中国地理科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (4): 735-750.doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1221-9

• 论文 • 上一篇    

Risk Prevention and Control for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Based on the Process of Pressure-Transformation-Absorption in Chongqing, China

ZHU Kangwen1, CHEN Yucheng1,2, ZHANG Sheng3, YANG Zhimin1,2, HUANG Lei1,2, LEI Bo3, XIONG Hailing4, WU Sheng4, LI Xixi5   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China;
    2. Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Rural Cleaning, Chongqing 400716, China;
    3. Chongqing Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Chongqing 401147, China;
    4. College of Computer & Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China;
    5. Chongqing Chemical Industry Vocational College, Chongqing 401220, China
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-26 发布日期:2021-06-28
  • 通讯作者: CHEN Yucheng, ZHANG Sheng E-mail:cyc_sw_edu@163.com;zs_hky@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    Under the auspices of the Chongqing Science and Technology Commission (No. cstc2018jxjl20012, cstc2018jszx-zdyfxmX0021, cstc2019jscx-gksbX0103)

Risk Prevention and Control for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Based on the Process of Pressure-Transformation-Absorption in Chongqing, China

ZHU Kangwen1, CHEN Yucheng1,2, ZHANG Sheng3, YANG Zhimin1,2, HUANG Lei1,2, LEI Bo3, XIONG Hailing4, WU Sheng4, LI Xixi5   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China;
    2. Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Rural Cleaning, Chongqing 400716, China;
    3. Chongqing Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Chongqing 401147, China;
    4. College of Computer & Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China;
    5. Chongqing Chemical Industry Vocational College, Chongqing 401220, China
  • Received:2020-10-26 Published:2021-06-28
  • Contact: CHEN Yucheng, ZHANG Sheng E-mail:cyc_sw_edu@163.com;zs_hky@163.com
  • Supported by:
    Under the auspices of the Chongqing Science and Technology Commission (No. cstc2018jxjl20012, cstc2018jszx-zdyfxmX0021, cstc2019jscx-gksbX0103)

摘要: According to China’s second national survey of pollution sources, the contribution of agricultural non-point sources (ANS) to water pollution is still high. Risk prevention and control are the main means to control costs and improve the efficiency of ANS, but most studies directly take pollution load as the risk standard, leading to a considerable misjudgment of the actual pollution risk. To objectively reflect the risk of agricultural non-point source pollution (ANSP) in Chongqing, China, we investigated the influences of initial source input, intermediate transformation, and terminal absorption of pollutants via literature research and the Delphi method and built a PTA (pressure kinetic energy, transformation kinetic energy, and absorption kinetic energy) model that covers 12 factors, with the support of geographical information system (GIS) technology. The terrain factor calculation results and the calculation results of other factors were optimized by Python tools to reduce human error and workload. Via centroid migration analysis and Kernel density analysis, the risk level, spatial aggregation degree, and key prevention and control regions could be accurately determined. There was a positive correlation between the water quality of the rivers in Chongqing and the risk assessment results of different periods, indirectly reflecting the reliability of the assessment results by the proposed model. There was an obvious tendency for the low-risk regions transforming into high-risk regions. The proportion of high-risk regions and extremely high-risk regions increased from 17.82% and 16.63% in 2000 to 18.10% and 16.76% in 2015, respectively. And the risk level in the main urban areas was significantly higher than that in the southeastern and northeastern areas of Chongqing. The centroids of all grades of risky areas presented a successive distribution from west to east, and the centroids of high-risk and extremely high-risk regions shifted eastward. From 2000 to 2015, the centroids of high-risk and extremely high-risk regions moved 4.63 km (1.68°) and 4.48 km (12.08°) east by north, respectively. The kernel density analysis results showed that the high-risk regions were mainly concentrated in the main urban areas and that the distribution of agglomeration areas overall displayed a transition trend from contiguous distribution to decentralized concentration. The risk levels of the regions with a high proportion of cultivated land and artificial surface were significantly increased, and the occupation of cultivated land in the process of urbanization promoted the movement of the centroids of high-risk and extremely high-risk regions. The identification of key areas for risk prevention and control provides data scientific basis for the development of prevention and control strategies.

关键词: geographic information system (GIS), agricultural non-point source pollution (ANSP), risk assessment, Kernel density, Chongqing, China

Abstract: According to China’s second national survey of pollution sources, the contribution of agricultural non-point sources (ANS) to water pollution is still high. Risk prevention and control are the main means to control costs and improve the efficiency of ANS, but most studies directly take pollution load as the risk standard, leading to a considerable misjudgment of the actual pollution risk. To objectively reflect the risk of agricultural non-point source pollution (ANSP) in Chongqing, China, we investigated the influences of initial source input, intermediate transformation, and terminal absorption of pollutants via literature research and the Delphi method and built a PTA (pressure kinetic energy, transformation kinetic energy, and absorption kinetic energy) model that covers 12 factors, with the support of geographical information system (GIS) technology. The terrain factor calculation results and the calculation results of other factors were optimized by Python tools to reduce human error and workload. Via centroid migration analysis and Kernel density analysis, the risk level, spatial aggregation degree, and key prevention and control regions could be accurately determined. There was a positive correlation between the water quality of the rivers in Chongqing and the risk assessment results of different periods, indirectly reflecting the reliability of the assessment results by the proposed model. There was an obvious tendency for the low-risk regions transforming into high-risk regions. The proportion of high-risk regions and extremely high-risk regions increased from 17.82% and 16.63% in 2000 to 18.10% and 16.76% in 2015, respectively. And the risk level in the main urban areas was significantly higher than that in the southeastern and northeastern areas of Chongqing. The centroids of all grades of risky areas presented a successive distribution from west to east, and the centroids of high-risk and extremely high-risk regions shifted eastward. From 2000 to 2015, the centroids of high-risk and extremely high-risk regions moved 4.63 km (1.68°) and 4.48 km (12.08°) east by north, respectively. The kernel density analysis results showed that the high-risk regions were mainly concentrated in the main urban areas and that the distribution of agglomeration areas overall displayed a transition trend from contiguous distribution to decentralized concentration. The risk levels of the regions with a high proportion of cultivated land and artificial surface were significantly increased, and the occupation of cultivated land in the process of urbanization promoted the movement of the centroids of high-risk and extremely high-risk regions. The identification of key areas for risk prevention and control provides data scientific basis for the development of prevention and control strategies.

Key words: geographic information system (GIS), agricultural non-point source pollution (ANSP), risk assessment, Kernel density, Chongqing, China