2007 Vol. 17, No. 1

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Downtown Retailing Development Under Suburbanization——A Case Study of Beijing
CHAI Yanwei, SHEN Jie, LONG Tao
2007, 17(1): 1-9. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0001-5
The role of retailing has diminished in the center of cities of Western countries since its heyday in the 1920s. This trend was caused by violent transformations in the economic, social and locational contexts which involve resi-dential suburbanization, as well as new forms of commercial development out of town. As far as transforming China is concerned, the downtown retailing center has also come to turning point of development in the context of suburbaniza-tion. Based on the survey of Beijing residents' shopping behavior, the present research tends to making clear the actual change and development problem of downtown retailing center. Combining with the macro retailing environment, re-lated influencing factors are further discussed too. Study results show that downtown retailing still plays an important part in resident's shopping activity. However, with rapid urban sprawl, retailing in urban center has been greatly threatened by booming out-of-town commerce. In the course of such spatial change, the suburbanization of resident, the prevalence of new commercial forms and the change of consumers' life style all have exerted their own pressure on downtown retailing. But for the special socioeconomic background of development and the support of government policy, it will still keep its vitality of retailing for a long period of time.
Development Mechanism of Urban System in Rapidly Changing Period in China
DU Guoqing
2007, 17(1): 10-18. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0010-4
The purpose of this research is to investigate the socio-economic development mechanism of China's urban system in terms of spatial structure and its change. Totally 246 cities from 340 designated cities in 1985, and 488 from 640 designated cities in 1995 are selected as sample cities. And 22 attributes concerning urban features are analyzed to clarify the socio-economic characteristics and their changes in the urban system. Finally, the primary development factors are verified with the relationship of spatial structure and socio-economic characteristics. In conclusion, the socio-economic changes occurred more extremely than spatial structure changes. Furthermore, foreign investment be-came a major power for the development of China's urban system in the period of 1985-1995.
Urban Spatial Restructuring in Transitional Economy——Changing Land Use Pattern in Shanghai
XU Jiangang, LIAO Banggu, SHEN Qing, ZHANG Feng, MEI Anxin
2007, 17(1): 19-27. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0019-8
For almost three decades, China has been undergoing significant transition from a planned economy to a market economy. Fast-paced economic growth and urbanization, interacting with market-oriented reforms in land re-sources allocation, have caused profound spatial restructuring of Chinese cities. This paper examines urban expansion and land use reconfiguration in Shanghai's central city from 1979 to 2002, with a special focus on the effect of the adoption of the land-leasing system in 1988. The empirical research, which employs GIS-based spatial analysis tech-niques to explore land use data for multiple years, indicates fundamental changes in the spatial characteristics of urban development in Shanghai after this important land policy reform.
Eco-spatial Structure of Urban Agglomeration
GUO Rongchao, MIAO Changhong, LI Xuexin, CHEN Deguang
2007, 17(1): 28-33. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0028-7
In terms of ecological theory, this paper makes a comprehensive analysis of the mutualism and co-evolutionary mechanism between the eco-spatial structure and socio-economic development of the urban agglomeration, and maps out optimized modes of the eco-spatial structure of the urban agglomeration. The analysis is a case study of the urban agglomeration on different levels of global, national, provincial and local scales, on the basis of those conclusions are drawn: 1) Within the scope of the urban agglomeration, the cities should be reasonably sized and appropriately densified; the spatial combination of the urban agglomeration ought to be orderly, and its eco-spatial structure ought to be optimized and efficient; the relationship between the economic society and eco-spatial environment ought to be that of mutual benefit and co-evolution. 2) “The mode of corridor group network” is a certain trend evoked from the spatial structure of urban agglomeration. 3) The eco-spatial structure of urban agglomeration under “the mode of corridor group network” can further increase the environmental capacity of urban agglomeration, and is in favor of the harmonious relationship between man and nature.
Spatial Autocorrelation and Localization of Urban Development
LIU Jisheng, CHEN Yanguang
2007, 17(1): 34-39. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0034-9
A nonlinear analysis of urban evolution is made by using of spatial autocorrelation theory. A first-order nonlinear autoregression model based on Clark's negative exponential model is proposed to show urban population density. The new method and model are applied to Hangzhou City, China, as an example. The average distance of population activities, the auto-correlation coefficient of urban population density, and the auto-regressive function values all show trends of gradual increase from 1964 to 2000, but there always is a sharp first-order cutoff in the partial auto-correlations. These results indicate that urban development is a process of localization. The discovery of urban locality is significant to improve the cellular-automata-based urban simulation of modeling spatial complexity.
Change of Ecological Footprint and Analysis of Ecological Sustainability——Taking Zhangjiakou City as an Example
WANG Liyan, LIU Yi, CHEN Tian
2007, 17(1): 40-46. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0040-y
This paper researches the ecological sustainability of Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province, China, using the ecological footprint model. According to the study we find that Zhangjiakou City was in the situation of ecological deficit from 1990 to 2000 and the deficit had the enlarging tendency. In 1990 the per capita ecological footprint was 0.964 and the per capita ecological capacity was 0.518, thus it can be calculated that the per capita ecological deficit was -0.446. However in 2000, the per capita ecological footprint increased to 1.068, at the same time the per capita eco-logical capacity decreased to 0.471, then the per capita ecological deficit in 2000 was -0.597. Furthermore, this paper studies the ecological sustainability of the city from the changes of the ecological footprint of per 10,000 yuan GDP and the productivity of ecological system. Finally the authors point out the shortage of the model and the way to improve it.
Impacts of Climatic Factors on Runoff Coefficients in Source Regions of the Huanghe River
CHEN Liqun, LIU Changming, LI Yanping, WANG Guoqiang
2007, 17(1): 47-55. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0047-4
Runoff coefficients of the source regions of the Huanghe River in 1956-2000 were analyzed in this paper. In the 1990s runoff of Tangnaihai Hydrologic Station of the Huanghe River experienced a serious decrease, which had at-tracted considerable attention. Climate changes have important impact on the water resources availability. From the view of water cycling, runoff coefficients are important indexes of water resources in a particular catchment. Kalinin baseflow separation technique was improved based on the characteristics of precipitation and streamflow. After the separation of runoff coefficient (R/P), baseflow coefficient (Br/P) and direct runoff coefficient (Dr/PM) were estimated. Statistic analyses were applied to assessing the impact of precipitation and temperature on runoff coefficients (including Dr/PM, Br/P and R/P). The results show that in the source regions of the Huanghe River, mean annual baseflow coefficient was higher than mean annual direct runoff coefficient. Annual runoff coefficients were in direct proportion to annual pre-cipitation and in inverse proportion to annual mean temperature. The decrease of runoff coefficients in the 1990s was closely related to the decrease in precipitation and increase in temperature in the same period. Over different sub-basins of the source regions of the Huanghe River, runoff coefficients responded differently to precipitation and temperature. In the area above Jimai Hydrologic Station where annual mean temperature is-3.9oC, temperature is the main factor in-fluencing the runoff coefficients. Runoff coefficients were in inverse relation to temperature, and precipitation had nearly no impact on runoff coefficients. In subbasin between Jimai and Maqu Hydrologic Station Dr/PM was mainly affected by precipitation while R/P and Br/P were both significantly influenced by precipitation and temperature. In the area be-tween Maqu and Tangnaihai hydrologic stations all the three runoff coefficients increased with the rising of annual precipitation, while direct runoff coefficient was inversely proportional to temperature. In the source regions of the Huanghe River with the increase of average annual temperature, the impacts of temperature on runoff coefficients be-come insignificant.
Water Requirements and Irrigation Scheduling of Spring Maize Using GIS and CropWat Model in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
FENG Zhiming, LIU Dengwei, ZHANG Yuehong
2007, 17(1): 56-63. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0056-3
Due to the over use of available water resources, it has become very important to define appropriate strategies for planning and management of irrigated farmland. In this paper, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) region was chosen as the case study area for its special political and economic status and its severe water problem. To achieve effective planning, the information about crop water requirements, irrigation withdrawals, soil types and climatic conditions were obtained in the study area. In the meantime, a GIS method was adopted, which extends the capabilities of the crop models to a regional level. The main objectives of the study are: 1) to estimate the spatial distribution of the evapotranspiration of spring maize; 2) to estimate climatic water deficit; 3) to estimate the yield reduction of spring maize under different rainfed and irrigated conditions. Based on the water deficit analysis, recommended supplemental irrigation schedule was developed using CropWat model. Compared to the rainfed control, the two or three times of supplemental water irrigated to spring maize at the right time reduced the loss of yield, under different scenarios.
Forecast of Flood in Chaohu Lake Basin of China Based on Grey-Markov Theory
LI Xiang, WANG Xinyuan, SHAO Wei, XIA Linyi, ZHANG Guangsheng, TIAN Bing, LI Wenda, PENG Peng
2007, 17(1): 64-68. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0064-3
Flood is one kind of unexpected and the most common natural disasters, which is affected by many factors and has complex mechanism. At home and abroad, there is still no mature theory and method used for the long-term forecast of natural precipitation at present. In the present paper the disadvantages of grey GM (1, 1) and Markov chain are ana-lyzed, and Grey-Markov forecast theory about flood is put forward and then the modifying model is developed by making prediction of Chaohu Lake basin. Hydrological law was conducted based on the theoretical forecasts by grey system GM (1, 1) forecast model with improved Markov chain. The above method contained Stat-analysis, embodying scientific approach, precise forecast and its reliable results.
Response of Cultural Lake Eutrophication to Hemp-retting in Quidenham Mere of England in Post-Medieval
CHENG Xiaoying, LI Shijie, SHEN Qing, XUE Jing
2007, 17(1): 69-74. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0069-y
To study the influence of human activity on natural lake, chironomid fauna change in the 700-560cm lake sediment in Quidenham Mere of England associated with chironomid inferred TP presented that the lake experienced a whole eutrophication process due to human hemp-retting in Post-Medieval based on the history record and pollen analysis, which was confirmed by mollusc and ostracod analysis. However, the response of chironomid and mollusc to retting was the strongest with ostracod a little behind. It proved that cultural eutrophication existed in history and could be recovered by itself despite of some long-term unachievable destroy. And it was most important for external nutrient to be cut off during lake restoration even in ancient times.
Soil Erosion and Vegetation Succession in Alpine Kobresia Steppe Meadow Caused by Plateau Pika——A Case Study of Nagqu County, Tibet
WEI Xinghu, LI Sen, Yang Ping, Cheng Huaishun
2007, 17(1): 75-81. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0075-0
This paper evaluated the impacts of mounds created by the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the vege-tation composition, structure, and species diversity of an alpine Kobresia steppe meadow in Nagqu County, Tibet Autonomous Region, China. Based on mound height or the depth of erosion pit, we defined five stages of erosion and compared the floristic features of communities at these stages with those in undisturbed sites. In the study area, the mounds and pits covered up to 7% of the total area. Lancea tibetica, Lamiophlomis rotata, and Potentilla bifurca were the dominant species in erosion pits, and Kobresia pygmaea, the dominant species in undisturbed sites, became a com-panion species in eroded areas. In the process of erosion, the original vegetation was covered by soil ejected by the pika, then the mounds were gradually eroded by wind and rain, and finally erosion pits formed. The vegetation coverage in-creased with increasing erosion stages but remained significantly lower than that in undisturbed sites. Improved coverage eventually reduced soil erosion, and pit depth eventually stabilized at around 20cm. Aboveground biomass increased with increasing erosion stage, but the proportion of low-quality forage reached more than 94%. The richness index and Shannon-Wiener index increased significantly with increasing erosion stage, but the richness index in mound and pit areas was significantly lower than that in undisturbed sites.
Classification and Gradation of Cultivated Land Quality in Bishan County of Chongqing, China
SHAO Jing'an, GE Xiaofeng, WEI Chaofu, XIE Deti
2007, 17(1): 82-91. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0082-1
The conflicts among food security, economic development and ecological protection are the “sticking point” of undeveloped southwestern mountainous areas of China. The objectives of this study are to identify appropriate inte-grated indicators influencing the classification and gradation of cultivated land quality in the southwestern mountainous area of China based on semi-structure interview, and to promote the monitoring of cultivated land quality in this region. Taking Bishan County of Chongqing as a study case, the integrated indicators involve the productivity, protection, ac-ceptability, and stability of cultivated land. The integrated indicators accord with the characteristics of land resources and human preference in southwestern mountainous area of China. In different agricultural zones, we emphasize different indicators, such as emphasizing productivity, stabilization and acceptability in low hilly and plain agricultural integrative zone (LHP-AIZ), protection, productivity and stability in low mountain and hill agro-forestry ecological zone (LMH-AEZ), and acceptability in plain outskirts integrative agricultural zone (PO-IAZ), respectively. The pronounced difference of classification and gradation of cultivated land, regardless of inter-region or intra-region, is observed, with the reducible rank from PO-IAZ, LHP-AIZ to LMH-AEZ. Research results accord with the characteristics of assets management and intensive utilization of cultivated land resources in the southwestern mountainous area of China. Semi-structure interview adequately presents the principal agent of farmers in agricultural land use and rural land market. This method is very effective and feasible to obtain data of the quality of cultivated land in the southwestern mountainous area of China.
Normal Reference Value of Red Blood Cell Count of Chinese Presenile Men and Geographical Factors
HE Jinwei, GE Miao, SU Huimin, LIANG Wei, CHEN Hongfei
2007, 17(1): 92-98. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0092-z
This paper aims at providing a scientific basis for unifying the normal reference value standards of red blood cell count of Chinese presenile men. The paper, using microscopical counting method, studies the relationship between the normal reference values of 38,061 samples of red blood cell count of presenile men and eight geographical factors in 297 units in China. It is found that the correlation of geographical factors and the normal reference value of red blood cell count of presenile men is quite significant (F=303.00, P=0.000). By using the method of stepwise regression analysis, one regression equation is inferred. It is concluded that if geographical data are obtained in a certain area, the normal reference value of red blood cell count of presenile men in this area can be reckoned by using the regression analysis. Furthermore, according to the geographical factors, China can be divided into eight regions: Northeast China Region, North China Region, Shanxi-Shaanxi-Inner Mongolia Region, Middle and Lower Reaches of the Changjiang River Region, Southeast China Region, Northwest China Region, Southwest China Region and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Region.