2022 Vol. 32, No. 2

Display Method:
Bibliometric Review of Biodiversity Offsetting During 1992−2019
Shuling YU, Baoshan CUI, Chengjie XIE, Ying MAN, Jing FU
2022, 32(2): 189-203. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1265-5
Biodiversity offsetting plays a crucial role in managing the impacts of development on natural habitats. Developers, conservation groups, governments and financial institutions have used biodiversity offsetting to design measurable conservation actions to compensate for significant residual adverse biodiversity impacts arising from development. However, the concepts and methodologies of biodiversity offsetting have rarely been systematically reviewed, and best practices are still lacking. This hinders the development and applications of this field, and makes it difficult for new researchers to learn, develop, and apply biodiversity offsetting. This paper aims to review research progress on biodiversity offsetting during the period of 1992 to 2019. We mainly used bibliometric analysis and social network analysis methods to expose the topic diversity, development and promotion of this research field, and assess collaboration among biodiversity offsetting scholars. Our research identified 1190 records, and revealed that the total number of publications increased rapidly since 2002. The most productive journal, country, and author were Biological Conservation, USA, and Dr. Maron M of University of Queensland, respectively. Co-author analysis identified that the 23 authors most relevant to biodiversity offsetting were involved in a collaboration network. And they were mainly from 30 countries in a collaboration network, and the authors from USA, Australia and the United Kingdom have the most cooperation, which mainly driven by policy related to biodiversity offsetting. Our review shows that biodiversity offsetting research is at an early stage of rapid development with topically diverse and collaborative science domains. The majority of studies focus on terrestrial environments, which makes the implementation of aquatic ecosystem is more difficult. Theoretical problems and the implications of research evolution and social network in biodiversity offsetting are discussed, and further development of the theory and methodologies of biodiversity offsetting and management was recommend.
A New Indicator for Global Food Security Assessment: Harvested Area Rather Than Cropland Area
Fengjiao SONG, Shijie WANG, Xiaoyong BAI, Luhua WU, Jinfeng WANG, Chaojun LI, Huan CHEN, Xuling LUO, Huipeng XI, Sirui ZHANG, Guofeng LUO, Mengqi YAN, Qingqing ZHEN
2022, 32(2): 204-217. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1264-6
Cropland area has long been used as a key indicator of food security. However, grain yield is not solely controlled by the area of the cropland. Therefore, we proposed a new indicator to assess food security. Results show that from 1992 to 2004, the global cropland area increased by 840 200 km2 (99.4%), but the grain yield increased only by 310 million t (29.1%); and from 2004 to 2015, the cropland area decreased by 39 000 km2 (4.64%), but the grain yield increased by 370 million t (70.84%). This result showed that grain yield was not linearly correlated with cropland area, and delimiting the threshold of cropland protection may not guarantee food security. Combined with further correlation analysis, we found that the increase in the global grain yield was more closely related to the harvested area (R2 = 0.94), which indicated that the harvested area is a more scientific and accurate indicator than cropland area in terms of guaranteeing food security. Therefore, if governments want to ensure the food security, they should choose a new and more accurate indicator: harvested area rather than cropland area.
Spatial-temporal Evolution Characteristics and Decoupling Analysis of Influencing Factors of China’s Aviation Carbon Emissions
Ruiling HAN, Lingling LI, Xiaoyan ZHANG, Zi LU, Shaohua ZHU
2022, 32(2): 218-236. doi: 10.1007/s11769-021-1247-z
The aviation industry has become one of the top ten greenhouse gas emission industries in the world. China’s aviation carbon emissions continue to increase, but the analysis of its influencing factors at the provincial level is still incomplete. This paper firstly uses Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology model (STIRPAT) model to analyze the time series evolution of China’s aviation carbon emissions from 2000 to 2019. Secondly, it uses the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LDMI) model to analyze the influencing characteristics and degree of four factors on China’s aviation carbon emissions, which are air transportation revenue, aviation route structure, air transportation intensity and aviation energy intensity. Thirdly, it determines the various factors’ influencing direction and evolution trend of 31 provinces’ aviation carbon emissions in China (not including Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan of China due to incomplete data). Finally, it derives the decoupling effort model and analyzes the decoupling relationship and decoupling effort degree between air carbon emissions and air transportation revenue in different provinces. The study found that from 2000 to 2019, China’s total aviation carbon emissions continued to grow, while the growth rate of aviation carbon emissions showed a fluctuating downward trend. Air transportation revenue and aviation route structure promote the growth of total aviation carbon emissions, and air transportation intensity and aviation energy intensity have a restraining effect on the growth of total aviation carbon emissions. The scope of negative driving effect of air transportation revenue and air transportation intensity on total aviation carbon emissions in various provinces has increased. While the scope of positive driving influence of aviation route structure on total aviation carbon emissions of various provinces has increased, aviation energy intensity mainly has negative driving influence on total aviation carbon emissions of each province. Overall, the emission reduction trend in the areas to the west and north of the Qinling-Huaihe River Line is obvious. The decoupling mode between air carbon emissions and air transportation revenue in 31 provinces is mainly expansion negative decoupling. The air transportation intensity effect shows strong decoupling efforts in most provinces, the decoupling effort of aviation route structure effect and aviation energy intensity effect is not prominent.
Urban Chemical Industrial Cluster Area Restructuring and Determinants: A Case Study of a Typical Old Chemical Industry Area Along the Yangtze River, China
Hui ZOU, Xuejun DUAN, Tingting JIN
2022, 32(2): 237-250. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1267-3
China is in a transitional period between urban renewal and industrial change. In this period, the focus has been on the suburbanization of enterprises and land transformation in old industrial areas, particularly areas with chemical industries. A life cycle theoretical framework was established to develop chemical industrial zones in the context of urban expansion and land function conversion. The long-term historical processes and mechanisms that transformed a typical old chemical industry area along the Yangtze River, Yanziji Area of Nanjing City were unveiled and comparatively analyzed. The study found that the entire life cycle of the case study area was formed through the combined action of different influencing factors. Traditional industrial location factors played important roles during the rise and continuity of the chemical industry zone, while unconventional environmental regulations and government policies drove its decline and transformation. In the transformation of the old chemical zone, the renewal and redevelopment of industrial land into higher-value residential land is a key link determining the feasibility of government fund compensation and the circulation of capital. These findings demonstrate that regional control and environmental regulation play crucial roles in determining the location of polluting industries and the renewal of urban industrial areas. This research enhances the understanding of the development history and reconstruction of chemical industry clusters and plots within megacities at a finer geographic scale.
Measurement and Evolution of High-quality Development Level of Marine Fishery in China
Bo LI, Zun LIU
2022, 32(2): 251-267. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1263-7
High-quality development of marine fisheries provides an important advantage for China to build itself into a maritime power and implement the Blue Granary Plan effectively. Based on the concepts of ‘new development’, ‘food security’, and the six dimensions of ‘openness, innovation, coordination, green, sharing, and security’, in this study, we established an evaluation index system for the high-quality development of China’s marine fishery sector. We applied the entropy method to evaluate the high-quality development level of China’s marine fishery sector from 2000 to 2016 and explored its spatial and temporal evolution rules. Our results indicated that: 1) from 2000 to 2016, China’s marine fishery sector was in the primary stage of high-quality development; 2) spatially, the high-quality development of marine fisheries showed an upward trend in all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in the country (not including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan of China), and with time, the distribution pattern changed from single to multi-polarization; 3) temporally, the development level of high-quality marine fisheries fluctuated during the study period. From 2000 to 2010, the growth rate in openness was relatively slow, but after 2010, it increased rapidly. Notably, innovation is the driving force for high-quality development. The green and security factors provide a solid guarantee for high-quality development. In the high-quality development of a region, economic development is better coordinated, and the distribution of benefits is more inclusive. This study provides a theoretical basis to formulate effective marine fishery policies for the high-quality development of the marine fishery sector in China. Exploring the high-quality development and evolution process of marine fishery is conducive to promoting the sustainable development of marine fishery industry, ensuring marine fishery food security, and alleviating global food crisis.
The Middle-aged and Knowledge Workers: Demographic and Economic Changes in the Pearl River Delta, China
Pengfei FENG, GROWE Anna, Yuming SHEN
2022, 32(2): 268-284. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1266-4
Demographic and economic development can be seen as two sides of one coin in the process of regional development. This article deals with how economic and demographic changes influence the settlement structure and development of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and lead to regionalization processes within the large agglomerations. The aim of the study was to understand the interrelation between the three aspects: economic change, demographic change and change of spatial structures. Based on population age and occupational data, spatial changes in demographic structure and economic activities from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed. It was found that the demographic and economic change reflected changing spatial patterns between the urban centers and the hinterland in the PRD. Two processes were apparent during the studied period in the hinterlands and the high-density areas of the PRD. On one hand, the hinterlands in the PRD attracted more manufacturing activities, while the inner high-density areas experienced a decrease in manufacturing, associated with an increase in young labor in regions where workplaces that only required limited education expanded. On the other hand, specialization in knowledge-intensive business services increased in the inner high-density areas, which also saw an increased share in the older population. This finding suggests that increasing knowledge-intensive work correlates with higher age structures due to the longer formal education required and also the benefits knowledge workers accrue through experience and gained knowledge over time. Therefore, based on a transformation process, we tentatively conclude that the populations in high-density areas in the PRD became more middle-aged and were represented by more knowledge workers.
Spatio-temporal Variations of Temperature and Precipitation During 1951–2019 in Arid and Semiarid Region, China
Yufei HUANG, Chunyan LU, Yifan LEI, Yue SU, Yanlin SU, Zili WANG
2022, 32(2): 285-301. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1262-8
Understanding the spatio-temporal variations of temperature and precipitation in the arid and semiarid region of China (ASRC) is of great significance for promoting regional eco-environmental protection and policy-making. In this study, the annual and seasonal spatio-temporal patterns of change in average temperature and precipitation and their influencing factors in the ASRC were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test, linear tendency estimation, accumulative anomaly and the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The results showed that both annual average temperature and average annual precipitation increased in the ASRC during 1951–2019. The temperature rose by about 1.93℃ and precipitation increased by about 24 mm. The seasonal average temperature presented a significant increase trend, and the seasonal precipitation was conspicuous ascension in spring and winter. The spatio-temporal patterns of change in temperature and precipitation differed, with the southwest area showing the most obvious variation in each season. Abrupt changes in annual and seasonal average temperature and precipitation occurred mainly around the 1990s and after 2000, respectively. Atmospheric circulation had an important effect on the trends and abrupt changes in temperature and precipitation. The East Asian summer monsoon had the largest impact on the trend of average annual temperature, as well as on the abrupt changes of annual average temperature and precipitation. Temperature and precipitation changes in the ASRC were influenced by long-term and short-term as well as direct and indirect anthropogenic and natural factors. This study identifies the characteristics of spatio-temporal variations in temperature and precipitation in the ASRC and provides a scientific reference for the formulation of climate change responses.
Value Assessment of Wetland Ecosystem Services in the Da Hinggan Mountains, China
Tingting ZHANG, Xianguo LYU, Yuanchun ZOU, Jiping LIU, Ming JIANG, Chunguang XU, Cuicui ZHOU, Chen XU, Zhenshan XUE
2022, 32(2): 302-311. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1268-2
This study examined regional differences in ecosystem services for the Da Hinggan Mountains (DHM), China. A correction index was constructed based on ten-year average net primary productivity (NPP) data. A new equivalent factor table that was suitable for the assessment of wetlands in the DHM was formed by using the expert weight determination method (EWDM). An evaluation model was established for evaluating the ecosystem service value (ESV) of wetlands in the DHM. The results show that in 2020, the total ESV of wetlands reached 93 361 ×106 USD, with the forest swamp and marsh ecosystems contributing the most. From the perspective of value composition, regulating services and supporting services are the main service functions of wetlands in the DHM. From 2010 to 2020, ESV provided by wetlands increased by 4337 × 106 USD/yr in the DHM. The value of forest swamp and peatland ecosystems increased by 18.6% and 12.7%, respectively, whereas the value of swamp, shrub swamp, and marsh decreased. The research results are of significance for contributing to local government performance evaluation and determining financial compensation for the provision of wetland ecosystem services.
Ecological Land Suitability for Arid Region at River Basin Scale: Framework and Application Based on Minmum Cumulative Resistance (MCR) Model
Wei WEI, Congying LIU, Libang MA, Xueyuan ZHANG, Binbin XIE
2022, 32(2): 312-323. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1261-9
As an important and typical arid inland region in China, Shiyang River Basin plays an important role in maintaining the sustainable development of eco-environment, whose ecological land suitability restricts the development of the local human activities. Therefore, Shiyang River Basin was selected as the case study, the minimum cumulative resistance (MCR) model and GIS technique were integrated to create land suitability evaluation map. We calculated the MCR value of ecological source and living source, and divided the whole basin into five partitions according to the difference between ecological source and living source, and analyzed the patterns and characteristics of the ecological land suitability evaluation (ELSE) regions, respectively. The results showed that: 1) The suitable ecological land includes prohibited development region and restricted development region, which accounts for 15.45% and 23.35% of the total land area of the Shiyang River Basin, respectively. These two regions mainly distributed high altitude region in the southern Qilian Mountain and low altitude region where had high density of rivers. 2) The protection of ecological land requires not only conserving existing ecological land but also focusing on ecological buffer belts around ecological sources and improving ecological land service ability. 3) Ecological networks should be constructed through artificial planting trees around the boundary of oasis and ecological restoration region. Buffer greenbelts should also be established between optimized development region and ecological restoration region.
Stability of Land-use/Land-cover in National Nature Reserves of Jilin Province, China
Yi SHANG, Dongyan WANG, Shuhan LIU, Hong LI
2022, 32(2): 324-339. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1269-1
National nature reserves are an important part of classification management on ecological protection in China. Taking the national nature reserves of Jilin Province as examples, this paper introduced the stability index by referring to the intensity model of land-use and land-cover change (LUCC), and analyzed the overall stability of land-use and land-cover (LULC) in the study area from the time interval level and land category level. The stability of LULC in different types of nature reserves was tracked and identified by extracting land-use change trajectory, and the land-use change trajectory was divided into three types: stable type, sub-stable type and unstable type. The impact of LUCC on regional ecosystem services was studied by using hotspot analysis and gravity center analysis. The results showed that: 1) The LULC in the study area was stable on the whole, and the proportion of stable land area reached 86.08%. The intensity of LUCC showed an increasing trend in recent 20 years, and the conversion of cultivated land and construction land was active in continuous time interval. 2) The stability of LULC in forest ecological reserves and wildlife reserves in the eastern part of Jilin Province was the highest, while that in inland wetland reserves and geological relic reserves in the central and western part of Jilin Province was lower.3) The LUCC in national nature reserves not only changed the value of its own ecosystem service function, but also affected the ecosystem service function of the whole region. The combination of intensity analysis and land-use change trajectory was used to identify the characteristics of stability of LULC in nature reserves, which was conducive to deeply understand the process of LUCC in national nature reserves and provided reasonable suggestions for regional ecological protection.
Seasonal Responses of Net Primary Productivity of Vegetation to Phenological Dynamics in the Loess Plateau, China
Hongzhu HAN, Jianjun BAI, Gao MA, Jianwu YAN, Xiaohui WANG, Zhijie TA, Pengtao WANG
2022, 32(2): 340-357. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1270-8
With global warming, the great changes in the patterns of plant growth have occurred. The conditions in early spring and late autumn have changed the process of vegetation photosynthesis, which are expected to have a significant impact on net primary productivity (NPP) and affect the global carbon cycle. Currently, the seasonal response characteristics of NPP to phenological changes in dryland ecosystems are still not well defined. This article calibrated and analyzed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series of Advanced Very-High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data from 1982 to 2015 in the Loess Plateau, China. The spatial and temporal distributions of vegetation phenology and NPP in the Loess Plateau under semihumid and semiarid conditions were investigated. The seasonal variation in the NPP response to vegetation phenology under the climate change was also analyzed. The results showed that, different from the northern forest, there was distinct spatial heterogeneity in the effect of climate change on the dynamic change in vegetation growth in the Loess Plateau: 1) an advance of the start of the growing season (SOS) and a delay of the end of the growing season (EOS) significantly increased the NPP in spring and autumn, respectively, in the humid southeast; 2) in the arid northwest, the NPP did not significantly increase in spring and autumn but significantly decreased in summer.
Spatial-temporal Analysis and Prediction of Precipitation Extremes: A Case Study in the Weihe River Basin, China
Dexun QIU, Changxue WU, Xingmin MU, Guangju ZHAO, Peng GAO
2022, 32(2): 358-372. doi: 10.1007/s11769-022-1271-7
Extreme precipitation events bring considerable risks to the natural ecosystem and human life. Investigating the spatial-temporal characteristics of extreme precipitation and predicting it quantitatively are critical for the flood prevention and water resources planning and management. In this study, daily precipitation data (1957–2019) were collected from 24 meteorological stations in the Weihe River Basin (WRB), Northwest China and its surrounding areas. We first analyzed the spatial-temporal change of precipitation extremes in the WRB based on space‐time cube (STC), and then predicted precipitation extremes using long short-term memory (LSTM) network, auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), and hybrid ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD)-LSTM-ARIMA models. The precipitation extremes increased as the spatial variation from northwest to southeast of the WRB. There were two clusters for each extreme precipitation index, which were distributed in the northwestern and southeastern or northern and southern of the WRB. The precipitation extremes in the WRB present a strong clustering pattern. Spatially, the pattern of only high-high cluster and only low-low cluster were primarily located in lower reaches and upper reaches of the WRB, respectively. Hot spots (25.00%–50.00%) were more than cold spots (4.17%–25.00%) in the WRB. Cold spots were mainly concentrated in the northwestern part, while hot spots were mostly located in the eastern and southern parts. For different extreme precipitation indices, the performances of the different models were different. The accuracy ranking was EEMD-LSTM-ARIMA > LSTM > ARIMA in predicting simple daily intensity index (SDII) and consecutive wet days (CWD), while the accuracy ranking was LSTM > EEMD-LSTM-ARIMA > ARIMA in predicting very wet days (R95P). The hybrid EEMD-LSTM-ARIMA model proposed was generally superior to single models in the prediction of precipitation extremes.