中国地理科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 363-373.doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0940-z

• 论文 •    下一篇

Historical Evolution of Mariculture in China During Past 40 Years and Its Impacts on Eco-environment

LIANG Yinxiu1,2, CHENG Xianwei1,2, ZHU Hui1, Brian SHUTES3, YAN Baixing1, ZHOU Qingwei1,2, YU Xiangfei1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Urban Pollution Research Centre, Middlesex University, Hendon, London NW4 4BT, UK
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-11 修回日期:2017-07-04 出版日期:2018-06-27 发布日期:2018-04-27
  • 通讯作者: ZHU Hui.E-mail:zhuhui@iga.ac.cn E-mail:zhuhui@iga.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    Under the auspices of National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013CB430401), National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFC0500404-4), Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (No. 2017274)

Historical Evolution of Mariculture in China During Past 40 Years and Its Impacts on Eco-environment

LIANG Yinxiu1,2, CHENG Xianwei1,2, ZHU Hui1, Brian SHUTES3, YAN Baixing1, ZHOU Qingwei1,2, YU Xiangfei1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Urban Pollution Research Centre, Middlesex University, Hendon, London NW4 4BT, UK
  • Received:2017-04-11 Revised:2017-07-04 Online:2018-06-27 Published:2018-04-27
  • Contact: ZHU Hui.E-mail:zhuhui@iga.ac.cn E-mail:zhuhui@iga.ac.cn
  • Supported by:

    Under the auspices of National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013CB430401), National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFC0500404-4), Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (No. 2017274)

摘要:

The rapid development of mariculture in China in recent decades has satisfied people's demand of seafood, and has made a great contribution to economic development. However, mariculture has also caused some negative impacts on the eco-environment. By statistically analyzing national data (as well as data for four main provinces) regarding the mariculture area and cultivation species in China since reform and opening up, the historical evolution of mariculture during the past 40 years was analyzed, the driving factors related to policy, market and technology innovation were discussed, and the potential impacts of mariculture on the coastal eco-environment were also illustrated. The statistical results indicated that the maricultural area increased radically during the past 40 years, from 1979 (116.47×103 ha) to 2012 (2205.65×103 ha), with an increase of nearly 20-fold. Shandong Province represented the fastest-growing region, with an increase of 31-fold. Moreover, the cultivated species had gradually become diversified. Initially, shellfish and algae were major species, and then it developed to various species including fish, and currently shellfish and crustaceans were the major species. The development of mariculture was driven by government policies, market economy and technology innovation. Rapid development of mariculture also caused significantly adverse impacts on the eco-environment of the coastal regions. For example, the sea reclamation for mariculture decreased the area and function of coastal wetlands and the contaminants originating from mariculture destroyed the coastal aquatic environment. Fortunately, the implementation of ‘13th Five-Year Fisheries Planning’ is expected to help both improve the seafood quality and reduce the contamination in coastal aquatic environment. This current study will provide reference for management and structure adjustment of mariculture in the future.

关键词: mariculture, reclamation, coastal wetlands, aquatic environment pollution

Abstract:

The rapid development of mariculture in China in recent decades has satisfied people's demand of seafood, and has made a great contribution to economic development. However, mariculture has also caused some negative impacts on the eco-environment. By statistically analyzing national data (as well as data for four main provinces) regarding the mariculture area and cultivation species in China since reform and opening up, the historical evolution of mariculture during the past 40 years was analyzed, the driving factors related to policy, market and technology innovation were discussed, and the potential impacts of mariculture on the coastal eco-environment were also illustrated. The statistical results indicated that the maricultural area increased radically during the past 40 years, from 1979 (116.47×103 ha) to 2012 (2205.65×103 ha), with an increase of nearly 20-fold. Shandong Province represented the fastest-growing region, with an increase of 31-fold. Moreover, the cultivated species had gradually become diversified. Initially, shellfish and algae were major species, and then it developed to various species including fish, and currently shellfish and crustaceans were the major species. The development of mariculture was driven by government policies, market economy and technology innovation. Rapid development of mariculture also caused significantly adverse impacts on the eco-environment of the coastal regions. For example, the sea reclamation for mariculture decreased the area and function of coastal wetlands and the contaminants originating from mariculture destroyed the coastal aquatic environment. Fortunately, the implementation of ‘13th Five-Year Fisheries Planning’ is expected to help both improve the seafood quality and reduce the contamination in coastal aquatic environment. This current study will provide reference for management and structure adjustment of mariculture in the future.

Key words: mariculture, reclamation, coastal wetlands, aquatic environment pollution