we designed an evolving neural network classifier using variable string genetic algorithm (VGA) for the land cover classification of CIR aerial image. With the VGA, the classifier that we designed is able to evolve automatically the appropriate number of hidden nodes for modeling the neural network topology optimally and to find a near-optimal set of connection weights globally. Then, with backpropagation algo-rithm (BP), it can find the best connection weights. The VGA-BP classifier, which is derived from hybrid algorithms mentioned above, is demonstrated on CIR images classification effectively. Compared with standard classifiers, such as Bayes maximum-likelihood classifier, VGA classifier and BP-MLP (multi-layer perception) classifier, it has shown that the VGA-BP classifier can have better performance on highly resolution land cover classification.
Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Radiative Transfer Model in Microwave Region
JIA Yuanyuan, LI Zhaoliang
2008, 18(2): 171-177. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-0171-9
The radiative transfer is one of the significant theories that describe the processes of scattering, emission, and absorption of electromagnetic radiant intensity through scattering medium. It is the basis of the study on the quantitative remote sensing. In this paper, the radiative characteristics of soil, vegetation, and atmosphere were described respectively. The numerical solution of radiative transfer was accomplished by Successive Orders of Scattering (SOS). A radiative transfer model for simulating microwave brightness temperature over land surfaces was constructed, designed, and implemented. Analyzing the database generated from soil-vegetation-atmosphere radiative transfer model under Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) configuration showed that the atmospheric effects on microwave brightness temperature should not be neglected, particularly for higher frequency, and can be parameterized. At the same time, the relationship between the emissivities of the different channels was developed. The study results will promote the development of algorithm to retrieve geophysical parameters from mi-crowave remotely sensed data.
Assessment of Waterlogging Risk in Lixiahe Region of Jiangsu Province Based on AVHRR and MODIS Image
HUANG Dapeng, LIU Chuang, FANG Huajun, PENG Shunfeng
2008, 18(2): 178-183. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-0178-2
Four images of 1991 AVHRR, 2003 and 2007 MODIS were used to extract waterlogging inundated water of three years, and three inundated water maps were overlaid to estimate waterlogging affected frequency. Based on wa-terlogging affected frequency, waterlogging hazard of pixel scale was assessed. According to the weighed score of area percentage of different waterlogging affected frequency in 13 counties/cities of Lixiahe region, waterlogging hazard rank of every county/city was assessed. Waterlogging affected frequency map and 1km×1km grid landuse map were used to assess waterlogging risk of pixel scale; and then waterlogging risk rank of every county/city was assessed by the similar method by which waterlogging hazard rank of every county/city was assessed. High risk region is located mainly in core zone of Lixiahe hinterland, medium risk region is adjacent to high risk region, and low risk region is located in the most outlying area of risk zone and mainly in south to middle part of Lixiahe region. Xinghua and Gaoyou belong to high risk city, Jiangyan belongs to medium risk city, and the other counties/cities have low or lower waterlogging risk. The method of assessing waterlogging risk in this paper is simple and applicable. This paper can provide guidance for the waterlogging risk analysis in broader area of Huaihe River Basin.
Establishment and Application of Urbanization Strategic Environmental Assessment Integration Technology System
ZHAO Yan, SHANG Jincheng, XU Ling, SONG Tao
2008, 18(2): 184-192. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-0184-4
Urbanization strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is an effective instrument to enhance the harmonious development of urban complex system, integrating of environment and development in decision-making. Ur-banization strategic environmental assessment integration technology system (SEA-ITS) is composed of "3S" (RS, GIS and GPS), environmental expert system and environmental model system, coupling with appropriate SEA working process closely. In this paper, the structure and components of SEA-ITS are analyzed based on Chinese characteristics, meanwhile methods to fulfill the following system functions are discussed: urbanization SEA in-quiring, analysis, discrimination, assessment, prediction, decision-making and output. Moreover, methods and tech-nologies employed in different urbanization SEA hierarchies are summarized. As a case study, urbanization SEA-ITS is applied in Changchun City to solving complex real problems. Methods such as system dynamics and grey cluster are adopted to achieve the environmental impact assessment on the eco-industrial system planning. It is revealed that the system designed is capable of reflecting the dynamic behavior of eco-industrial system under different scearios, meanwhile accomplishing strategy optimization and supplying scientific reference. The 4th strategy, namely concerning on economy increase and its interaction with science, technology and environment progress, would have the best efficiency. Further, more attention should be paid to the secondary development of integration techniques and function modification system of urbanization SEA-ITS.
Singularly Perturbed Solution of Coupled Model in Atmosphere-ocean for Global Climate
MO Jiaqi, LIN Wantao, WANG Hui
2008, 18(2): 193-196. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-0193-3
A box model of the interhemispheric thermohaline circulation (THC) in atmosphere-ocean for global climate is considered. By using the multiscales method, the asymptotic solution of a simplified weakly nonlinear model is discussed. Firstly, by introducing first scale, the zeroth order approximate solution of the model is obtained. Secondly, by using the multiscales, the first order approximate equation of the model is found. Finally, second order approximate equation is formed to eliminate the secular terms, and a uniformly valid asymptotic expansion of solution is decided. The multiscales solving method is an analytic method which can be used to analyze operation sequentially. And then we can also study the diversified qualitative and quantitative behaviors for corresponding physical quantities. This paper aims at providing a valid method for solving a box model of the nonlinear equation.