2018 Vol. 28, No. 2

Display Method:
Changing Connectivities of Chinese Cities in the World City Network, 2010-2016
Ben DERUDDER, CAO Zhan, LIU Xingjian, SHEN Wei, DAI Liang, ZHANG Weiyang, Freke CASET, Frank WITLOX, Peter J. TAYLOR
2018, 28(2): 183-201. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0938-6
Against the backdrop of the sizable economic growth of China in recent years, this paper uses the most recent data gathering of the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) research network to update and supplement earlier research on the shifting global connectivity of Chinese cities. The update consists of an evaluation of the connectivity of Chinese cities in 2016, the supplement of an analysis of the changing position of Chinese cities in the world city network between 2010 and 2016. To this end, we build on a specification of the world city network as an ‘interlocking network’ in which producer services firms play the crucial role in city network formation. Information about the presence of leading producer services firms in cities in 2010 and 2016 is used as the input to a bipartite network projection algorithm in order to measure cities' network connectivity. The first set of results discusses the geographies of urban connectivity in the world city network in 2016. The second set of results discusses standardized measures of change to reveal the major dimensions of the transformations between 2010 and 2016. We find that, with the exception of Hong Kong, Macau and Kaohsiung of Taiwan, all Chinese cities record connectivity gains. This wholesale rise in connectivity is nonetheless geographically uneven, with above all Beijing, Chengdu/Chongqing and Changsha/Wuhan becoming more connected. We conclude that the wholesale rise of Chinese cities in the world city network and their changing trajectories in the post-crisis era are embedded in shifting external and internal political economies.
China's Global Shipping Connectivity: Internal and External Dynamics in the Contemporary Era (1890-2016)
Cesar DUCRUET, WANG Liehui
2018, 28(2): 202-216. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0942-x
China's global shipping connectivity had been somewhat overlooked as the bulk of related studies predominantly focused on the throughput volume of its own port cities. This article tackles such lacunae by providing a relational perspective based on the extraction of vessel movement archives from the Lloyd's List corpus. Two complementary analyses are proposed:long-term dynamics with all ships included (1890-2008) and medium-term dynamics focusing on container flows (1978-2016). Each analysis examines China's maritime connectivity in various ways and on different spatial scales, from the global to the local, in terms of concentration, vulnerability, and expansion. The main results underline the influence of technological, economic, and political factors on the changing distribution of connectivity internally and externally. In particular, China has managed to reduce its dependence upon external transit hubs, to increase the internal connectivity of its own port system, and to strengthen its dominance towards an increasing number of foreign nodes and trade partners through the maritime network.
How Chinese Financial Centers Integrate into Global Financial Center Networks: An Empirical Study Based on Overseas Expansion of Chinese Financial Service Firms
PAN Fenghua, HE Ziyun, Thomas SIGLER, Kirsten MARTINUS, Ben DERUDDER
2018, 28(2): 217-230. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0913-7
The increasing globalization of the Chinese economy has been enabled by both Chinese financial institutions operating globally as well as international firms operating within China. In geographical terms, this has been organized through a number of strategic cities serving as gateways for the exchange of financial functions, products and practices between China and the global economy. Drawing on location data of financial service firms in China listed on stock exchanges in Shenzhen, Shanghai and Hong Kong, this paper shows that Chinese financial firms are expanding globally and how Chinese financial centers are positioned and connected in the urban networks shaped by these financial service firms. It is found that Hong Kong, China, holds strategic positions in the integration of Chinese cities into global financial center networks, and that establishing a foothold in global financial centers such as New York and London has been a priority for Chinese financial institutions. The increasing capital flows directed by Chinese financial institutions suggests a shifting global financial geography, with numerous Chinese cities playing increasingly important roles within global financial center networks.
City Networks of Online Commodity Services in China: Empirical Analysis of Tmall Clothing and Electronic Retailers
XI Guangliang, ZHEN Feng, HE Jinliao, GONG Yanhao
2018, 28(2): 231-246. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0927-1
City networks have been a critical topic in the fields of urban geography and regional economics. Numerous studies have explored city networks, focusing mainly on infrastructure and industrial networks. Unlike traditional urban network of which the major measuring indexes are population sizes and entity industries, online commodity service networks could reflect well the influencing of emerging economies, especially the Internet economy, on city networks. This study analyzes and reveals structural features of China's city networks through online commodity services, providing the internet economic approach on city networks. Results indicate that the core cities of online commodity service networks are mainly concentrated in eastern coastal areas. In addition, spatial polarization and layer structure of network connections are obvious, descending from the centers in eastern China to peripheral cities in central and western China. Online commodity services of different cities show apparent differences and uncertainties in terms of specialization rates of international connection, which presents a tendency toward diversification. Online commodity service networks are not only associated with goods production, supply, and consumption in physical space but also reflect virtual information, capital, and technology flows, thus providing a new empirical approach for understanding city networks in information and internet economic age.
Articulating China's Science and Technology: Knowledge Collaboration Networks Within and Beyond the Yangtze River Delta Megalopolis in China
LI Yingcheng, Nicholas A. PHELPS
2018, 28(2): 247-260. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0944-8
In this paper, we reconsider the defining but often overlooked ‘hinge’ function of megalopolises by analyzing how megalopolises have articulated national and international urban systems in the context of a globalizing knowledge economy. Taking the case of China's Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, we particularly focus on knowledge circulation within and beyond the YRD region by analyzing the pattern and process of knowledge collaboration at different geographical scales during the 2004-2014 period. Results show that the structure of scientific knowledge collaboration as reflected by co-publications has been strongest at the national scale whereas that of technological knowledge collaboration as measured by co-patents has been strongest at the global scale. Despite this difference, the structure of both scientific and technological knowledge collaboration has been functionally polycentric at the megalopolitan scale but become less so at the national and global scales. The ‘globally connected but locally disconnected’ pattern of Shanghai's external knowledge collaboration suggests that the gateway role of the YRD megalopolis in promoting knowledge collaboration at different geographical scales will take time before it is fully realized.
Impact of Shipping Distance on Online Retailers' Sales: A Case Study of Maiyang on Tmall
ZHOU Chunshan, JIN Wanfu, ZHANG Guojun
2018, 28(2): 261-273. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0945-7
Many studies have qualitatively explained that information and communication technology (ICT) has loosened the restrictions of distance and space on retailers' sales. Few empirical studies, however, have explored the impact of shipping distance on online retailers' sales. This study examined the Maiyang (M-Y) store on Tmall in China as a case study to investigate the relationship between shipping distance and sales. The results showed that sales volume in 2014 at the county level did not strictly obey the distance decay law. The shipped distance of high-priced commodities may not be much longer than that of low-priced commodities. Within the scope of investigation, the relationships between income, cost, and net profit curves do not follow central place theory. Goods have neither thresholds nor ranges. The key factor in the spatial discrepancy of sales is the size of market. The impact of shipping distance on sales is not as strong as that of traditional retailers in Information Era.
Remote Sensing Data and SLEUTH Urban Growth Model: As Decision Support Tools for Urban Planning
2018, 28(2): 274-286. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0946-6
Sri Lanka is experiencing speedy urbanization by converting the agriculture land and other natural land cover into built-up land. The urban population of Sri Lanka is expected to reach to 60% by 2030 from 14% in 2010. The rapid growth in urban population and urban areas in Sri Lanka may cause serious socioeconomic disparities, if they are not handled properly. Thus, planners in Sri Lanka are in need of information about past and future urban growth patterns to plan a better and sustainable urban future for Sri Lanka. In this paper, we analyzed the characteristics of past land use and land cover trends in Matara City of Sri Lanka from 1980 to 2010 to assess the historic urban dynamics. The land use change detection analysis based on remote sensing datasets reveal that the conversion of homestead/garden and paddy into urban land is evident in Matara City. The historic urban trends are projected into the near future by using SLEUTH urban growth model to identify the hot spots of future urbanization and as well as the urban growth patterns in Matara City up to the basic administrative level, i.e., Grama Niladari Divisions (GND). The urban growth simulations for the year 2030 reveal that 29 GNDs out of 66 GNDs in Matara City will be totally converted into urban land. Whereas, 28 GNDs will have urban land cover from 75% to 99% by 2030. The urban growth simulations are further analyzed with respect to the proposed Matara city development plan by the Urban Development Authority (UDA) of Sri Lanka. The results show that the UDA's city development plan of Matara will soon be outpaced by rapid urbanization. Based on the calibration and validation results, the SLEUTH model proved to be a useful planning tool to understand the near future urbanization of Sri Lankan cities.
Developing China's National Emission Trading Scheme: Experiences from Existing Global Schemes and China's Pilot Programs
NING Bolun, ZHU Yongguan, XU Zhihong, FU Bojie
2018, 28(2): 287-295. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0947-5
Market-based emission trading schemes (ETSs) are widely used in the developed world to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which are perceived as the source of global climate change. China, as the largest GHG emitter in the world, is committed to introducing an ETS to reduce emissions. Here we reviewed existing ETSs and sustainable energy policies worldwide as well as China's pilot programs. These studies were conducted in order to propose recommendations for national initiatives and strategies to be implemented in China in relation to climate change adaptation and mitigation. It has been shown that setting emission caps in the context of a national emission intensity target is difficult. However, implementing reliable systems for measurement, reporting, and verification of emissions are essential. A two-level management system (by central and provincial governments) for carbon trading is beneficial to ensure uniform standards and compliance while maintaining flexibility. Persistent political support from, and effective coordination of, policies by the government are crucial. In addition, strengthening of institutional innovation, and the establishment of a national GHG emissions information system, are of equal importance. This vital information could provide a great opportunity for China to re-define its economic growth and take global leadership in combatting climate change.
Multi-scale Spatial Patterns and Influencing Factors of Rural Poverty: A Case Study in the Liupan Mountain Region, Gansu Province, China
MA Zhenbang, CHEN Xingpeng, CHEN Huan
2018, 28(2): 296-312. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0943-9
The important role of spatial scale in exploring the geography of poverty as well as its policy implications has been noticed but with limited knowledge. To improve such limited understanding, we mainly investigated the spatial patterns and influencing factors of rural poverty (indicated by poor population and poverty incidence) at three different administrative levels in the Liupan Mountain Region, one of the fourteen poorest regions in China. Our results show that from a global perspective, poor areas are clustered significantly at the county-, township-, and village-level, and more greatly at a lower level. Locally, there is spatial mismatch among poverty hotspots detected not only by the same indicator at different levels but also by different indicators at the same level. A scale effect can be found in the influencing factors of rural poverty. That is, the number of significant factors increases, but the degree of their association with poverty incidence decreases at a lower level. Such scale effect indicates that poverty incidence at lower levels may be affected by more complex factors, including not only the new local ones but also the already appeared non-local ones at higher levels. However, the natural conditions tend to play a scale-independent role to poverty incidence. In response to such scale-dependent patterns and factors, anti-poverty policies can be 1) a multilevel monitoring system to reduce incomplete or even misleading single-level information and understanding; 2) the village-based targeting strategy to increase the targeting efficiency and alleviate the mentioned spatial mismatch; 3) more flexible strategies responding to the local impoverishing factors, and 4) different task emphasises for multilevel policymakers to achieve the common goal of poverty reduction.
Spatio-temporal Difference and Influencing Factors of Environmental Adaptability Measurement of Human-sea Economic System in Liaoning Coastal Area
LI Bo, SHI Zhaoyuan, TIAN Chuang
2018, 28(2): 313-324. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0948-4
Adaptability theory is an important tool to analyze the degree, mechanism and process of interaction between human and environment, which provides a new perspective for the research of sustainability assessment. Based on the entropy weight-TOPSIS method and the panel Tobit model from the perspective of adaptability, spatio-temporal difference and influencing factors of environmental adaptability assessment of human-sea economic system in Liaoning coastal area was measured by using the city panel data from 2000 to 2014. The results indicate that:1) The environmental adaptability of human-sea economic system in Liaoning coastal area rose slowly from 2000 to 2014, the developing trend of each city was linearly related, and Dalian was in a leading position. 2) The different adaptability elements and adaptability subsystem show polarization phenomenon and completely different regional evolution characteristics. The adaptability of human-sea environment system and human-sea economic system rose slowly and had the characteristics of linear relationship, and the adaptability of human-sea environment system is the main reason for the difference of environmental adaptability of human-sea economic system. 3) Science and technology, environmental management, marine economic development level, port construction are the driving factors of the healthy development of environmental adaptability of urban human-sea economic system.
Effect of Wetland Reclamation on Soil Organic Carbon Stability in Peat Mire Soil Around Xingkai Lake in Northeast China
HUO Lili, ZOU Yuanchun, LYU Xianguo, ZHANG Zhongsheng, WANG Xuehong, AN Yi
2018, 28(2): 325-336. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0939-5
Content and density of soil organic carbon (SOC) and labile and stable SOC fractions in peat mire soil in wetland, soybean field and rice paddy field reclaimed from the wetland around Xingkai Lake in Northeast China were studied. Studies were designed to investigate the impact of reclamation of wetland for soybean and rice farming on stability of SOC. After reclamation, SOC content and density in the top 0-30 cm soil layer decreased, and SOC content and density in soybean field were higher than that in paddy field. Content and density of labile SOC fractions also decreased, and density of labile SOC fractions and their ratios with SOC in soybean field were lower than that observed in paddy field. In the 0-30 cm soil layer, densities of labile SOC fractions, namely, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), readily oxidized carbon (ROC) and readily mineralized carbon (RMC), in both soybean field and paddy field were all found to be lower than those in wetland by 34.00% and 13.83%, 51.74% and 35.13%, 62.24% and 59.00%, and 64.24% and 17.86%, respectively. After reclamation, SOC density of micro-aggregates (< 0.25 mm) as a stable SOC fraction and its ratio with SOC in 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm soil layers increased. SOC density of micro-aggregates in the 0-30 cm soil layer in soybean field was 50.83% higher than that in paddy field. Due to reclamation, SOC density and labile SOC fraction density decreased, but after reclamation, most SOC was stored in a more complex and stable form. Soybean farming is more friendly for sustainable SOC residence in the soils than rice farming.
Iron Regulation of Wetland Vegetation Performance Through Synchronous Effects on Phosphorus Acquisition Efficiency
JIA Xueying, TIAN Zhijie, QIN Lei, ZHANG Linlin, ZOU Yuanchun, JIANG Ming, LYU Xianguo
2018, 28(2): 337-352. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0949-3
Iron-rich groundwater flowing into wetlands is a worldwide environmental pollution phenomenon that is closely associated with the stability of wetland ecosystems. Combined with high phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural runoff, the prediction of the evolution of wetland vegetation affected by compound contamination is particularly urgent. We tested the effects of anaerobic iron-rich groundwater discharge in a freshwater marsh by simulating the effect of three levels of eutrophic water on native plants (Glyceria spiculosa (Fr. Schmidt.) Rosh.). The management of wetland vegetation with 1-20 mg/L Fe input is an efficient method to promote the growth of plants, which showed an optimum response under a 0.10 mg/L P surface water environment. Iron-rich groundwater strongly affects the changes in ecological niches of some wetland plant species and the dominant species. In addition, when the P concentration in a natural body of water is too high, the governance effect of eutrophication might not be as expected. Under iron-rich groundwater conditions, the δ13C values of organs were more depleted, which can partially explain the differences in δ13C in the soil profile. Conversely, the carbon isotope composition of soil organic carbon is indicative of past changes in vegetation. The results of our experiments confirm that iron-rich groundwater discharge has the potential to affect vegetation composition through toxicity modification in eutrophic environments.
Spatial Differentiation and Influencing Mechanism of Medical Care Accessibility in Beijing: A Migrant Equality Perspective
ZHAO Meifeng, LIU Shenghe, QI Wei
2018, 28(2): 353-362. doi: 10.1007/s11769-018-0950-x
Spatial equality of access to basic public services, especially medical care services which are directly related to life safety, is the first step to achieve the goal of equalization of basic public services for all the people proposed by central government of China. Using the spatial analysis and the statistical analysis, this study evaluates the spatial differentiation of medical care facilities accessibility by constructing STT (Shortest Travel-Time) and SAI (Spatial Accessibility Index). And then this study explores the neighborhood effects on the medical care facilities accessibility in Beijing, with a particular focus on the effect of neighborhood migrant proportion by constructing spatial dependent regression model. The spatial accessibility analysis of medical care facilities show that the spatial distribution of medical care facilities was basically consistent with administrative regions but not with population demands. Bivariate LISA cluster maps identify that suburban areas are the overlapped clusters of high percent of migrants and limited medical care services. This is associated with the public service allocation rule in China, which stresses equality within urban areas and within rural areas but overlooks equality between urban areas and rural areas; and stresses local resident demands but overlooks migrant demands. To estimate the effects on medical care accessibility of neighborhood migrant proportion, spatial dependence models are applied due to spatial dependence of accessibility of medical care facilities. The regression results show that neighborhoods with high percent of migrants, even conditioning on neighborhood SES, are related to limited spatial accessibility of medical care services. Besides neighborhood characteristics, another important factor influencing spatial accessibility of medical care services is the process of spatial spillover effects. This indicates that the attenuate accessibility of medical care services for migrants is not only because of their own constraints but also because of their proximity to other disadvantaged neighborhoods. Therefore, it is urgently needed to increase the medical facilities in the suburban areas, to take into account migrants' demands and to reduce residential segregation between local residents and migrants for local governments to achieve the goal of equalization of medical care service.