留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

ZHANG Shuo ZHANG Baiping YAO Yonghui ZHAO Fang QI Wenwen HE Wenhui WANG Jing

ZHANG Shuo, ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, ZHAO Fang, QI Wenwen, HE Wenhui, WANG Jing. Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J]. 中国地理科学, 2016, 26(6): 745-754. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0834-x
引用本文: ZHANG Shuo, ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, ZHAO Fang, QI Wenwen, HE Wenhui, WANG Jing. Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J]. 中国地理科学, 2016, 26(6): 745-754. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0834-x
ZHANG Shuo, ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, ZHAO Fang, QI Wenwen, HE Wenhui, WANG Jing. Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J]. Chinese Geographical Science, 2016, 26(6): 745-754. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0834-x
Citation: ZHANG Shuo, ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, ZHAO Fang, QI Wenwen, HE Wenhui, WANG Jing. Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J]. Chinese Geographical Science, 2016, 26(6): 745-754. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0834-x

Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0834-x
基金项目: Under the auspices of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41571099, 41030528)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    ZHANG Baiping.E-mail:zhangbp@lreis.ac.cn;YAO Yonghui.E-mail:yaoyh@lreis.ac.cn

Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Funds: Under the auspices of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41571099, 41030528)
More Information
    Corresponding author: ZHANG Baiping.E-mail:zhangbp@lreis.ac.cn;YAO Yonghui.E-mail:yaoyh@lreis.ac.cn
  • 摘要: Mass elevation effect (MEE) refers to the thermal effect of huge mountains or plateaus, which causes the tendency for tem-perature-related montane landscape limits to occur at higher elevations in the inner massifs than on their outer margins. MEE has been widely identified in all large mountains, but how it could be measured and what its main forming-factors are still remain open. This paper, supposing that the local mountain base elevation (MBE) is the main factor of MEE, takes the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) as the study area, defines MEE as the temperature difference (△T) between the inner and outer parts of mountain massifs, identifies the main forming factors, and analyzes their contributions to MEE. A total of 73 mountain bases were identified, ranging from 708 m to 5081 m and increasing from the edges to the central parts of the plateau. Climate data (1981-2010) from 134 meteorological stations were used to acquire △T by comparing near-surface air temperature on the main plateau with the free-air temperature at the same altitude and similar latitude outside of the plateau. The △T for the warmest month is averagely 6.15℃, over 12℃ at Lhatse and Baxoi. A multivariate linear regression model was developed to simulate MEE based on three variables (latitude, annual mean precipitation and MBE), which are all significantly correlated to △T. The model could explain 67.3% of MEE variation, and the contribution rates of three independent variables to MEE are 35.29%, 22.69% and 42.02%, respectively. This confirms that MBE is the main factor of MEE. The intensive MEE of the QTP pushes the 10℃ isotherm of the warmest month mean temperature 1300-2000 m higher in the main plateau than in the outer regions, leading the occurrence of the highest timberline (4900 m) and the highest snowline (6200 m) of the Northern Hemisphere in the southeast and southwest of the plateau, respectively.
  • [1] Barry R G, 2008. Mountain Weather and Climate. Boulder, USA:University of Colorado. doi: 10.4324/9780203416020
    [2] Bruijnzeel L A, Waterloo M J, Proctor J et al., 1993. Hydrological observations in montane rain forests on Gunung Silam, Sabah, Malaysia, with special reference to the 'Massenerhebung'effect. Journal of Ecology, 81(1):145-167.
    [3] Chen L X, Reiter E R, Feng Z Q, 1985. The atmospheric heat-source over the Tibetan Plateau:May-August 1979. Monthly Weather Review, 113(10):1771-1790.
    [4] Demek J, Embleton C (eds.), 1978. Guide to Medium-scale Geo-morphological Mapping. Stuttgart, Germany:E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.
    [5] Demek J, Embleton C, 1989. International geomorphological map of Europe (1:2 500 000). Cartography, Lithography and Printing:Geodetiky a Kartograficky Podnik Praha, SP(2):45-51.
    [6] Elliott G, Kipfmueller K, 2011. Multiscale influences of climate on upper treeline dynamics in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA:Evidence of Intraregional Variability and Bioclimatic Thresholds in Response to Twentieth-Century Warming. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 101(6):1181-1203. doi: 10.1080/00045608.2011.584288
    [7] Fang Jingyun, Guo Qinghua, Liu Guohua, 1999. Distribution patterns of Chinese Beech species in relation to topography. Acta Botanica Sinica, 41(7):766-774. (in Chinese)
    [8] Flohn H, 1968. Contributions to a Meteorology of the Tibetan Highlands. Colorado:Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University Fort Collins.
    [9] Gams H, 1931. Die klimatische Begrenzung von Pflanzenarealen und die Verteilung der hygrischen Kontinentalität in den Alpen. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde Berlin, 19(10):321-346.
    [10] Grubb P J, 1971. Interpretation of massenerhebung effect on tropical mountains. Nature, 229(5279):44-45.
    [11] Han F, Zhang B P, Yao Y H et al., 2011. Mass elevation effect and its contribution to the altitude of snowline in the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 43(2):207-212.
    [12] Holtmeier F K, 2009. Mountain Timberlines:Ecology, Patchiness, and Dynamics. Dordrecht, Netherlands:Springer; Softcover reprint of hardcover.
    [13] Huang Zhongyan, 1994. Mountain climate features of northeast Yunnan. Mountain Research, 12(1):32-38. (in Chinese)
    [14] Jiang F, Wu X, 2002. Characteristics of space distribution of the climatic snowline in China. Journal of Geomechanics, 8(4):289-296.
    [15] Korner C, Paulsen J, 2004. A world-wide study of high altitude treeline temperatures. Journal of Biogeography, 31(5):713-732. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2003.01043.x
    [16] Li Bingyuan, Pan Baotian, Han Jiafu, 2008. Basic terrestrial ge-omorphologucal types in China and their circumscriptions. Quaternary Sciences, 28(4):535-543. (in Chinese)
    [17] Li Juzhang, 1987. Classification of fundamentel types of geo-morphological from in China. Geographical Research, 6(2):32-39. (in Chinese)
    [18] Li Qiaoyuan, Xie Zichu, 2007. Analyses on the characteristics of the vertical lapse rates of temperature-Taking Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent area as an example. Journal of Shihezi Uni-versity (Natural Science), 24(6):719-723. (in Chinese)
    [19] Liao Ke, 1990. The Atlas of the Tibetan Plateau. Beijing:Science Press. (in Chinese).
    [20] Liu Yinhan, Lu Lixin, 1990. Exploitation and utilization for agricul-tural natural resources in Qinling-Daba mountainous region of Shaanxi Province. Mountain Research, 8(1):45-52. (in Chinese)
    [21] Menne M J, Durre I, Vose R S et al., 2012. An overview of the global historical climatology network-daily database. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 29(7):897-910. doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00103.1
    [22] Miehe G, Miehe S, Vogel J et al., 2007. Highest treeline in the northern hemisphere found in southern Tibet. Mountain Re-search and Development, 27(2):169-173. doi: 10.1659/mrd.0792
    [23] Ohsawa M, 1990. An interpretation of latitudinal patterns of forest limits in south and east Asian mountains. The Journal of Ecology, 78(2):326-339.
    [24] Quervain A, 1904. Die Hebung der atmosphärischen lsothermenin der Schweizer Alpen und ihre Beziehung zu deren Höhen-grenzen. Gerlands Beitr. Geophys, 6:481-533.
    [25] Rolland C. 2010. Spatial and seasonal variations of air temperature lapse rates in Alpine regions. Journal of Climate, 16(7):1032-1046. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<1032:SASVOA>2.0.CO;2
    [26] Schickhoff U, 2005. The upper timberline in the Himalayas, Hindu Kush and Karakorum:A review of geographical and ecological aspects. In:Broll G, Keplin B (eds.). Mountain Ecosystems. New York:Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 275-354.
    [27] Shreve F, 1922. Conditions indirectly affecting vertical distribution on desert mountains. Ecology, 3(4):269-274.
    [28] Tang Guoan, Yang Weiyu, Yang Xin et al., 2003. Some key points in terrain variables deriving from DEMs. Science of Surveying and Mapping, 28(1):28-32. (in Chinese)
    [29] Tibet Expedition of CAS, 1975. Scientific Expedition of Everest Region Report:1966-1968 Physical Geography. Beijing:Sci-ence Press. (in Chinese).
    [30] Tollner H, 1949. Der Einfluß großer Massenerhebungen auf die Lufttemperatur und die Ursachen der Hebung der Vegeta-tionsgrenzen in den inneren Ostalpen. Archiv für Meteorologie, Geophysik und Bioklimatologie, Serie B 1(3-4):347-372.
    [31] Troll C, 1973. The upper timberlines in different climatic zones. Arctic and Alpine Research, 5(3):A3-A18.
    [32] Weng Duming, Luo Xianzhe, 1990. Climate of Mountainous Ter-rain. Beijing:Meteorological Press. (in Chinese).
    [33] Wolock D M, McCabe G J, 1995. Comparison of single and mul-tiple flow direction algorithms for computing topographic pa-rameters in TOPMODEL. Water Resources Research, 31(5):1315-1324. doi: 10.1029/95WR00471
    [34] Xie X Q, 1984. Surface albedo of Tibetan Plateau during May to August, 1979. In:Group E (ed.). Anthology of Meteorology Scientific Experiments in Tibetan Plateau. Beijing:Science Press. 17-23.
    [35] Xie Yingqin, Zeng Qunzhu, 1983. Climatic conditions of perma-frost development in Tibetan Plateau. Selected Papers of Na-tional Conference on Permafrost, 1:13-20. (in Chinese)
    [36] Ye Baisheng, Lai Zuming, Shi Yafeng, 1997. Some characteristics of precipitation and air temperature in the Yili River Basin. Arid Land Geography 20(1):46-52. (in Chinese)
    [37] Yeh T C, Chang C C, 1974. Preliminary experimental simulation on heating effect of Tibetan Plateau on general circulation over eastern Asia in summer. Scientia Sinica, 17(3):397-420.
    [38] Yeh Tucheng, Lo Szuwei, Chu Papchen, 1957. The wind structure and heat balance in the lower troposphere over Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 28(2):108-121. (in Chinese)
    [39] Zhang Baiping, Tan Jing, Yao Yonghui, 2009. Digital Integration and Patterns of Mountain Altitudinal Belts. Beijing:China Environmental Science Press. (in Chinese).
    [40] Zhang Shuo, Yao Yonghui, Pang Yu et al., 2012. Mountain Basal Elevation extraction in the Taiwan Island. Journal of Geo-Information Science, 14(5):562-568. (in Chinese)
    [41] Zhang Yiguang, 1998. Several issues concerning vertical climate of the Hengduan Mountains. Resources Science, 20(3):12-19. (in Chinese)
    [42] Zheng Du, 2001. Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and its effects on re-gional defferentiation of physical environments in west China.. Quaternary Sciences, 21(6):484-489. (in Chinese)
    [43] Zheng Du, Li Bingyuan, 1990. Evolution and differentation of the physico-geographical evnironment of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Geographical Research, 9(2):1-10. (in Chinese)
    [44] Zheng Du, Li Bingyuan, 1990. Recent progress of geographical studies on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Acta Geographica Sinica, 45(2):235-244. (in Chinese)
    [45] Zhou Chenghu, Cheng Weiming, Qian Jinkai et al., 2009. Research on the classification system of digital land geomorphology of 1:1 000 000 in China. Journal of Geo-Information Science, 11(6):707-724. (in Chinese)
  • [1] Chaoqun MA, Yanfen HE.  Spatiotemporal Trends and Ecological Determinants in Population by Elevation in China Since 1990 . Chinese Geographical Science, 2021, 31(2): 248-260. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1188-6
    [2] Xingchuan GAO, Tao LI, Dongqi SUN.  Regional Differentiation Regularity and Influencing Factors of Population Change in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2021, 31(5): 888-899. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1223-7
    [3] WANG Shengting, SHENG Yu, LI Jing, WU Jichun, CAO Wei, MA Shuai.  An Estimation of Ground Ice Volumes in Permafrost Layers in North-eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2018, 28(1): 61-73. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0932-z
    [4] WANG Guodong, WANG Ming, JIANG Ming, LYU Xianguo, HE Xingyuan, WU Haitao.  Effects of Vegetation Type on Surface Elevation Change in Liaohe River Delta Wetlands Facing Accelerated Sea Level Rise . Chinese Geographical Science, 2017, 27(5): 810-817. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0909-3
    [5] LIU Guodong, SUN Jinfang, TIAN Kun, YUAN Xingzhong, AN Subang, WANG Hang.  Litter Decomposition of Emergent Plants along an Elevation Gradient in Wetlands of Yunnan Plateau, China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2017, 27(5): 760-771. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0898-2
    [6] XIAO Jianhua, YAO Zhengyi, QU Jianjun.  Influence of Golmud-Lhasa Section of Qinghai-Tibet Railway on Blown Sand Transport . Chinese Geographical Science, 2015, 25(1): 39-50. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0722-1
    [7] HU Guojie, ZHAO Lin, LI Ren, WU Tonghua, WU Xiaodong, PANG Qiangqiang, XIAO Yao, QIAO Yongping, SHI Jianzong.  Modeling Hydrothermal Transfer Processes in Permafrost Regions of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2015, 25(6): 713-727. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0733-6
    [8] ZHU Hongchun, TANG Guoan, QIAN Kejian, LIU Haiying.  Extraction and Analysis of Gully Head of Loess Plateau in China Based on Digital Elevation Model . Chinese Geographical Science, 2014, 0(3): 328-338. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0663-8
    [9] WANG Qinggai, ZHAO Xiaohong, CHEN Kaiqi, LIANG Peng, LI Shibei.  Sensitivity Analysis of Thermal Equilibrium Parameters of MIKE 11 Model:A Case Study of Wuxikou Reservoir in Jiangxi Province of China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2013, 23(5): 584-593. doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0628-3
    [10] NING Baoying, YANG Xiaomei, CHANG Li.  Changes of Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in Hengduan Mountains, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 1961–2008 . Chinese Geographical Science, 2012, 22(4): 422-436.
    [11] LI Jing, SHENG Yu, WU Jichun, et al..  Modeling Regional and Local-scale Permafrost Distribution in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Using Equivalent-elevation Method . Chinese Geographical Science, 2012, 22(3): 278-287.
    [12] LI Huixia, LIU Guohua, FU Bojie.  Estimation of Regional Evapotranspiration in Alpine Area and Its Response to Land Use Change: A Case Study in Three-River Headwaters Region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2012, 22(4): 437-449.
    [13] QIAO Zhihe, JIE Dongmei, LIU Hongmei, GE Yong, ZHANG Hongyan.  Morphological Characteristics and Environmental Implications of Phytoliths in Topsoils from Different Vegetation Zones on Northern Slope of Changbai Mountains,China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2010, 20(6): 506-512. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0424-2
    [14] ZHANG Hailong, LIU Gaohuan, HUANG Chong.  Modeling All-sky Global Solar Radiation Using MODIS Atmospheric Products:A Case Study in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau . Chinese Geographical Science, 2010, 20(6): 513-521. doi: 10.1007/s11769-010-0423-3
    [15] CAO Yungang, YANG Xiuchun, ZHU Xiaohua.  Retrieval Snow Depth by Artificial Neural Network Methodology from Integrated AMSR-E and In-situ Data——A Case Study in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau . Chinese Geographical Science, 2008, 18(4): 356-360. doi: 10.1007/s11769-008-356-2
    [16] XU Weixin, LIU Xiaodong.  Response of Vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to Global Warming . Chinese Geographical Science, 2007, 17(2): 151-159. doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0151-5
    [17] ZHANG Qianggong, KANG Shichang, YAN Yuping.  Characteristics of Spatial and Temporal Variations of Monthly Mean Surface Air Temperature over Qinghai-Tibet Plateau . Chinese Geographical Science, 2006, 16(4): 351-358.
    [18] LIU Yi-hua, DONG Guang-rong, LI Sen, DONG Yu-xiang.  STATUS, CAUSES AND COMBATING SUGGESTIONS OF SANDY DESERTIFICATION IN QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU . Chinese Geographical Science, 2005, 15(4): 289-296.
    [19] 刘晓东, 张敏锋.  CONTEMPORARY CLIMATIC CHANGE OVER THE QINGHAI XIZANG PLATEAU AND ITS RESPONSE TO THE GREEN HOUSE EFFECT . Chinese Geographical Science, 1998, 8(4): 289-298.
    [20] 施雅风, 郑本兴, 李士杰.  LAST GLACIATION AND MAXIMUM GLACIATION IN THE QINGHAI-XIZANG(TIBET)PLATEAU:A CONTROVERSY TO M. KUHLE, S ICE SHEET HYPOTHESIS . Chinese Geographical Science, 1992, 2(4): 293-311.
  • 加载中
计量
  • 文章访问数:  179
  • HTML全文浏览量:  2
  • PDF下载量:  1294
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2015-06-06
  • 修回日期:  2015-09-29
  • 刊出日期:  2016-12-27

Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0834-x
    基金项目:  Under the auspices of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41571099, 41030528)
    通讯作者: ZHANG Baiping.E-mail:zhangbp@lreis.ac.cn;YAO Yonghui.E-mail:yaoyh@lreis.ac.cn

摘要: Mass elevation effect (MEE) refers to the thermal effect of huge mountains or plateaus, which causes the tendency for tem-perature-related montane landscape limits to occur at higher elevations in the inner massifs than on their outer margins. MEE has been widely identified in all large mountains, but how it could be measured and what its main forming-factors are still remain open. This paper, supposing that the local mountain base elevation (MBE) is the main factor of MEE, takes the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) as the study area, defines MEE as the temperature difference (△T) between the inner and outer parts of mountain massifs, identifies the main forming factors, and analyzes their contributions to MEE. A total of 73 mountain bases were identified, ranging from 708 m to 5081 m and increasing from the edges to the central parts of the plateau. Climate data (1981-2010) from 134 meteorological stations were used to acquire △T by comparing near-surface air temperature on the main plateau with the free-air temperature at the same altitude and similar latitude outside of the plateau. The △T for the warmest month is averagely 6.15℃, over 12℃ at Lhatse and Baxoi. A multivariate linear regression model was developed to simulate MEE based on three variables (latitude, annual mean precipitation and MBE), which are all significantly correlated to △T. The model could explain 67.3% of MEE variation, and the contribution rates of three independent variables to MEE are 35.29%, 22.69% and 42.02%, respectively. This confirms that MBE is the main factor of MEE. The intensive MEE of the QTP pushes the 10℃ isotherm of the warmest month mean temperature 1300-2000 m higher in the main plateau than in the outer regions, leading the occurrence of the highest timberline (4900 m) and the highest snowline (6200 m) of the Northern Hemisphere in the southeast and southwest of the plateau, respectively.

English Abstract

ZHANG Shuo, ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, ZHAO Fang, QI Wenwen, HE Wenhui, WANG Jing. Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J]. 中国地理科学, 2016, 26(6): 745-754. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0834-x
引用本文: ZHANG Shuo, ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, ZHAO Fang, QI Wenwen, HE Wenhui, WANG Jing. Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J]. 中国地理科学, 2016, 26(6): 745-754. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0834-x
ZHANG Shuo, ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, ZHAO Fang, QI Wenwen, HE Wenhui, WANG Jing. Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J]. Chinese Geographical Science, 2016, 26(6): 745-754. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0834-x
Citation: ZHANG Shuo, ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, ZHAO Fang, QI Wenwen, HE Wenhui, WANG Jing. Magnitude and Forming Factors of Mass Elevation Effect on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J]. Chinese Geographical Science, 2016, 26(6): 745-754. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0834-x
参考文献 (45)

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回