留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

Path of Rural Sustainable Development Based on the Evolution and Interaction of Rural Functions: A Case Study of Chongqing Municipality, China

Ruilian DAI Cheng WANG Xinyue WU

DAI Ruilian, WANG Cheng, WU Xinyue, 2022. Path of Rural Sustainable Development Based on the Evolution and Interaction of Rural Functions: A Case Study of Chongqing Municipality, China. Chinese Geographical Science, 32(6): 1035−1051 doi:  10.1007/s11769-022-1312-2
Citation: DAI Ruilian, WANG Cheng, WU Xinyue, 2022. Path of Rural Sustainable Development Based on the Evolution and Interaction of Rural Functions: A Case Study of Chongqing Municipality, China. Chinese Geographical Science, 32(6): 1035−1051 doi:  10.1007/s11769-022-1312-2

doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1312-2

Path of Rural Sustainable Development Based on the Evolution and Interaction of Rural Functions: A Case Study of Chongqing Municipality, China

Funds: Under the auspices of National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2018YFD1100804-03)
More Information
    • 关键词:
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  / 
    •  
  • Figure  1.  Research framework of rural production-living-ecological functions

    Figure  2.  Administrative divisions of Chongqing Municipality, China

    Figure  3.  Spatial distribution of the rural production function of Chongqing Municipality in 2009, 2014 and 2019

    Figure  4.  Spatial distribution of the rural living function of Chongqing Municipality in 2009, 2014 and 2019

    Figure  5.  Spatial distribution of the rural ecological function of Chongqing Municipality in 2009, 2014 and 2019

    Figure  6.  Chongqing’s Local Indicators Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA) of production and living function of Chongqing Municipality in 2009, 2014 and 2019

    Figure  7.  Chongqing’s Local Indicators Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA) of production and ecological function of Chongqing Municipality in 2009, 2014 and 2019

    Figure  8.  Chongqing’s Local Indicators Spatial Autocorrelation ( LISA) of living and ecological function of Chongqing Municipality in 2009, 2014, 2019

    Figure  9.  Spatial distribution of rural sustainable development types in Chongqing

    Table  1.   Evaluation index system of rural function of Chongqing Municipality, China

    Element layerPrimary indicatorsSecondary indicatorsIndex interpretation and calculation methodPositive and negativeWeight
    Production function Agricultural production Per capita arable land / ha Area of arable land divided by the total rural population + 0.074
    Per capita grain output / t Total grain production divided by the total rural population + 0.394
    Agricultural commercialisation rate / % Agricultural output divided by gross output + 0.089
    Non-agricultural production Non-farm employment structure / % Rural non-farm employed population divided by total rural employed population + 0.041
    Per capita gross output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery services / 10000 yuan (RMB) Total output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery services divided by total rural population + 0.374
    Second, tertiary industry development level / % Gross output value of secondary and tertiary industries divided by GDP + 0.028
    Living function Living security Per capita housing area of rural residents / m2 Reflecting the basic housing conditions of rural residents + 0.022
    Per capita disposable income of rural residents / yuan (RMB) Reflects the average income level of rural residents in the region + 0.173
    Rural Engel’s coefficient / % Total food expenditure divided by total household or personal consumption expenditure 0.073
    Social security Density of road network / % Sum of the land used for rural roads, railways and roads divided by the total area + 0.287
    Level of rural power facilities / kWh Rural electricity consumption divided by the total population of the countryside + 0.421
    Number of hospital beds per 10000 rural residents Total number of hospital beds divided by the total rural population + 0.024
    Ecological function Ecological stability Forest coverage / % Forest area divided by total area + 0.054
    Density index of water network / % Regional water area divided by total area + 0.046
    Biological richness index (–) Number of biological species per unit area + 0.114
    Ecological supply Agricultural fertiliser application intensity / (t/ha) Amount of chemical fertiliser applied divided by the area under cultivation 0.269
    Pesticide application intensity / (t/ha) Amount of pesticides applied divided by the area under cultivation 0.333
    Water and soil loss rate / % Soil erosion area divided by the total area 0.184
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Correlation coefficient of rural functions in Chongqing Municipality, China

    Rural functionsProduction functionLiving functionEcological function
    200920142019200920142019200920142019
    Production function0.526**0.565**0.469**−0.482**−0.369**−0.196**
    Living function0.526**0.565**0.469**−0.291**−0.50**−0.172**
    Ecological function−0.482**−0.369**−0.196**−0.291**−0.500**−0.172**
    Note: ** indicates significant correlation at the 0.01 level (bilateral)
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1] An Yue, Zhou Guohua, He Yanhua et al., 2018. Research on the functional zoning and regulation of rural areas based on the production-life-ecological function perspective: a case study of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan area. Geographical Research, 37(4): 695–703. (in Chinese)
    [2] Anselin L, 1995. Local indicators of spatial association—LISA. Geographical Analysis, 27(2): 93–115. doi:  10.1111/j.1538-4632.1995.tb00338.x
    [3] Atun R A, Nafa H, Türker Ö O, 2019. Envisaging sustainable rural development through ‘context-dependent tourism’: case of northern Cyprus. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 21(4): 1715–1744. doi:  10.1007/s10668-018-0100-8
    [4] Baski J, Stola W, 2002. Transformation of the spatial and functional structure of rural areas in Poland. Rural Studies, 3: 1–12.
    [5] Chen Yangfen, Huang Xiujie, Wang Lijuan, 2018. China’s rural revitalization and its evaluation from the perspective of multifunctional theory. Chinese Journal of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, 39(6): 201–209. (in Chinese)
    [6] Fang Yangang, Liu Jisheng, 2015. Diversified agriculture and rural development in China based on multifunction theory: beyond modernization paradigm. Acta Geographica Sinica, 70(2): 257–270. (in Chinese)
    [7] Fleischer A, Tchetchik A, 2005. Does rural tourism benefit from agriculture. Tourism Management, 26(4): 493–501. doi:  10.1016/j.tourman.2003.10.003
    [8] He Lei, 2014. Background, path and experience of rural transformation development in Korea. Agricultural Economy, (12): 28–30. (in Chinese)
    [9] Hedlund M, Carson D A, Eimermann M et al., 2017. Repopulating and revitalising rural Sweden? Re-examining immigration as a solution to rural decline. The Geographical Journal, 183(4): 400–413. doi:  10.1111/geoj.12227
    [10] Holmes J, 2006. Impulses towards a multifunctional transition in rural Australia: gaps in the research agenda. Journal of Rural Studies, 22(2): 142–160. doi:  10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.08.006
    [11] Hong Huikun, Liao Heping, Li Tao et al., 2016. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of rural space function based on entropy value method and Dagum Gini coefficient. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 32(10): 240–248. (in Chinese)
    [12] Howe C, Suich H, Vira B et al., 2014. Creating win-wins from trade-offs? Ecosystem services for human well-being: a meta-analysis of ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies in the real world. Global Environmental Change, 28: 263–275. doi:  10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.07.005
    [13] Hu Q Y, Wang C, 2020. Quality evaluation and division of regional types of rural human settlements in China. Habitat International, 105: 102278. doi:  10.1016/j.habitatint.2020.102278
    [14] Kang Qing, Guo Qingxia, Ding Yi et al., 2021. Tradeoffs/synergies analysis of ‘Production-Living-Ecological’ functions in Shanxi Province. Journal of Natural Resources, 36(5): 1195–1207. (in Chinese)
    [15] Kawate T, 2005. Rural revitalization and reform of rural organizations in contemporary rural Japan. Journal of Rural Problems, 40(4): 393–402. doi:  10.7310/arfe1965.40.393
    [16] Li Xin, Fang Bin, Yin Rumeng et al., 2019a. Spatial-temporal change and collaboration/trade-off relationship of “production-living-ecological” functions in county area of Jiangsu province. Journal of Natural Resources, 34(11): 2363–2377. (in Chinese)
    [17] Li Y H, Westlund H, Liu Y S, 2019b. Why some rural areas decline while some others not: an overview of rural evolution in the world. Journal of Rural Studies, 68: 135–143. doi:  10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.03.003
    [18] Liang Longwu, Chen Mingxing, Lu Dadao, 2022. Revisiting the relationship between urbanization and economic development in China since the reform and opening-up. Chinese Geographical Science, 32(1): 1–15. doi:  10.1007/s11769-022-1255-7
    [19] Liu C, Xu Y Q, Lu X H et al., 2021. Trade-offs and driving forces of land use functions in ecologically fragile areas of northern Hebei Province: spatiotemporal analysis. Land Use Policy, 104: 105387. doi:  10.1016/j.landusepol.2021.105387
    [20] Liu Yansui, Liu Yu, Chen Yufu, 2011. Territorial multi-functionality evaluation and decision-making mechanism at county scale in China. Acta Geographica Sinica, 66(10): 1379–1389. (in Chinese)
    [21] Liu Y S, 2018. Introduction to land use and rural sustainability in China. Land Use Policy, 74: 1–4. doi:  10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.01.032
    [22] Long Hualou, Zhang Yingnan, Tu Shuangshuang, 2018. Land consolidation and rural vitalization. Acta Geographica Sinica, 73(10): 1837–1849. (in Chinese)
    [23] Maes J, Paracchini M L, Zulian G et al., 2012. Synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem service supply, biodiversity, and habitat conservation status in Europe. Biological Conservation, 155: 1–12. doi:  10.1016/j.biocon.2012.06.016
    [24] Pugliese P, 2001. Organic farming and sustainable rural development: a multifaceted and promising convergence. Sociologia Ruralis, 41(1): 112–130. doi:  10.1111/1467-9523.00172
    [25] Qian Caiyun, Gong Jie, Zhang Jinxi et al., 2018. Change and tradeoffs-synergies analysis on watershed ecosystem services: a case study of Bailongjiang Watershed, Gansu. Acta Geographica Sinica, 73(5): 868–879. (in Chinese)
    [26] Qian Lingyan, Gan Liang, Zhang Li et al., 2020. The functional restructuring and endogenous development of rural areas in Germany. Urban Planning International, 35(5): 6–13. (in Chinese)
    [27] Qu Yanbo, Wang Shilei, Zhao Lijun et al., 2020. Spatial pattern and regional regulation of rural territorial multi-functions in Shandong Province, China. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 36(13): 222–232. (in Chinese)
    [28] Tan Xuelan, Ouyang Qiaoling, An Yue et al., 2019. Evolution and driving forces of rural functions in urban agglomeration: a case study of the Chang-Zhu-Tan region. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 29(8): 1381–1395. doi:  10.1007/s11442-019-1665-3
    [29] Wang Cheng, He Yanzhou, 2020. Spatio-temporal differentiation and differentiated regulation of the vulnerability of rural production space system in Chongqing. Acta Geographica Sinica, 75(8): 1680–1698. (in Chinese)
    [30] Wang Cheng, Peng Qing, Tang Ning et al., 2018. Spatio-temporal Evolution and the Synergy and Trade-off Relationship of Cultivated Land Multi-function in 2005−2015: A Case of Shapingba District, Chongqing City. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 38(4): 590–599. (in Chinese)
    [31] Wang Cheng, Ren Meijing, Fan Rongrong, 2021. Study on sustainable development capacity of villages and towns and its types based on the framework of potential-support-resilience. Journal of Natural Resources, 36(12): 3069–3083. (in Chinese)
    [32] Wang Fuxi, Mao Aihua, Li Helong et al., 2013. Quality measurement and regional difference of urbanization in Shandong province based on the Entropy method. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 33(11): 1323–1329. (in Chinese)
    [33] Wang Pengtao, Zhang Liwei, Li Yingjie et al., 2017. Spatio-temporal characteristics of the trade-off and synergy relationships among multiple ecosystem services in the Upper Reaches of Hanjiang River Basin. Acta Geographica Sinica, 72(11): 2064–2078. (in Chinese)
    [34] Wang Quanxi, Sun Pengju, Liu Xuelu et al., 2020. Analysis on spatial-temporal pattern of trade-offs and synergies of ‘production-living-ecological’ function in loess hilly and gully region-A case study of Wushan county. Chinese Journal of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, 41(11): 122–130. (in Chinese)
    [35] Wang R Y, Eisenack K, Tan R, 2019. Sustainable rural renewal in China: archetypical patterns. Ecology and Society, 24(3): 32. doi:  10.5751/ES-11069-240332
    [36] Wang X H, Feng Z M, 2002. Sustainable development of rural energy and its appraising system in China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 6(4): 395–404. doi:  10.1016/S1364-0321(02)00007-2
    [37] Wang Y F, Liu Y S, Li Y H et al., 2016. The spatio-temporal patterns of urban-rural development transformation in China since 1990. Habitat International, 53: 178–187. doi:  10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.11.011
    [38] Willemen L, Hein L, van Mensvoort M E F et al., 2010. Space for people, plants, and livestock? quantifying interactions among multiple landscape functions in a Dutch rural region. Ecological Indicators, 10(1): 62–73. doi:  10.1016/j.ecolind.2009.02.015
    [39] Woods M, 2008. Social movements and rural politics. Journal of Rural Studies, 24(2): 129–137. doi:  10.1016/j.jrurstud.2007.11.004
    [40] Xu Kai, Fang Yangang, 2021. Rural multi-function evaluation and evolution characteristics in Liaoning province. Economic Geography, 41(1): 147–157. (in Chinese)
    [41] Zhang Bailin, Zhang Fengrong, Gao Yang et al. , 2014 Identification and spatial differentiation of rural settlements’ multifunction. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 30(12): 216–224. (in Chinese)
    [42] Zhong L N, Wang J, Zhang X et al., 2020. Effects of agricultural land consolidation on ecosystem services: trade-offs and synergies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 264: 121412. doi:  10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121412
  • [1] Hongjiao QU, Yajing YIN, Junli LI, Wenwen XING, Weiyin WANG, Cheng ZHOU, Yunhua ZHANG.  Spatio-temporal Evolution of the Agricultural Eco-efficiency Network and Its Multidimensional Proximity Analysis in China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2022, 32(4): 724-744. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1296-y
    [2] Jinxian CAO, Shengning LI, Qingyuan YANG.  Polarization or Diffusion? Spatio-temporal Evolution of Urban Technological Innovation Capacity in China’s Five Urban Agglomerations . Chinese Geographical Science, 2022, 32(6): 946-962. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1309-x
    [3] Weiguang FAN, Pingyu ZHANG, Lianjun TONG, Chenggu LI, Xin LI, Jing LI, Zuopeng MA.  Green Development for Supporting Sustainability of Northeast China: Performance Quantification, Spatio-temporal Dynamics and Implications . Chinese Geographical Science, 2022, 32(3): 467-479. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1278-0
    [4] Mingyang CHENG, Huiling CHEN.  Spatio-temporal Evolution of the Rural Regional System and Its Evolution Mechanism in Huang-Huai-Hai Area of China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2022, (): 1-18. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1323-z
    [5] Xinyue WANG, Mengmeng WANG, Xuejing LU, Lizhen GUO, Ruixin ZHAO, Ranran JI.  Spatio-temporal Evolution and Driving Factors of the High-quality Development of Provincial Tourism in China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2022, 32(5): 896-914. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1307-z
    [6] Fuyou GUO, Siqi GAO, Lianjun TONG, Fangdao QIU, Hengzhou YAN.  Spatio-temporal Differentiation and Driving Factors of Industrial Ecology of Restricted Development Zone from Adaptive Perspective: A Case Study of Shandong, China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2021, 31(2): 329-341. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1184-x
    [7] Xiao WANG, Lei CHE, Liang ZHOU, Jiangang XU.  Spatio-temporal Dynamic Simulation of Land use and Ecological Risk in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration, China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2021, 31(5): 829-847. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1229-1
    [8] Tianshi GU, Peng ZHANG, Xujia ZHANG.  Spatio-temporal Evolution Characteristics and Driving Mechanism of the New Infrastructure Construction Development Potential in China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2021, 31(4): 646-658. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1214-8
    [9] YAO Yangyang, ZHANG Guojun, XU Zhihua, BIAN Yan.  Spatio-temporal Evolution of China's Economic Power Based on Asymmetric Theory . Chinese Geographical Science, 2020, 30(5): 765-775. doi: 10.1007/s11769-020-1148-6
    [10] YANG Zhen, ZHANG Xiaolei, LEI Jun, DUAN Zuliang, LI Jiangang.  Spatio-temporal Pattern Characteristics of Relationship Between Ur-banization and Economic Development at County Level in China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2019, 20(4): 553-567. doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1053-z
    [11] LI Bo, JIN Xiaoming.  Spatio-temporal Evolution of Marine Fishery Industry Ecosystem Vulnerability in the Bohai Rim Region . Chinese Geographical Science, 2019, 29(6): 1052-1064. doi: 10.1007/s11769-019-1076-5
    [12] WAN Jiangjun, DENG Wei, SONG Xueqian, LIU Ying, ZHANG Shaoyao, SU Yi, LU Yafeng.  Spatio-Temporal Impact of Rural Livelihood Capital on Labor Migration in Panxi, Southwestern Mountainous Region of China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2018, 28(1): 153-166. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0936-8
    [13] LIU Yaolin, YE Qingqing, LI Jiwei, KONG Xuesong, JIAO Limin.  Suitability Evaluation of Rural Settlements Based on Accessibility of Production and Living: A Case Study of Tingzu Town in Hubei Province of China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2016, 26(4): 550-565. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0771-0
    [14] NING Jia, LIU Jiyuan, ZHAO Guosong.  Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Disturbance of Land Use Change on Major Ecosystem Function Zones in China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2015, 25(5): 523-536. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0776-8
    [15] WANG Cheng, WANG Liping, JIANG Fuxia, LU Zhangwei.  Differentiation of Rural Households' Consciousness in Land Use Activities: A Case from Bailin Village, Shapingba District of Chongqing Municipality, China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2015, 25(1): 124-136. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0688-z
    [16] LIU Yong, WANG Cheng, YUE Wenze, HU Yanyan.  Storage and Density of Soil Organic Carbon in Urban Topsoil of Hilly Cities: A Case Study of Chongqing Municipality of China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2013, 23(1): 26-34.
    [17] LIU Yansui, WANG Guogang, ZHANG Fugang.  Spatio-temporal Dynamic Patterns of Rural Area Development in Eastern Coastal China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2013, 23(2): 173-181.
    [18] WANG Deli, FANG Chuanglin, GAO Boyang, et al..  Measurement and Spatio-temporal Distribution of Urbanization Development Quality of Urban Agglomeration in China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2011, 21(6): 685-707.
    [19] SHENG Ke-rong, FAN Jie, MA Hai-long.  SUSTAINABLE RURAL LIVELIHOOD AND ECOLOGICAL SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN UPPER REACHES OF CHANGJIANG RIVER——Case Study of Zhaotong of Yunnan Province . Chinese Geographical Science, 2006, 16(1): 32-40.
    [20] SHAO Jing-an, WEI Chao-fu, XIE De-ti.  SUSTAINABLE LAND USE PLANNING BASED ON ECOLOGICAL HEALTH——Case Study of Beiwenquan Town, Chongqing, China . Chinese Geographical Science, 2005, 15(2): 137-144.
  • 加载中
图(9) / 表ll (2)
计量
  • 文章访问数:  184
  • HTML全文浏览量:  66
  • PDF下载量:  31
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-14
  • 录用日期:  2022-03-12
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-11-03
  • 刊出日期:  2022-11-05

Path of Rural Sustainable Development Based on the Evolution and Interaction of Rural Functions: A Case Study of Chongqing Municipality, China

doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1312-2
    基金项目:  Under the auspices of National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2018YFD1100804-03)
    通讯作者: WANG Cheng. E-mail: wchorange@126.com

English Abstract

DAI Ruilian, WANG Cheng, WU Xinyue, 2022. Path of Rural Sustainable Development Based on the Evolution and Interaction of Rural Functions: A Case Study of Chongqing Municipality, China. Chinese Geographical Science, 32(6): 1035−1051 doi:  10.1007/s11769-022-1312-2
Citation: DAI Ruilian, WANG Cheng, WU Xinyue, 2022. Path of Rural Sustainable Development Based on the Evolution and Interaction of Rural Functions: A Case Study of Chongqing Municipality, China. Chinese Geographical Science, 32(6): 1035−1051 doi:  10.1007/s11769-022-1312-2
    • Research on multifunctional agriculture has gradually emerged and has gradually become a new paradigm to guide the development of agricultural and rural transformation (Fang and Liu, 2015). The multifunctional countryside is more from the perspective of space or urban-rural relationship, focusing on the functional characteristics that distinguish the countryside from the city. As socio-economic development continues, the demand for a variety of products and services produced in rural areas is changing. It is this change that drives the development and evolution of rural areas, and multifunctionality is the core driver of rural development. The multifunctional countryside can serve as a theoretical basis for explaining rural development in developed Western countries in recent decades (Holmes, 2006). Baski and Stola (2002) studied the transformation of the functional structure of countryside in Poland and found that the development of new economic activities promoted the non-agricultural functions in parts of the western and southern regions of Poland. Fleischer and Tchetchik (2005) studied the relationship between the production function and tourism and leisure function of cooperative farms through field research and analysis of 197 rural accommodation operators in Israel. Moreover, Willemen et al. (2010) classified the functions of rural areas in the Netherlands into seven functions, such as housing and cultural heritage, and studied the interaction between multiple functions based on this. Chinese scholars are also becoming aware of the multifunctional rural theory and have conducted related research. They applied the theory to China and began to explore the relationship amongst multi-functions (Liu et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2018; Qu et al., 2020; Xu and Fang, 2021). Fang (2015) discussed the diversification of rural development in China based on the theory of multi-function. The concept of ‘synergy and trade-off’ (Maes et al., 2012; Howe et al., 2014; Zhong et al., 2020) was later extended to the study of multi-function of cultivated land (Wang et al., 2017; 2018). Other scholars (Li et al., 2019a; Wang et al., 2020; Liu et al., 2021) further studied the function of territorial space. Scholars at abroad have carried out research on rural regional multifunctionality earlier, and have initially formed a set of systematic theoretical system and research methods.

      In the process of industrialization and urbanization, rural decline (Li et al., 2019b) has become a common phenomenon in countries around the world, which poses a great challenge to the sustainable development of the countryside (Pugliese, 2001). Scholars have studied this from the perspectives of land use (Liu, 2018), rural tourism (Atun et al., 2019), rural energy (Wang and Feng, 2002), and rural regeneration (Wang et al., 2019). Different countries have also taken different measures to promote sustainable rural development. (Hedlund et al., 2017. In the UK, comprehensive rural policies and development plans are formulated, regulations are strengthened and market instruments are used to promote rural socio-economic development (Woods, 2008). In Korea, the main role of villagers is emphasized and the harmonious development of the relationship between people and land is stressed (He, 2014). In Japan, the value of rural development is enhanced and rural revitalisation is promoted through comprehensive means such as land development plans (Kawate, 2005). In Germany, the countryside has undergone a long period of functional reconfiguration to ensure the sustainability of rural development by implementing the concept of endogenous development, enhancing the quality of rural space, improving the quality of life of residents and reducing land consumption (Qian et al., 2020). Since the reform and opening up, China’s industrialization and urbanization have achieved rapid development (Liang et al., 2022). However, the transfer of rural population and resources to the cities has led to the hollowing out of villages and an ageing population. The excessive expansion of urban construction land has encroached on rural space and threatened the red line of 1.8 × 108 mu (120 million ha) of arable land. Arable land abandonment and fragmentation limit agricultural scale operation. Pollution caused by a series of activities such as production and living in rural areas leads to environmental deterioration. The pathological transformation of the countryside brought about by the too frequent ‘material, information and energy flows’ between urban and rural areas has also led to a series of problems in the sustainable development of China’s countryside (Wang et al., 2021). Under the special national situation of ‘Urban-rural Duality’ (Wang et al., 2016), a road of rural revitalization with Chinese characteristics and in line with the characteristics of the development stage must be developed based on the national situation and the actual situation of rural areas in China, so as to achieve sustainable development of rural areas. In order to achieve rural revitalization, we must give full play to the unique functions and values of the countryside, regulate the interactions between the multi-functional functions of the countryside, and strengthen the endogenous development power of the countryside (Fang and Liu, 2015). This is not only plays a crucial role in the sustainable development of the countryside, but also has an impact on the modernization process of China.

      However, most of the relevant studies have focused on the evolution of rural functions, ignoring the impact of the interactions between rural multi-functions on sustainable rural development. In addition, relevant studies are mainly based on social and economic statistics, with less use of spatial data such as land use, and a single source of data. In light of this, this study takes 37 districts and counties in Chongqing (Yuzhong District has achieved 100% urbanization, so Yuzhong District is not included in this study) as the research object, and collects the vector and statistical data at different time points (2009, 2014, 2019) in Chongqing. The entropy value method and the weighted sum method are applied to quantitatively evaluate the rural spatial functions and analyze the general patterns of their spatial-temporal evolution. With the help of ArcGIS and Geoda software, the interactions between rural multi-function in time and space is quantitatively measured and expressed by introducing the concept of synergies and trade-offs of ecosystem services. Based on the above results, the rural villages in Chongqing are classified and the differentiated strategies for sustainable development in Chongqing are proposed. This study aims to enrich the multi-functional rural theory and provide theoretical guidance and practical reference for rural sustainable development.

    • Function, as one of the important attributes of rural areas, is an important representation of the interaction between people and land in the countryside. In order to realize the value and sustainable development of the countryside, it is bound to give full play to the synergistic interaction between the functions of the countryside. Rural functions can be summarized as the ecological function provided by the rural natural background, as well as the production and living functions endowed by the needs of human survival and development. This view has also been unanimously accepted by the academic circles (An et al., 2018; Li et al., 2019a). To conform to the actual process of rural development, we further subdivide the basic functions of the village. The rural production function refers to the ability to provide products and services through productive activities such as agricultural production, industrial production. With the acceleration of industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization, the production activities in rural space are gradually changing from traditional agricultural production to a combination of agricultural and non-agricultural production activities (Hong et al., 2016). The main forms of rural production function are industrial and employment structures, which represent the level of rural economy and production technology and carries the economic basis of rural development. The living function mainly refers to the ability to maintain and improve the quality of residents’ daily life, to carry living space and guarantee their material welfare. The influence of the living function on rural development is mainly reflected in the living and social security functions. The living security function refers to the protection of villagers’ basic living needs, including clothing, food, housing and transportation. The Social security function is reflected in the provision of employment opportunities, medical care, education, water and electricity facilities, etc. The rural ecological function refers to the ability to maintain the natural environment for human survival and provide for local ecological security. The effect of ecological function on rural areas is mainly reflected in ecological supply and ecological stability. Ecological supply means providing environmental negative entropy flow for the rural ecosystem to contain and eliminate pollutants to maintain rural ecological balance, provide ecological products and maintain ecosystem security. The function of ecological stability refers to the ability of the rural ecological background to resist external disturbances. The degree of ecological stability can be reflected by the status of maintaining the ecological balance in rural and the vulnerability of the rural ecological environment.

      Interactive relationships of synergy and trade-off exist amongst rural production, living and ecological functions (Kang et al., 2021), namely, mutual promotion and mutual restraint. Ecological environment is the background of the countryside, and the exertion of ecological functions provides an important guarantee for the realization of production and living functions. The production function is the basic function of the countryside, which can provide the economic foundation and material guarantee for the function of countryside life. However, as the scope and intensity of production activities of agriculture and other business entities expand, the ecological environment of the countryside becomes more and more serious, leading to the weakening and decline of ecological functions; on the one hand, the improvement of living function provides impetus for the objective evolution of production and ecological function. On the other hand, the expansion of living space will produce a certain squeeze on ecological space. When two or more functions form a synergistic relationship driven by specific factors (Wang et al., 2018; Qian et al., 2018), they will influence the material and immaterial elements of rural development from both the opposite sides of optimal allocation and effective management. By achieving structural optimisation and functional enhancement within the rural territorial system, it promotes the coordinated development of rural people, land and industry. Ultimately, the revitalisation of the countryside will be promoted in terms of prosperous industry, pleasant living environments, civilised countryside, effective governance and prosperous living, so as to achieve sustainable development of the countryside. On the contrary, the trade-off relationship between production-living-ecological functions is likely to cause conflicts in the countryside, leading to a series of problems, such as lagging industrial development, lower quality of life and deterioration of the ecological environment, thereby hindering rural sustainable development (Chen et al., 2018).

      Based on the above analysis, this study develops an analytic framework from the perspective of rural production-living-ecological functions. 1) Using relevant data and with the help of geo-spatial analysis technique, the study constructs an index system and evaluation model for rural function evaluation, and analyzes the spatial and temporal evolution patterns of rural functions. 2) Based on the evolution results of rural functions, the spatial correlation analysis method is applied to analyse the spatial-temporal relationship of the interaction amongst rural production-living-ecological functions (Fig. 1). The aim is to realize rural revitalisation and sustainable rural development by promoting the synergy of functions.

      Figure 1.  Research framework of rural production-living-ecological functions

    • Chongqing is the only municipality in the western China. The city contains 38 administrative districts (counties), covering an area of 8.24 × 104 km2 (Fig. 2). The topography and the landform types of Chongqing are rich and vary. Among them, 76% are mountains, 22% are hills, and only 2% are valleys and flat dam areas. The topography of Chongqing influences the land use and spatial layout of the Chongqing countryside. Chongqing is an important central city in China, an economic centre in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, an important national modern manufacturing base, a comprehensive transportation hub in the southwest and an inland open centre city. Chongqing is also an experimental zone of China’s urban-rural reforms and a frontier in the construction of a new socialist countryside. In 2019, the city’s permanent resident population was 31.2432 million, and the rural population was 10.3733 million. Since the reform and opening up, Chongqing’s urbanization rate has rapidly increased from less than 13.0% in 1978 to 66.8% in 2019 (Wang and He, 2020). The rapid expansion of urban construction space has accelerated the expansion and transformation of rural functions. Since Chongqing became a municipality directly under the central government, it has always focused on the integration of ‘people, land and industry’ in the countryside, and has carried out a lot of pilot projects in many aspects, such as the land ticket system, the creation of special agricultural industries, the return of rural workers to their hometowns to start businesses, and the reform of rural land system. The massive rural construction has disrupted the process of rural development in Chongqing, accelerated the change of human land relationship, the renewal of industrial structure and the change of interest conflict among multiple subjects in rural areas, resulting in the change of rural functions, which puts forward higher requirements for Chongqing villages to improve their endogenous power and enhance the collaborative relationship between rural functions to promote rural sustainable development. In addition, Chongqing has the characteristics of ‘big city, big rural area, big mountainous area, big reservoir area and minority area as a whole’, and there are obvious differences in the rural functions of each district and county in Chongqing. Therefore, it is important to study the evolution and interaction of multiple rural functions in Chongqing to clarify the intrinsic dynamics of rural development, find the path to achieve sustainable rural development, and help revitalize the rural areas in the western China.

      Figure 2.  Administrative divisions of Chongqing Municipality, China

    • We have cooperated with the Chongqing Municipal Bureau of Planning and Natural Resources on various projects for more than ten years and accumulated a large amount of data. In addition, the research team has visited the villages in various districts and counties of Chongqing for many times in 2019 and 2020, and obtained data and materials of local rural areas through field photography and field recordings, which laid a solid data foundation for this study. The research data mainly include spatial and attribute data. The spatial vector data including Land Use Changing Investigation Data, administrative boundary data and DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data come from Chongqing Planning and Natural Resources Bureau and Bigemap data platform (http://www.bigemap.com). Among them, the vector data of land use changing investigation has the field of ‘name of located unit’, and the research data required for the spatial unit of this study can be obtained by the zoning statistics according to the ‘name of located unit’. Attribute data mainly include social-economic data and ecological environment data. Social and economic data are obtained from the Chongqing Statistical Yearbook, Chongqing Economic Yearbook, Chongqing Survey Yearbook and the statistical yearbook of 37 districts (http://tjj.cq.gov.cn/zwgk_233/tjnj/202012/t20201214_8606164.html). Then, ecological data were obtained from the Chongqing Water and Soil Bulletin and Chongqing Forestry Resources Bulletin (http://tjj.cq.gov.cn). In addition, the biological richness index refers to the technical specification for evaluation of ecological environment condition (HJ/T 192−2015), which determines the richness index impact factor weights. The calculation formulas are as follows: biological richness index = 0.35 × woodland area ratio + 0.21 × grassland area ratio + 0.28 × water wetland area ratio + 0.11 × arable land area ratio + 0.04 × construction land area ratio + 0.01 × unused land area ratio.

    • (1) Establishment of an index system

      By extracting the common indicators of similar studies (Hong et al., 2016; Wang and Tang, 2018; Tan et al., 2019; Qu et al., 2020) combined with the individual indicators needed for this study, and then fully considering the feedback from farmers during the research process, this paper follows the principles of scientificity, accessibility and representativeness, and establishes an index system for rural function evaluation, including the following 18 indicators (Table 1).

      Table 1.  Evaluation index system of rural function of Chongqing Municipality, China

      Element layerPrimary indicatorsSecondary indicatorsIndex interpretation and calculation methodPositive and negativeWeight
      Production function Agricultural production Per capita arable land / ha Area of arable land divided by the total rural population + 0.074
      Per capita grain output / t Total grain production divided by the total rural population + 0.394
      Agricultural commercialisation rate / % Agricultural output divided by gross output + 0.089
      Non-agricultural production Non-farm employment structure / % Rural non-farm employed population divided by total rural employed population + 0.041
      Per capita gross output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery services / 10000 yuan (RMB) Total output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery services divided by total rural population + 0.374
      Second, tertiary industry development level / % Gross output value of secondary and tertiary industries divided by GDP + 0.028
      Living function Living security Per capita housing area of rural residents / m2 Reflecting the basic housing conditions of rural residents + 0.022
      Per capita disposable income of rural residents / yuan (RMB) Reflects the average income level of rural residents in the region + 0.173
      Rural Engel’s coefficient / % Total food expenditure divided by total household or personal consumption expenditure 0.073
      Social security Density of road network / % Sum of the land used for rural roads, railways and roads divided by the total area + 0.287
      Level of rural power facilities / kWh Rural electricity consumption divided by the total population of the countryside + 0.421
      Number of hospital beds per 10000 rural residents Total number of hospital beds divided by the total rural population + 0.024
      Ecological function Ecological stability Forest coverage / % Forest area divided by total area + 0.054
      Density index of water network / % Regional water area divided by total area + 0.046
      Biological richness index (–) Number of biological species per unit area + 0.114
      Ecological supply Agricultural fertiliser application intensity / (t/ha) Amount of chemical fertiliser applied divided by the area under cultivation 0.269
      Pesticide application intensity / (t/ha) Amount of pesticides applied divided by the area under cultivation 0.333
      Water and soil loss rate / % Soil erosion area divided by the total area 0.184

      The rural production function mainly includes agricultural and non-agricultural production. Agricultural production refers to the use of the natural productivity of the land and the ability to obtain grain, oil, vegetables, fruits and other crops. Then, non-agricultural production refers to the production function other than agricultural production, that is, the provision of industrial and other products and services, which has been continuously enhanced with the diversified development of rural industry types. Indicators of per capita arable land, per capita grain output and agricultural commercialisation rate can represent agricultural production function. The non-agricultural production function is represented by the non-farm employment structure, the per capita gross output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery services and the development level of secondary and tertiary industries. The above indicators are all positive. As the value increases, the production function in the region becomes stronger.

      The rural living function mainly includes two aspects: living security and social security. The indicators of life security cover rural residents’ per capita housing area, rural residents’ per capita disposable income and rural Engel’s coefficient. The indicators of the number of hospital beds per ten thousand rural residents, the density of road network and the level of rural power facilities can reflect the social security function. Amongst the above indicators, rural Engel’s coefficient is a negative index. As the value increases, the living function becomes weaker. The rest indicators were positive, and as the value increases, the living function of the region becomes stronger.

      The rural ecological function mainly includes two aspects, namely, ecological supply and ecological stability. Three negative indicators, including the intensity of fertiliser application, pesticide application and soil and water loss rate, are selected to reflect the environmental pollution degree. As the value increases, the ecological stability function becomes weaker. The indicators of forest coverage rate, water network density index and biological richness index can reflect the ecological supply function.

      (2) Indicator weight set

      In this study, the range standardisation method (Hu and Wang, 2020) is adopted to standardise the indicator values. In view of the considerable data and different dimensions of the indicators selected in this study, the entropy value method in the objective weighting method is adopted to overcome the arbitrariness and randomness of the subjective weighting method. The specific formula is detailed in references (Wang et al., 2013).

      (3) Evaluation model of rural function

      Combined with the standardised value and weight of each evaluation index, the score of the rural function in each evaluation unit is calculated. The calculation formula is as follows:

      $$ {D}_{i}=\sum _{{j}=1}^{{m}}{W}_{j}{Z}_{i j} $$ (1)

      where $ {D}_{i} $ is the score of rural function, and $ {W}_{j} $ is the weight of the j-th evaluation index, and $ {Z}_{i j} $ denotes the standard values for raw data (m = 18 in this study).

    • Spatial autocorrelation analysis is a spatial statistical method that reveals the regional structure of spatial variables. The bivariate local space autocorrelation analysis model improves the shortcoming of the previous spatial autocorrelation analysis with only one variable. In the bivariate local space autocorrelation analysis, there is no essential difference in the spatial correlation characteristics of the independent variables and dependent variables after the exchange. Therefore, in this study, local spatial autocorrelation analysis method was used to analyze the synergy/trade-off relationship between two functions by selecting one function value as the independent variable and the spatial lag of the other function value as the dependent variable (Anselin, 1995). The spatial weights are first-order Rook adjacency matrices, and combined with the results of the Z-value test, Local Moran’s I can decompose the values into homogeneous functional value clustering regions (high-high area (H-H), low-low area(L-L)) with spatial synergistic relationships and heterogeneous clustering regions (low-high area (L-H), high-low area (H-L)) with spatial trade-off relationships (Li et al., 2019a).

    • In different periods of village development, the dominant function that plays a decisive role in the development of the countryside is the dominant function of the area (Zhang et al., 2014). Drawing on existing research, the locational entropy method is used to measure the dominant function of rural Chongqing. The calculation formulas are as follows:

      $$ {I}_{_{i j}}={q}_{_{i j}}/\sum _{{i}=1}^{{n}}{q}_{_{i j}} $$ (2)
      $$ {P}_{_{i j}}={\sum _{{i}=1}^{{m}}}{q}_{_{i j}}/{\sum _{{j}=1}^{{m}}}{\sum _{{i}=1}^{{n}}}{q}_{_{i j}} $$ (3)
      $$ \;{\beta }_{i j}={I}_{i j}/{P}_{i j} $$ (4)

      where n is the number of village function types i, and m is the number of districts and counties in Chongqing (j); n = 3, m = 37. qij is the value of function i of the village in the jth district and county, $ {I}_{ij} $ is the share of the value of function i of the village in the jth district and county in all functions of the village in the jth district and county; Pij is the share of the value of function i of the village in all districts and counties in all functions of the village in the jth district and county; βij is the degree of dominance of function i of the jth district and county village. If βij =1, it means that the i-function of the cultivated land in the jth district reaches the average level of the i-function of all district villages; βij < 1, it means that it does not reach the average level; βij >1 means that the i-function of the jth district village has a significant comparative advantage among the i-functions of all district villages.

    • With the help of Arcgis10.2 software, the scores of each research unit are spatially linked with the research unit in vector format, and the spatial distribution map of sub dimension of the rural function in Chongqing is drawn. As shown in Fig. 3, the rural production function scores in Chongqing presents an upward tendency in 2009–2019. The reason for this is that from 2009 to 2019, under the strategic transformation of the macroeconomic normal of the country, rural production in Chongqing gradually shifted from a focus on quantity to a focus on efficiency. The per capita grain output in 2019 is 35 times higher than in 2009, and the agricultural production function is steadily improving. In addition, the non-agricultural production function has been gradually strengthened, mainly reflected in the rapid growth of the per capita gross output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery services. Specifically, in 2009, the range of rural production function value is 0.024–0.073 in Chongqing. Due to the strong socio-economic conditions, the high-value areas are concentrated in the mid-west area, such as Dadukou, Jiulongpo and Fuling districts. The low-value areas are concentrated in the eastern and northeastern hilly areas, where production conditions and living infrastructure are poor. The main influencing factors of rural production function are agricultural commercialisation rate and per capita arable land in this period. In 2014, the rural production function value ranges from 0.043 to 0.173. The high-value areas are distributed in Xiushan County, Nanchuan District, Shapingba District, Banan District and Rongchang District. With the exception of Xiushan County, these districts and counties are mainly located in the central and western regions of Chongqing. The per capita grain output is the key influencing factor. In 2019, the range of rural production function value is 0.050–0.202. The high-value areas are found at Nanchuan District, Rongchang District, Yongchuan District, Tongliang District and Xiushan County. Except for Yubei District, Banan District, Dadukou District, Jiangbei District, Shapingba District and Wanzhou District, the rural production function value of other districts and counties are rising slowly. In terms of the spatial dimension, Fig. 3 shows the overall characteristics of Chongqing’s rural production function in the central and western regions of ‘high in the west and low in the east’ and the local characteristics of ‘low in the middle and high around’. Due to the superior terrain conditions and economic and social conditions, high production function areas are concentrated in the central and western regions. The low production function is concentrated in the hilly areas in the southeast and northeast, where the production conditions and living infrastructure are relatively poor and the rural production function is relatively slow to be upgraded, resulting in insufficient endogenous impetus for rural development and limiting the prospects for rural development.

      Figure 3.  Spatial distribution of the rural production function of Chongqing Municipality in 2009, 2014 and 2019

      As shown in Fig. 4, the rural living function increased gradually in Chongqing in 2009–2019. The reason is that since the implementation of the new rural construction program in 2009, the relevant government departments have increased their investment in infrastructure, the living standard of rural residents has been improving, per capita disposable income of rural residents has been increasing, and social welfare has been gradually guaranteed. In 2009, the rural living function value range is 0.020–0.218. The high-value areas are located in the urban zone, such as Dadukou, Shapingba and Beibei districts. The low-value areas are concentrated in the east, including Chengkou, Wuxi and Youyang Counties. In this period, the main influencing factors of the rural living function are density of road network and rural Engel’s coefficient. Compared with 2009, the value of rural living function shows an upward trend in 2014. The range of rural production function value is 0.039–0.362 in 37 counties and districts of Chongqing Municipality. The high-value area is still in Chongqing urban zone, and the score of living function in Wuxi County is the lowest. In 2019, the rural living function value range is 0.084–0.397. The high value areas are distributed in Dadukou, Bishan, Shapingba and Beibei Districts. Except for Beibei District, the value of rural living function is slowly increasing in all districts and counties. Per capita disposable income of rural residents and level of rural power facilities becomes critical factors. From a spatial perspective, Fig. 4 depicts the regional features of ‘height in the middle and low around the middle’ in the mid-western regions and the overall spatial differentiation of ‘high in the west and low in the east’. The reason for this is that under the influence of Chongqing’s rural construction policy, all districts and counties are enhancing their living functions. However, influenced by the economic radiation of the core region, the economic base and development opportunities of the villages in the central and western regions are significantly higher than those of other regions, mainly because of their higher level of rural power facilities and density of road network.

      Figure 4.  Spatial distribution of the rural living function of Chongqing Municipality in 2009, 2014 and 2019

      As shown in Fig. 5, the value of rural ecological function in Chongqing increases steadily in 2009–2019. Under the impetus of new urbanization and industrialization, the rural production mode gradually changes from traditional crude type to modern intensive type, and biological richness index and forest coverage rate first decreases and then increases, indicating that the destruction of ecological function is mitigated. With the reduction of agricultural fertilizer and pesticide application intensity and water and soil loss rate, the ecological function of the countryside has been significantly improved. Specifically, the rural ecological function value ranges from 0.054 to 0.144 in 2009. The high-value areas are distributed in the eastern districts and counties, such as Chengkou, Fengjie, Wushan, Wuxi and Shizhu Counties. The low-value areas are concentrated in the west including Dianjiang, Dazu, Rongchang and Yongchuan Districts. In this period, the main influencing factors of rural ecological function are forest coverage rate and density index of water network. Compared with 2009, the value of rural ecological function shows an upward trend in 2014. The rural ecological function value ranges from 0.073 to 0.162. The high value areas are still distributed in the eastern districts and counties. The key influencing factors remain unchanged. In 2019, the rural ecological function value ranges from 0.077 to 0.161. The rural ecological function values of all districts and counties are increasing slowly except in Yubei District, Chengkou County and Shizhu County. In the space dimension, the spatial heterogeneity of ecological functions is most prominent, presenting the overall spatial differentiation of ‘from northeast and southeast to the west decline gradually’ (Fig. 5). The high value ecological function areas are distributed in the eastern districts and counties, which are less disturbed by unreasonable human activities. In addition, ecological resources such as forests and organisms are abundant in this region, and the regulating capacity of the ecosystem is high. On the contrary, low-value areas are concentrated in the west, and these areas have low forest cover, biological richness and high soil erosion rate.

      Figure 5.  Spatial distribution of the rural ecological function of Chongqing Municipality in 2009, 2014 and 2019

    • Taking 37 districts and counties in Chongqing as the research objects, the correlations of the three functions of production function-living function, production function-ecological function, and living function-ecological function were calculated by applying the Band Collection tool under the Spatial Analyst tool (Wang et al., 2018) with the help of ArcGIS platform based on the raster data of the three functions (Table 2). The trade-off and synergy relationship between rural functions can be judged by the positive and negative value of the correlation coefficient, and the change in the strength of the trade-off and synergy can be judged by the temporal change of the correlation coefficient. According to the results of the statistical tests in Table 2, it can be seen that there is a significant positive correlation between the rural production and rural living functions 2009 to 2019, and the relationship between rural production and rural living functions is synergied. On the contrary, trade-off relationships between rural production and rural ecological functions, and between rural living and rural ecological functions dominated. Moreover, the intensity of relationship changed over time. In 2009–2014, the correlation coefficient between rural production and rural living functions increases from 0.526 to 0.565. The increased degree of coordination means that they play a mutually reinforcing role in the development of rural. In contrast, the correlation coefficient between rural production and rural living functions decreases to 0.469 in 2019. As the degree of synergy decreases, appropriate measures should be taken to regulate the relationship properly. In 2009–2019, the correlation coefficient between rural production and rural ecological functions increases from −0.482 to −0.196. The degree of trade-off decreases. This shows that Chongqing has achieved good results in ‘development in conservation and conservation in development’. The correlation coefficient between rural living and rural ecological functions decreases from −0.291 to −0.50 first and then increases to −0.172. In order to achieve a good interaction between living and ecological functions, measures for interventions and adjustments are also needed.

      Table 2.  Correlation coefficient of rural functions in Chongqing Municipality, China

      Rural functionsProduction functionLiving functionEcological function
      200920142019200920142019200920142019
      Production function0.526**0.565**0.469**−0.482**−0.369**−0.196**
      Living function0.526**0.565**0.469**−0.291**−0.50**−0.172**
      Ecological function−0.482**−0.369**−0.196**−0.291**−0.500**−0.172**
      Note: ** indicates significant correlation at the 0.01 level (bilateral)
    • In order to understand the spatial evolution of trade-offs/synergies relationships among rural functions in Chongqing, the function values calculated by Formula 1 were assigned to the vector layer, and then the vector layer was imported into the GeoDa software. Bivariate local spatial autocorrelation analysis of rural functions was conducted in the spatial module, and the significance of the analysis results were all above 99%. In the bivariate spatial autocorrelation analysis, both high-high clustering and low-low clusters indicate synergistic relationships, while both high-low clustering and low-high clusters indicate trade-off relationships.

      With the Moran’s I index is 0.384, −0.033 and −0.167, respectively, in 2009, 2014 and 2019, the rural production and living functions show the change from positive to negative spatial autocorrelation. As shown in Fig. 6, from 2009 to 2019, the areas with ‘L-L’ synergy relationship between production and living functions are mainly located in the northeastern part of Chongqing, whose villages are in the Three Gorges reservoir area, with poor production conditions, insufficient infrastructure and public services, and low living standards due to the topography, and spatial performance is low-low agglomeration, with the number of ‘L-L’ agglomeration units gradually increasing. In 2019, the ‘H-H’ synergistic relationship occurs mainly in Shapingba and Jiangjin Districts. The reasons for this are that Shapingba District is located in the main urban area, with better infrastructure conditions, good rural production conditions and high living standards of villagers; Jiangjin District has been focusing on rural development and is a pilot unit for the construction of rural governance system. In addition, the government also attaches great importance to the development of Jiangjin modern agricultural park and Chongqing Jiangjin industrial park. The living standard of villagers has been improving, which shows high aggregation in space. Areas with strong production function are more likely to form population concentration, and non-agricultural economic activities can sustain a larger population. Meanwhile, population aggregation and good infrastructure can cause a series of space economic and social effect, thereby forming the coordinated relationship between rural production and living functions. From 2009 to 2019, the areas of ‘L-H’ trade-off relationship are mainly located in the western part of Chongqing, among which Beibei District is the most typical. The reason is that agricultural production in Beibei District is relatively underdeveloped, but as a representative of ‘livable city’, villagers have a high quality of life and spatially exhibit ‘L-H’ aggregation. The areas of ‘H-L’ trade-off relationship are mainly distributed in Yunyang County, Fengdu County, and Qianjiang District.

      Figure 6.  Chongqing’s Local Indicators Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA) of production and living function of Chongqing Municipality in 2009, 2014 and 2019

      Through the spatial autocorrelation analysis of the production and ecological functions by Geoda, we find that the Moran’s I index is −0.346, −0.124 and −0.049, respectively, in 2009, 2014 and 2019. The spatial correlation between production and ecological functions is manifested with a negative spatial correlation, as shown in Fig. 7. The production and ecological functions of Chongqing countryside are dominated by the ‘L-H’ trade-off relationship and the ‘H-L’ trade-off relationship in space. The reasons for this are that areas with good ecological environment have more forest resources and other restrictions on development; chemical fertilizers, pesticides and mulch plastic films play a positive role in agricultural development, but also bring serious agricultural non-point source pollution. On the contrary, the reduction of productive land such as arable land will limit the production level to a certain extent, which creates a trade-off effect relationship between production and ecological functions. Specifically, from 2009 to 2019, the number of areas where the production and ecological functions belong to the ‘L-H’trade-off relationship gradually decreases, mainly located in the northeast of Chongqing. These areas are positioned as national key ecological function areas, and the main task is ecological conservation, so production development is relatively insufficient. Spatially, it mainly shows the ‘L-H’ clustering of production and ecological functions. The ‘H-L’ trade-off relationship is mainly distributed in the western part of Chongqing, which mainly reflects that the governments of these districts and counties pay more attention to production but not enough measures to protect ecology forming the ‘H-L’ clustering of production and ecological functions spatially. The ‘L-L’ synergistic relationship areas mainly include Beibei, Bishan and Tongnan Districts, where the production function and ecological function form a ‘L-L’ spatial concentration, and the rural production function and ecological function in Pengshui County are ‘H-H’ synergistic relationship in both 2014 and 2019. While developing tourism, the government of Pengshui County attaches importance to the protection of the ecological environment and control of soil erosion and rock desertification. As a result, a synergistic relationship is formed between rural production function and ecological function.

      Figure 7.  Chongqing’s Local Indicators Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA) of production and ecological function of Chongqing Municipality in 2009, 2014 and 2019

      We obtain the Moran’s I index −0.393, −0.381 and −0.432 in 2009, 2014 and 2019, respectively, with the help of Geoda and by analysing the spatial autocorrelation of the living and ecological functions (Fig. 8). In 2009–2019, the correlation of the living and ecological functions presented as increased negative spatial relationships and the number of districts and counties with significant agglomeration initially decreases and then remains stable. Overall, from 2009 to 2019, the trade-off between living and ecological functions is spatially dominant in Chongqing. ‘L-L’ synergistic relationship areas are mainly located in Tongnan, Hechuan, Dazu, Tongliang and Rongchang Districts in the western part of Chongqing. The areas with ‘H-L’ trade-off relationship are distributed in Beibei, Bishan, Yongchuan and Shapingba Districts. In these districts, the ecosystems are under great pressure and the proportion of non-ecological land in these areas is high, resulting in a trade-off relationship between rural living and ecological functions. The districts and counties with ‘L-H’ trade-off relationship are distributed in Fengjie County, Wuxi County, Wushan County, Pengshui County, and Kaizhou District. The rich forest resources and species diversity bring about an ecosystems with high ecological supply capacity. However, due to the geographical conditions of the mountainous areas, accessibility is relatively weak, which is not conducive to population clustering and lack of additional development opportunities. Inadequate supply of rural public infrastructure and a single source of income in rural areas are problems that hinder the improvement of people’s living standards.

      Figure 8.  Chongqing’s Local Indicators Spatial Autocorrelation ( LISA) of living and ecological function of Chongqing Municipality in 2009, 2014, 2019

    • In the process of rapid urbanization, rural functions have experienced a single-to-multiple development (Woods, 2011). Correctly identifying the advantageous functions of rural areas in each region and giving full play to the synergy of ‘production-living-ecological’ is of positive significance in enhancing the endogenous development momentum of rural areas and promoting sustainable rural development. Therefore, based on the results of the identification of the functional strengths of each district and county in Chongqing, the 37 districts and counties in Chongqing are divided into four different types according to the principle of ‘ecological priority-classified regulation-highlight emphasis-local adaption’, and differentiated strategies are proposed for various types (Fig. 9).

      Figure 9.  Spatial distribution of rural sustainable development types in Chongqing

      (1) Areas with comparative advantages in production and living function. This kind of regions includes Banan District, Dazu District, Liangping District, Tongnan District, Yongchuan District, Yubei District. These districts are characterised by evident advantages in the production and living functions and relatively weak ecological functions. Therefore, the focus of regulation is to highlight the advantages of the ‘production-living’ function, enhance the synergistic and interactive relationship between the two, focus on improving the ecological function of the countryside, and comprehensively improve the endogenous power of rural development. On the one hand, we focus on improving the development level and comprehensive competitiveness of the main urban areas. On the other hand, we strengthen land space planning and usage control and carry out an ecological redline for strict protection on key ecological functional zones and prime farmland protection area. By focusing on enhancing ecological functions and achieving a positive interaction between functions, we can promote sustainable rural development.

      (2) Areas with comparative advantages in production and ecological function. This kind of regions includes Fengdu County, Fengjie County, Fuling District, Kaizhou District, Pengshui County, Qianjiang District, Shizhu County, Wuxi County, Wulong District, Xiushan County, Yunyang County and Zhong County. Based on the status quo of rural development, the focus of regulation is to highlight its strong ‘production-ecological’ function and to reduce the degree of trade-off between the two, while continuously enhancing the living function. Firstly, we strengthen the ecological management of the three gorges reservoir area to realise the sustainability of ecological supply in the TGR area, and to continuously reduce the trade-off between production and ecological functions. Secondly, we optimize the traditional rural agriculture and develop the new industry pattern by taking advantage of the resources in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Thirdly, we enhance the supply of the infrastructure, improve the quality of public services and form the rural material infrastructure network, which can play an important hub role for linking cities to promote rural development.

      (3) Areas with comparative advantages in living and ecological function. This kind of regions includes Jiangbei District and Nanan District. The key point of regulation is to highlight the advantages of its strong 'living-ecology' function and enhance the production function. On the one hand, we prioritise the ecological development of the town group in Northeast Chongqing and build a 'town group' well. On the other hand, we promote intensive and suitable land use, industrial agglomeration development, population concentration in the areas suitable for development. We also strengthen the demonstration function of the construction of the ecological industry system in Northeast Chongqing, thus enhancing the endogenous development momentum of villages.

      (4) Areas with dominant function. This kind of regions has strengths in only one function, the dominant function. The areas dominated by production function include Dianjiang County, Hechuan District, Jiangjin District, Nanchuan District, Qijiang District, Rongchang District, Tongliang District and Changshou District. This type of rural area actively seeks government support to enhance the level of infrastructure and development potential while performing productive functions, and simultaneously improving living standards and the ecological environment. The areas dominated by living function include Beibei District, Bishan District, Dadukou District, Jiulongpo District, Shapingba District. This type of countryside is close to the main urban area of Chongqing and needs to play the role of radiation from the main urban area to enhance the productive and non-agricultural production functions of the countryside. In addition, the government and society should train more talents in agriculture and guide them to return to the countryside to build and provide human resources for the sustainable development of the countryside. The areas dominated by ecological function include Chengkou County, Wanzhou District, Wushan County, Youyang County. On the one hand, we promote green and ecological products based on ecological resources and regional ethnic characteristics; on the other hand, we promote the integration of culture and tourism in mountainous town clusters and actively carry out construction and improvement of infrastructure and other facilities in a bid to create a new benchmark for the integration of culture and tourism.

    • As one of the attributes of rural areas, the rural function is the appearance of human-land interaction in rural areas. Through literature combing and field research, this study divides rural functions into production function, living function and ecological function, and further divides the sub-functions. The function comes from a spatial entity but is not limited to the specific boundaries of space (e.g., the ecological redline). The key to maximizing the value of the countryside and achieving sustainable rural development is to make the most of its functions. Through the process of rational spatial reallocation and quantity rematching between rural socio-economic development factors and land resources in rural functions, the relationship amongst rural production, living and ecological functions can be coordinated. Furthermore, the synergy between functions can be formed. Based on meeting the different needs of different types of land space development subjects, delimiting the development and utilisation pattern of land space and coordinating resources will be a benefit to improving the endogenous dynamics of rural development. In this way, the sustainable development of rural human and land industry (Long et al., 2018) can be promoted, and rural revitalisation can be realized.

      As the only municipality directly under the central government in western China, Chongqing’s rural development is more complex and different due to the influence of economic, social, ecological and environmental factors. Based on this, 37 districts and counties in Chongqing are selected as the study area for this study. According to the results of the study, the overall level of rural development in Chongqing is high, but the development is unbalanced between regions. In general, production and living functions are high in the west and low in the east, and ecological functions are high in the east and low in the west. The results of this study are similar to the research results of Hong Huikun and Wang Cheng (Hong et al., 2016; Wang and Tang, 2018) and others, which laterally prove the feasibility of the index system established in this study. In the context of rural transformation, how to recognize and grasp the complex dynamic changes in the countryside? How to implement the policy of prioritizing agricultural and rural development to achieve rural revitalization, and how to avoid risks and truly achieve sustainable development of the countryside are also issues of continuous concern to the country. The Strategic Plan for Rural Revitalization (2018–2022) states, ‘the trend of significant rural differentiation and diversity differentiation in China’s rural will continue, and the unique value and multiple functions of the countryside will be further explored and expanded’. Based on this, this study further explores the spatial and temporal changes in the intensity and direction of interactions between rural functions. The results of the study indicate that the interaction between production and living functions is dominated by synergistic relationships. This is due to the fact that areas with stronger production functions tend to experience population clustering, which in turn generate certain spatial economic effects and provides a demographic threshold for improving public facilities for rural infrastructure. By attracting resource capital, these areas have increased the opportunities for rural development, improved the development level of villagers, and gradually formed a synergistic relationship between production and living functions. The interaction between production and living functions and between living and ecological functions is dominated by trade-off relationships. With the development of non-agricultural industries, non-agricultural construction land occupies ecological land, the abuse of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and mulch in agricultural production produces agricultural surface pollution, and irrational irrigation causes soil erosion, etc., which damages the ecological environment, thus creating a trade-off relationship between production and ecological functions. Areas with strong ecological functions are mostly mountainous. These areas have poor location conditions, a weak industrial base, inadequate public infrastructure, and a single source of income for farmers, which is also not conducive to large-scale population clustering. Areas with strong living function have frequent human activities, a high proportion of non-ecological land, threatened species diversity, and weak ecological function, resulting in a trade-off relationship between living function and ecological function.

      The sustainable development of the countryside is a grand proposition for China, a country with a large population, and a scientific issue that requires sustained exploration. It is a very worthwhile scientific issue to analyze the variability of villages and their differentiation process and evolutionary trends from the functional perspective, and to explore the development paths of villages in different regions and development stages to achieve wealth and beauty in an orderly manner. Based on the current status of functional evolution and their interactions of villages in different districts and counties of Chongqing, this study classifies them and proposes suggestions and countermeasures for sustainable development of villages by calculating their functional dominance degrees. In general, the problem of unbalanced rural development in Chongqing is more prominent. Therefore, it is recommended to speed up the establishment of convenient and fast transportation links in space, break the functional spatial separation between districts and counties, and realize spatial span. Secondly, we should encourage some of the better-based districts and counties in northeast and southeast of Chongqing to speed up their development, enhance their production and living functions, and play their demonstration and driving role, while increasing the support and development efforts for the less basic districts and counties. Finally, regardless of the type of countryside, it is important to maintain its functional advantages that distinguish it from other districts and counties. It is necessary to create basic conditions conducive to the development of the countryside, to form ‘special industries’ with unique advantages, and to strengthen the construction of the ecological environment, according to the functional advantages of the countryside in different regions.

    • In the context of the new era, the plurality of development goals and the diversity of social needs have accelerated the transformation and development of rural multi-function, making different types of rural territorial systems carry multiple functions and manifest multiple values at the same time. From the perspective of rural functions, this study uses the entropy and weighted sum methods to quantitatively evaluate the rural spatial functions and analyze the general patterns of their spatial and temporal evolution. The results of the study show that the production, living and ecological functions of rural Chongqing have been significantly enhanced from 2009 to 2019. Among them, the rural production function has increased the most. From a spatial perspective, the more developed main urban areas of Chongqing exhibit higher production and living functions and lower ecological functions, while the mountainous and hilly areas in northeastern Chongqing and southeastern Chongqing exhibit the opposite situation. In response to this situation, relevant authorities need to invest more human, material and financial resources in northeastern and southeastern Chongqing to help their rural development. The city proper of Chongqing and the western part of Chongqing need to pay more attention to ecological protection while developing.

      By introducing the concept of trade-off and synergy in ecosystem services, the interactions between rural multi-function in time and space are quantitatively measured and expressed with the help of ArcGIS and GeoDa software. The results show that the production and living functions in the rural areas of Chongqing districts and counties are dominated by synergistic and interactive relationships. In contrast, the interaction between rural ecological functions and living and production functions is a trade-off relationship in most areas. However, this interaction is not static and changes over time, nor is the interaction between rural functions in different districts and counties set in stone. This is due to the different resource endowments of villages and the inconsistent development needs of villages at different stages, which results in the evolution of the strengths and weaknesses of village functions and the interactive changes between functions. According to the regional characteristics and the relative advantageous functions of the countryside, Chongqing can be divided into four types: areas with comparative advantages in production and living function, areas with comparative advantages in production and ecological function, areas with comparative advantages in living and ecological function, and areas with dominant function. In order to achieve rural revitalization, all types of regions need to adopt different means to effectively plan the coordinated development of rural functions and implement differentiated sustainable development strategies.

参考文献 (42)

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回