留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

Ecological Offsetting in China's Coastal Wetlands: Existing Challenges and Strategies for Future Improvement

YU Shuling CUI Baoshan XIE Chengjie MA Xu MAN Ying NING Zhonghua

YU Shuling, CUI Baoshan, XIE Chengjie, MA Xu, MAN Ying, NING Zhonghua. Ecological Offsetting in China's Coastal Wetlands: Existing Challenges and Strategies for Future Improvement[J]. 中国地理科学, 2019, 20(2): 202-213. doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1024-4
引用本文: YU Shuling, CUI Baoshan, XIE Chengjie, MA Xu, MAN Ying, NING Zhonghua. Ecological Offsetting in China's Coastal Wetlands: Existing Challenges and Strategies for Future Improvement[J]. 中国地理科学, 2019, 20(2): 202-213. doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1024-4
YU Shuling, CUI Baoshan, XIE Chengjie, MA Xu, MAN Ying, NING Zhonghua. Ecological Offsetting in China's Coastal Wetlands: Existing Challenges and Strategies for Future Improvement[J]. Chinese Geographical Science, 2019, 20(2): 202-213. doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1024-4
Citation: YU Shuling, CUI Baoshan, XIE Chengjie, MA Xu, MAN Ying, NING Zhonghua. Ecological Offsetting in China's Coastal Wetlands: Existing Challenges and Strategies for Future Improvement[J]. Chinese Geographical Science, 2019, 20(2): 202-213. doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1024-4

Ecological Offsetting in China's Coastal Wetlands: Existing Challenges and Strategies for Future Improvement

doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1024-4
基金项目: Under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Advisory Project (No. 2018-XZ-14-03), Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51639001), National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013CB430406)

Ecological Offsetting in China's Coastal Wetlands: Existing Challenges and Strategies for Future Improvement

Funds: Under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Advisory Project (No. 2018-XZ-14-03), Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51639001), National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013CB430406)
  • 摘要: Land-use changes in coastal wetlands have led to a worldwide degradation of marine coastal ecosystems and a loss of the ecological services they provide. Ecological offsetting is a popular strategy and an effective mitigation measure for ecosystems that have been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is critical for habitats where natural recovery is hindered. However, the current understanding of the theory and practice of ecological offsetting for coastal wetlands is extremely limited in many developing countries. We conducted a review of ecological offsetting for coastal wetlands projects and studies in China in 1979-2017 to explore the application and limitations of ecological offsetting theory. It was found that China's coastal ecological offsetting regime has recently entered a rapidly developing stage, with an increasing number of different types of offsetting projects conducted, but theoretical research lags behind practical applications. Considerable governmental, social, technological and ethical challenges remain to resolve. Coastal ecological offsetting schemes have been inconsistent in meeting conservation objectives or preventing net losses because of the challenges of ensuring they are fully consistent in practice (mainly in-kind offsets) and theory (mainly out-of-kind offsets). Ecological offsetting projects were primarily implemented by government, developers, and non-profit organizations. The available funding of coastal ecological offsetting projects is insufficient, which makes ecological offsetting a risky operation. Therefore, we propose strategies for improvement that integrate the consideration of theoretical and practical challenges in the offsetting process, while providing a scientific basis and directional guidance for the future practice of biodiversity conservation and environmental management.
  • [1] Ali M, Kennedy C M, Kiesecker J et al., 2018. Integrating biodi-versity offsets within Circular Economy policy in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 185:32-43. doi:10.1016/j. jclepro.2018.03.027
    [2] Barbier E B, Hacker S D, Kennedy C et al., 2011. The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecological Mono-graphs, 81(2):169-193. doi: 10.1890/10-1510.1
    [3] Barter M, 2002. Shorebirds of the Yellow Sea:Importance, Threats and Conservation Status. Canberra, Australia:Wetlands International, Oceania.
    [4] Bayraktarov E, Saunders M I, Abdullah S et al., 2016. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration. Ecological Ap-plications, 26(4):1055-1074. doi: 10.1890/15-1077
    [5] Bottrill M C, Walsh J C, Watson J E M et al., 2011. Does recovery planning improve the status of threatened species? Biological Conservation, 144(5):1595-1601. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011. 02.008
    [6] Bull J W, Suttle K B, Gordon A et al., 2013. Biodiversity offsets in theory and practice. Oryx, 47(3):369-380. doi:10. 1017/S003060531200172X
    [7] Bull J W, Gordon A, Watson J E M et al., 2016. Seeking conver-gence on the key concepts in ‘no net loss’ policy. Journal of Applied Ecology, 53(6):1686-1693. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12726
    [8] Cao W Z, Wong M H, 2007. Current status of coastal zone issues and management in China:a review. Environment International, 33(7):985-992. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2007.04.009
    [9] China Coastal Waterbird Census Group, Bai Q Q, Chen J Z et al., 2015. Identification of coastal wetlands of international im-portance for waterbirds:a review of China Coastal Waterbird Surveys 2005-2013. Avian Research, 6(1):12. doi:10.1186/s 40657-015-0021-2
    [10] Chalmers D, 2015. Biobanking and privacy laws in Australia. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 43(4):703-713. doi: 10.1111/jlme.12313
    [11] Cui Baoshan, Xie Tian, Wang Qing et al., 2017. Impact of large-scale reclamation on coastal wetlands and implications for ecological restoration, compensation, and sustainable ex-ploitation framework. Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 32(4):418-425. (in Chinese)
    [12] Curran M, Hellweg S, Beck J, 2014. Is there any empirical support for biodiversity offset policy? Ecological Applications, 24(4):617-632. doi: 10.1890/13-0243.1
    [13] Favaro B, Olszynski M, 2017. Authorized net losses of fish habitat demonstrate need for improved habitat protection in Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 74(3):285-291. doi: 10.1139/cjfas-2016-0480
    [14] Gibbons P, Evans M C, Maron M et al., 2016. A loss-gain calcu-lator for biodiversity offsets and the circumstances in which no net loss is feasible. Conservation Letters, 9(4):252-259. doi: 10.1111/conl.12206
    [15] Gong Peng, Niu Zhenguo, Cheng Xiao et al., 2010. China's wet-land change (1990-2000) determined by remote sensing. Sci-ence China Earth Sciences, 53(7):1036-1042. doi:10.1007/s 11430-010-4002-3
    [16] He Q, Bertness M D, Bruno J F et al., 2014. Economic develop-ment and coastal ecosystem change in China. Scientific Reports, 4:5995. doi: 10.1038/srep05995
    [17] Hockings M, Stolton S, Leverington F et al., 2006. Evaluating Effectiveness:A Framework for Assessing Management Effec-tiveness of Protected Areas. 2nd ed. Gland, Switzerland:IUCN.
    [18] Hough P, Robertson M, 2009. Mitigation under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act:where it comes from, what it means. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 17(1):15-33. doi:10.1007/s 11273-008-9093-7
    [19] Joseph L N, Maloney R F, Possingham H P, 2009. Optimal allo-cation of resources among threatened species:a project priori-tization protocol. Conservation Biology, 23(2):328-338. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01124.x
    [20] Justus J, Colyvan M, Regan H et al., 2009. Buying into conserva-tion:intrinsic versus instrumental value. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24(4):187-191. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.11.011
    [21] Levrel H, Scemama P, Vaissière A C, 2017. Should we be wary of mitigation banking? Evidence regarding the risks associated with this wetland offset arrangement in Florida. Ecological Economics, 135:136-149. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.12. 025
    [22] Liu Baiqiao, Meng Weiqing, Zhao Jianhua et al., 2015. Variation of coastline resources utilization in China from 1990 to 2013. Journal of Natural Resources, 30(12):2033-2044. (in Chinese)
    [23] Liu Z Z, Cui B S, He Q, 2016. Shifting paradigms in coastal res-toration:six decades' lessons from China. Science of the Total Environment, 566-567:205-214. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv. 2016.05.049
    [24] MacKinnon J, Verkuil Y I, Murray N J, 2012. IUCN situation analysis on East and Southeast Asian intertidal habitats, with particular reference to the Yellow Sea (including the Bohai Sea). Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK:IUCN.
    [25] Maron M, Hobbs R J, Moilanen A et al., 2012. Faustian bargains? Restoration realities in the context of biodiversity offset policies. Biological Conservation, 155:141-148. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.06.003
    [26] Maron M, Ives C D, Kujala H et al., 2016. Taming a wicked problem:resolving controversies in biodiversity offsetting. BioScience, 66(6):489-498. doi: 10.1093/biosci/biw038
    [27] Maron M, Brownlie S, Bull J W et al., 2018. The many meanings of no net loss in environmental policy. Nature Sustainability, 1(1):19-27. doi: 10.1038/s41893-017-0007-7
    [28] McGillivray D, 2012. Compensating biodiversity loss:the EU Commission's approach to compensation under Article 6 of the Habitats Directive. Journal of Environmental Law, 24(3):417-450. doi: 10.1093/jel/eqs007
    [29] Meng W Q, Hu B B, He M X et al., 2017. Temporal-spatial varia-tions and driving factors analysis of coastal reclamation in China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 191:39-49. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2017.04.008
    [30] Moilanen A, van Teeffelen A J A, Ben-Haim Y et al., 2009. How much compensation is enough? A framework for incorporating uncertainty and time discounting when calculating offset ratios for impacted habitat. Restoration Ecology, 17(4):470-478. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2008.00382.x
    [31] Murray N J, Clemens R S, Phinn S R et al., 2014. Tracking the rapid loss of tidal wetlands in the Yellow Sea. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 12(5):267-272. doi: 10.1890/130260
    [32] Quétier F, Lavorel S, 2011. Assessing ecological equivalence in biodiversity offset schemes:key issues and solutions. Biolog-ical Conservation, 144(12):2991-2999. doi:10.1016/j. bio-con.2011.09.002
    [33] Quigley J T, Harper D J, 2006. Compliance with Canada's Fish-eries Act:a field audit of habitat compensation projects. Envi-ronmental Management, 37(3):336-350. doi:10.1007/s 00267-004-0262-z
    [34] SFA (State Forestry Administry), 2003. The Investigation of Wet-land Resources in China. Available at http://xzsp.forestry.gov.cn/. (in Chinese)
    [35] SFA (State Forestry Administry), 2014. The Second Investigation of Wetland Resources in China. Available at http://xzsp.forestry.gov.cn/. (in Chinese)
    [36] Stroud D A, Baker A, Blanco D E et al., 2008. The conservation and population status of the world's waders at the turn of the millennium. In:Boere G C, Galbraith C A, Stroud D A (eds). Waterbirds Around the World. Edinburgh, UK:The Stationary Office, 643-648.
    [37] Sullivan S, Hannis M, 2015. Nets and frames, losses and gains:value struggles in engagements with biodiversity offsetting policy in England. Ecosystem Services, 15:162-173. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.01.009
    [38] Sun Z G, Sun W G, Tong C et al., 2015. China's coastal wetlands:conservation history, implementation efforts, existing issues and strategies for future improvement. Environment International, 79:25-41. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.02.017
    [39] Ten Kate K, Bishop J, Bayon R, 2004. Biodiversity offsets:views, experience, and the business case. Gland, Switzerland:IUCN.
    [40] Wang Y X, Yao Y, Ju M T, 2008. Wise use of wetlands:current state of protection and utilization of Chinese wetlands and recommendations for improvement. Environmental Manage-ment, 41(6):793-808. doi: 10.1007/s00267-008-9072-z
    [41] Yu S L, Cui B S, Gibbons P et al., 2017. Towards a biodiversity offsetting approach for coastal land reclamation:coastal man-agement implications. Biological Conservation, 214:35-45. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2017.07.016
    [42] Yu S, Cui B, Gibbons P, 2018. A method for identifying suitable biodiversity offset sites and its application to reclamation of coastal wetlands in China. Biological Conservation, 227:284-291. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2018.09.030ve the status of threatened species? Biological Conservation, 144(5):1595-1601. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011. 02.008
    [43] Bull J W, Suttle K B, Gordon A et al., 2013. Biodiversity offsets in theory and practice. Oryx, 47(3):369-380. doi:10. 1017/S003060531200172X
    [44] Bull J W, Gordon A, Watson J E M et al., 2016. Seeking conver-gence on the key concepts in ‘no net loss’ policy. Journal of Applied Ecology, 53(6):1686-1693. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12726
    [45] Cao W Z, Wong M H, 2007. Current status of coastal zone issues and management in China:a review. Environment International, 33(7):985-992. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2007.04.009
    [46] China Coastal Waterbird Census Group, Bai Q Q, Chen J Z et al., 2015. Identification of coastal wetlands of international im-portance for waterbirds:a review of China Coastal Waterbird Surveys 2005-2013. Avian Research, 6(1):12. doi:10.1186/s 40657-015-0021-2
    [47] Chalmers D, 2015. Biobanking and privacy laws in Australia. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 43(4):703-713. doi: 10.1111/jlme.12313
    [48] Cui Baoshan, Xie Tian, Wang Qing et al., 2017. Impact of large-scale reclamation on coastal wetlands and implications for ecological restoration, compensation, and sustainable ex-ploitation framework. Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 32(4):418-425. (in Chinese)
    [49] Curran M, Hellweg S, Beck J, 2014. Is there any empirical support for biodiversity offset policy? Ecological Applications, 24(4):617-632. doi: 10.1890/13-0243.1
    [50] Favaro B, Olszynski M, 2017. Authorized net losses of fish habitat demonstrate need for improved habitat protection in Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 74(3):285-291. doi: 10.1139/cjfas-2016-0480
    [51] Gibbons P, Evans M C, Maron M et al., 2016. A loss-gain calcu-lator for biodiversity offsets and the circumstances in which no net loss is feasible. Conservation Letters, 9(4):252-259. doi: 10.1111/conl.12206
    [52] Gong Peng, Niu Zhenguo, Cheng Xiao et al., 2010. China's wet-land change (1990-2000) determined by remote sensing. Sci-ence China Earth Sciences, 53(7):1036-1042. doi:10.1007/s 11430-010-4002-3
    [53] He Q, Bertness M D, Bruno J F et al., 2014. Economic develop-ment and coastal ecosystem change in China. Scientific Reports, 4:5995. doi: 10.1038/srep05995
    [54] Hockings M, Stolton S, Leverington F et al., 2006. Evaluating Effectiveness:A Framework for Assessing Management Effec-tiveness of Protected Areas. 2nd ed. Gland, Switzerland:IUCN.
    [55] Hough P, Robertson M, 2009. Mitigation under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act:where it comes from, what it means. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 17(1):15-33. doi:10.1007/s 11273-008-9093-7
    [56] Joseph L N, Maloney R F, Possingham H P, 2009. Optimal allo-cation of resources among threatened species:a project priori-tization protocol. Conservation Biology, 23(2):328-338. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01124.x
    [57] Justus J, Colyvan M, Regan H et al., 2009. Buying into conserva-tion:intrinsic versus instrumental value. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24(4):187-191. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.11.011
    [58] Levrel H, Scemama P, Vaissière A C, 2017. Should we be wary of mitigation banking? Evidence regarding the risks associated with this wetland offset arrangement in Florida. Ecological Economics, 135:136-149. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.12. 025
    [59] Liu Baiqiao, Meng Weiqing, Zhao Jianhua et al., 2015. Variation of coastline resources utilization in China from 1990 to 2013. Journal of Natural Resources, 30(12):2033-2044. (in Chinese)
    [60] Liu Z Z, Cui B S, He Q, 2016. Shifting paradigms in coastal res-toration:six decades' lessons from China. Science of the Total Environment, 566-567:205-214. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv. 2016.05.049
    [61] MacKinnon J, Verkuil Y I, Murray N J, 2012. IUCN situation analysis on East and Southeast Asian intertidal habitats, with particular reference to the Yellow Sea (including the Bohai Sea). Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK:IUCN.
    [62] Maron M, Hobbs R J, Moilanen A et al., 2012. Faustian bargains? Restoration realities in the context of biodiversity offset policies. Biological Conservation, 155:141-148. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.06.003
    [63] Maron M, Ives C D, Kujala H et al., 2016. Taming a wicked problem:resolving controversies in biodiversity offsetting. BioScience, 66(6):489-498. doi: 10.1093/biosci/biw038
    [64] Maron M, Brownlie S, Bull J W et al., 2018. The many meanings of no net loss in environmental policy. Nature Sustainability, 1(1):19-27. doi: 10.1038/s41893-017-0007-7
    [65] McGillivray D, 2012. Compensating biodiversity loss:the EU Commission's approach to compensation under Article 6 of the Habitats Directive. Journal of Environmental Law, 24(3):417-450. doi: 10.1093/jel/eqs007
    [66] Meng W Q, Hu B B, He M X et al., 2017. Temporal-spatial varia-tions and driving factors analysis of coastal reclamation in China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 191:39-49. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2017.04.008
    [67] Moilanen A, van Teeffelen A J A, Ben-Haim Y et al., 2009. How much compensation is enough? A framework for incorporating uncertainty and time discounting when calculating offset ratios for impacted habitat. Restoration Ecology, 17(4):470-478. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2008.00382.x
    [68] Murray N J, Clemens R S, Phinn S R et al., 2014. Tracking the rapid loss of tidal wetlands in the Yellow Sea. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 12(5):267-272. doi: 10.1890/130260
    [69] Quétier F, Lavorel S, 2011. Assessing ecological equivalence in biodiversity offset schemes:key issues and solutions. Biolog-ical Conservation, 144(12):2991-2999. doi:10.1016/j. bio-con.2011.09.002
    [70] Quigley J T, Harper D J, 2006. Compliance with Canada's Fish-eries Act:a field audit of habitat compensation projects. Envi-ronmental Management, 37(3):336-350. doi:10.1007/s 00267-004-0262-z
    [71] SFA (State Forestry Administry), 2003. The Investigation of Wet-land Resources in China. Available at http://xzsp.forestry.gov.cn/. (in Chinese)
    [72] SFA (State Forestry Administry), 2014. The Second Investigation of Wetland Resources in China. Available at http://xzsp.forestry.gov.cn/. (in Chinese)
    [73] Stroud D A, Baker A, Blanco D E et al., 2008. The conservation and population status of the world's waders at the turn of the millennium. In:Boere G C, Galbraith C A, Stroud D A (eds). Waterbirds Around the World. Edinburgh, UK:The Stationary Office, 643-648.
    [74] Sullivan S, Hannis M, 2015. Nets and frames, losses and gains:value struggles in engagements with biodiversity offsetting policy in England. Ecosystem Services, 15:162-173. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.01.009
    [75] Sun Z G, Sun W G, Tong C et al., 2015. China's coastal wetlands:conservation history, implementation efforts, existing issues and strategies for future improvement. Environment International, 79:25-41. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.02.017
    [76] Ten Kate K, Bishop J, Bayon R, 2004. Biodiversity offsets:views, experience, and the business case. Gland, Switzerland:IUCN.
    [77] Wang Y X, Yao Y, Ju M T, 2008. Wise use of wetlands:current state of protection and utilization of Chinese wetlands and recommendations for improvement. Environmental Manage-ment, 41(6):793-808. doi: 10.1007/s00267-008-9072-z
    [78] Yu S L, Cui B S, Gibbons P et al., 2017. Towards a biodiversity offsetting approach for coastal land reclamation:coastal man-agement implications. Biological Conservation, 214:35-45. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2017.07.016
    [79] Yu S, Cui B, Gibbons P, 2018. A method for identifying suitable biodiversity offset sites and its application to reclamation of coastal wetlands in China. Biological Conservation, 227:284-291. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.09.030
    [80]  
  • [1] Shuling YU, Baoshan CUI, Chengjie XIE, Ying MAN, Jing FU.  Bibliometric Review of Biodiversity Offsetting During 1992−2019 . Chinese Geographical Science, 2022, (): 1-15. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1265-5
    [2] Xiaohui HE, Yipin YU, Zepeng CUI, Tian HE.  Climate Change and Ecological Projects Jointly Promote Vegetation Restoration in Three-River Source Region of China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2021, 31(6): 1108-1122. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1245-1
    [3] WAN Siang, LIU Xingtu, MOU Xiaojie, ZHAO Yongqiang.  Comparison of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur in Coastal Wetlands Dominated by Native and Invasive Plants in the Yancheng National Nature Reserve, China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2020, 30(2): 202-216. doi: 10.1007/s11769-020-1108-1
    [4] ZHOU Yangming, DOU Yuehan, YU Xiubo, ZHANG Li, HUANG Chong, WANG Yuyu, LI Xiaowei, LI He, JIA Yifei, BAKKER Martha, CARSJENS Gerrit Jan, ZHOU Yan, DUAN Houlang.  Examining Health of Wetlands with Multiple Ecosystem Services as Targets in China’s Coastal Regions . Chinese Geographical Science, 2020, 30(4): 600-613. doi: 10.1007/s11769-020-1137-9
    [5] ZHANG Danhua, HU Yuanman, LIU Miao, CHANG Yu, SUN Lishuang.  Geographical Variation and Influencing Factors of Spartina alterniflora Expansion Rate in Coastal China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2020, 30(1): 127-141. doi: 10.1007/s11769-020-1100-9
    [6] MA Tiantian, LI Xiaowen, BAI Junhong, CUI Baoshan.  Impacts of Coastal Reclamation on Natural Wetlands in Large River Deltas in China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2019, 20(4): 640-651. doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1049-8
    [7] WANG Liyan, ANNA Herzberger, ZHANG Liyun, XIAO Yi, WANG Yaqing, XIAO Yang, LIU Jianguo, OUYANG Zhiyun.  Spatial and Temporal Changes of Arable Land Driven by Urbanization and Ecological Restoration in China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2019, 20(5): 809-819. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0983-1
    [8] LIANG Yinxiu, CHENG Xianwei, ZHU Hui, Brian SHUTES, YAN Baixing, ZHOU Qingwei, YU Xiangfei.  Historical Evolution of Mariculture in China During Past 40 Years and Its Impacts on Eco-environment . Chinese Geographical Science, 2018, 28(3): 363-373. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0940-z
    [9] WAN Siang, MOU Xiaojie, LIU Xingtu.  Effects of Reclamation on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen in Coastal Wet lands of Liaohe River Delta, China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2018, 28(3): 443-455. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0961-7
    [10] CHEN Lin, REN Chunying, ZHANG Bai, LI Lin, WANG Zongming, SONG Kaishan.  Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Coastal Wetlands and Reclamation in the Yangtze Estuary During Past 50 Years (1960s-2015) . Chinese Geographical Science, 2018, 28(3): 386-399. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0925-3
    [11] ZHOU Jian, ZHANG Fengrong, XU Yan, GAO Yang, XIE Zhen.  Evaluation of Land Reclamation and Implications of Ecological Restoration for Agro-pastoral Ecotone:Case Study of Horqin Left Back Banner in China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2017, 27(5): 772-783. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0907-5
    [12] LI Xiaosong, WANG Hongyan, ZHOU Shufang, SUN Bin, GAO Zhihai.  Did Ecological Engineering Projects Have a Significant Effect on Large-scale Vegetation Restoration in Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Region, China? A Remote Sensing Approach . Chinese Geographical Science, 2016, 26(2): 216-228. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0801-6
    [13] XIAO Yang, OUYANG Zhiyun, XU Weihua, XIAO Yi, ZHENG Hua, XIAN Chaofan.  Optimizing Hotspot Areas for Ecological Planning and Management Based on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services . Chinese Geographical Science, 2016, 26(2): 256-269. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0803-4
    [14] WANG Wenjie, ZHENG Hua, XU Chao, JIANG Weiguo, DU Yunhui, WANG Wei, ZHANG Zhe, LIU Xiaofu.  Spatial Correlation and Ecological Characteristics Analysis of Management Area for Biodiversity Conservation and Relevant Regionalization . Chinese Geographical Science, 2014, 0(1): 71-82. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0657-6
    [15] WEN Bolong, LIU Xingtu, LI Xiujun, et al.  Restoration and Rational Use of Degraded Saline Reed Wetlands:A Case Study in Western Songnen Plain, China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2012, 22(2): 167-177.
    [16] ZHAO Bin, LI Bo, ZHONG Yang, NAKAGOSHI Nobukazu, CHEN Jia-kuan.  ESTIMATION OF ECOLOGICAL SERVICE VALUES OF WETLANDS IN SHANGHAI, CHINA . Chinese Geographical Science, 2005, 15(2): 151-156.
    [17] WANG Xu-gao, LI Xiu-zhen, HE Hong S, HU Yuan-man.  ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION:OUR HOPE FOR THE FUTURE? . Chinese Geographical Science, 2004, 14(4): 361-367.
    [18] WANG Xue-lei, NING Long-mei, HU Wang-bin.  APPLICATION OF ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY OF WETLANDS IN THE JIANGHAN PLAIN . Chinese Geographical Science, 2003, 13(3): 272-276.
    [19] 刘惠清, 许嘉巍, 吴秀芹.  LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION AND BIODIVERSITY PROTECTION . Chinese Geographical Science, 1999, 9(4): 377-382.
    [20] 郭焕成, 吴登茹, 朱鸿兴.  LAND RESTORATION IN CHINA . Chinese Geographical Science, 1992, 2(1): 10-17.
  • 加载中
计量
  • 文章访问数:  109
  • HTML全文浏览量:  2
  • PDF下载量:  402
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-03-22
  • 刊出日期:  2019-04-27

Ecological Offsetting in China's Coastal Wetlands: Existing Challenges and Strategies for Future Improvement

doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1024-4
    基金项目:  Under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Advisory Project (No. 2018-XZ-14-03), Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51639001), National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013CB430406)

摘要: Land-use changes in coastal wetlands have led to a worldwide degradation of marine coastal ecosystems and a loss of the ecological services they provide. Ecological offsetting is a popular strategy and an effective mitigation measure for ecosystems that have been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is critical for habitats where natural recovery is hindered. However, the current understanding of the theory and practice of ecological offsetting for coastal wetlands is extremely limited in many developing countries. We conducted a review of ecological offsetting for coastal wetlands projects and studies in China in 1979-2017 to explore the application and limitations of ecological offsetting theory. It was found that China's coastal ecological offsetting regime has recently entered a rapidly developing stage, with an increasing number of different types of offsetting projects conducted, but theoretical research lags behind practical applications. Considerable governmental, social, technological and ethical challenges remain to resolve. Coastal ecological offsetting schemes have been inconsistent in meeting conservation objectives or preventing net losses because of the challenges of ensuring they are fully consistent in practice (mainly in-kind offsets) and theory (mainly out-of-kind offsets). Ecological offsetting projects were primarily implemented by government, developers, and non-profit organizations. The available funding of coastal ecological offsetting projects is insufficient, which makes ecological offsetting a risky operation. Therefore, we propose strategies for improvement that integrate the consideration of theoretical and practical challenges in the offsetting process, while providing a scientific basis and directional guidance for the future practice of biodiversity conservation and environmental management.

English Abstract

YU Shuling, CUI Baoshan, XIE Chengjie, MA Xu, MAN Ying, NING Zhonghua. Ecological Offsetting in China's Coastal Wetlands: Existing Challenges and Strategies for Future Improvement[J]. 中国地理科学, 2019, 20(2): 202-213. doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1024-4
引用本文: YU Shuling, CUI Baoshan, XIE Chengjie, MA Xu, MAN Ying, NING Zhonghua. Ecological Offsetting in China's Coastal Wetlands: Existing Challenges and Strategies for Future Improvement[J]. 中国地理科学, 2019, 20(2): 202-213. doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1024-4
YU Shuling, CUI Baoshan, XIE Chengjie, MA Xu, MAN Ying, NING Zhonghua. Ecological Offsetting in China's Coastal Wetlands: Existing Challenges and Strategies for Future Improvement[J]. Chinese Geographical Science, 2019, 20(2): 202-213. doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1024-4
Citation: YU Shuling, CUI Baoshan, XIE Chengjie, MA Xu, MAN Ying, NING Zhonghua. Ecological Offsetting in China's Coastal Wetlands: Existing Challenges and Strategies for Future Improvement[J]. Chinese Geographical Science, 2019, 20(2): 202-213. doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1024-4
参考文献 (80)

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回