2017 Vol. 27, No. 2

Display Method:
Space-time Relationship Between Urban Municipal District Adjustment and Built-up Area Expansion in China
WANG Kaiyong, QI Wei
2017, 27(2): 165-175. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0856-z
Municipal district adjustment and built-up area expansion are two main forms of urban spatial expansion. Using geometric methods, this study constructed a space-time path method to characterize the space-time relationship between municipal district adjustment and built-up area expansion, and drew the space-time path sets of major prefecture level cities from 2000 to 2010 by constructing a coordinate system of the standardized built-up areas and municipal district areas. This divided them into four quadrants, namely, H-H, L-H, L-L, and H-L, based on the relative mean value to evaluate overall and individual stability by three indexes of the trajectory vectors, namely, direction, length, and slope. Results provide the following conclusions. 1) Municipal district adjustment is an effective spatial expansion way for city-scale promotion in China. Since 2000, municipal district adjustments have been mainly distributed in the eastern coastal regions and mid-western capital cities along with their surrounding cities. 2) Municipal district adjustment affects the scale and status of a city in China. Many cities that have expanded municipal districts behave stably and cross quadrants. 3) Great majority second-tier cities have effectively promoted their scale and status through municipal district adjustment. The municipal district adjustment of medium and small cities in the mid-west area is relatively advanced compared with city development. 4) Municipal district adjustment with minimal magnitude is severely restricted from upgrading the scale and status of a city. The transformation from entirely incorporated counties or cities to municipal districts should be the mainstream in future municipal district adjustment.
Symbiotic State of Chinese Land-Marine Economy
DI Qianbin, DONG Shaoyu
2017, 27(2): 176-187. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0857-y
The simultaneous development of both the land and marine-based economy is required to achieve the economic development of coastal regions in China. Based on symbiosis theory, this study discusses land and marine-based economic symbiosis mechanisms and uses a logistic symbiotic function to construct a symbiotic evolution model of the land-marine economy. We conduct a division and feature analysis of the interactive model between the land and marine-based economies of 11 provinces (or cities) along the coast of China between 1996 and 2013, and discuss their economic development. The results show that, during the study period, the coordinated development model of the national land-marine economy is a parabiosis model. Fujian Province exhibits mutualism, Jiangsu, Hebei, Shandong, and Guangdong show commensalism, while Tianjin, Zhejiang, and Shanghai display parasitism, Guangxi and Hainan exhibit an antibiosis model, while Liaoning displays a parabiosis model. The land economic development model of Jiangsu and Fujian and the marine economic development model of Guangdong are improving the quality and efficiency of the factors of production. All other provinces' development models improve the productivity of the production factors to expand the scale of production.
Effects of Vegetation Restoration on Soil Organic Carbon in China: A Meta-analysis
GONG Li, LIU Guohua, WANG Meng, YE Xin, WANG Hao, LI Zongshan
2017, 27(2): 188-200. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0858-x
Vegetation restoration has been proposed as an effective method for increasing both plant biomass and soil carbon (C) stocks. In this study, 204 publications (733 observations) were analyzed, focusing on the effects of vegetation restoration on soil organic carbon (SOC) in China. The results showed that SOC was increased by 45.33%, 24.43%, 30.29% and 27.98% at soil depths of 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-60 cm and > 60 cm after vegetation restoration, respectively. Restoration from both cropland and non-cropland increased the SOC content. The conversion of non-cropland was more efficient in SOC accumulation than the conversion of cropland did, especially in >40 cm layers. In addition, the conversion to planted forest led to greater SOC accumulation than that to other land use did. Conversion period and initial SOC content extended more influence on soil C accumulation as the main factors after vegetation restoration than temperature and precipitation did. The SOC content significantly increased with restoration period after long-term vegetation restoration (>40 yr), indicating a large potential for further accumulation of carbon in the soil, which could mitigate climate change in the near future.
Optimization of Groundwater Level Monitoring Network Using GIS-based Geostatistical Method and Multi-parameter Analysis: A Case Study in Wainganga Sub-basin, India
Kumar Singh CHANDAN, Bhaskar Katpatal YASHWANT
2017, 27(2): 201-215. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0859-9
Groundwater is one of the most important resources, its monitoring and optimized management has now become the priority to satisfy the demand of rapidly increasing population. In many developing countries, optimized groundwater level monitoring networks are rarely designed to build up a strong groundwater level data base, and to reduce operation time and cost. The paper presents application of geostatistical method to optimize existing network of observation wells for 18 sub-watersheds within the Wainganga Sub-basin located in the central part of India. The average groundwater level fluctuation (GWLF) from 37 observation wells is compared with parameters like lineament density, recharge, density of irrigation wells, land use and hydrogeology (LiRDLH) of Wainganga Sub-basin and analyzed stochastically in Geographic Information System (GIS) environment using simple, ordinary, disjunctive and universal kriging methods. Semivariogram analyses have been performed separately for all kriging methods to fit the best theoretical model with experimental model. Results from gaussian, spherical, exponential and circular theoretical models were compared with those of experimental models obtained from the groundwater level data. Spatial analyses conclude that the exponential semivariogram model obtained from ordinary kriging gives the best fit model. Study demonstrates that ordinary kriging gives the optimal solution and additional number of observation wells can be added utilizing the error variance for optimal design of groundwater level monitoring networks. This study describes the use of Geostatistics methods in GIS to predict the groundwater level and upgrade groundwater level monitoring networks from the randomly distributed observation wells considering multiple parameters such as GWLF and LiRDLH. The method proposed in the present study is observed to be an efficient method for selecting observation well locations in a complex geological set up. The study concludes that minimum 82 wells are required for proper monitoring of groundwater level in the study area.
Driving Forces and Their Effects on Water Conservation Services in Forest Ecosystems in China
GONG Shihan, XIAO Yang, XIAO Yi, ZHANG Lu, OUYANG Zhiyun
2017, 27(2): 216-228. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0860-3
Identifying the driving forces that cause changes in forest ecosystem services related to water conservation is essential for the design of interventions that could enhance positive impacts as well as minimizing negative impacts. In this study, we propose an assessment concept framework model for indirect-direct-ecosystem service (IN-DI-ESS) driving forces within this context and method for index construction that considers the selection of a robust and parsimonious variable set. Factor analysis was integrated into two-stage data envelopment analysis (TS-DEA) to determine the driving forces and their effects on water conservation services in forest ecosystems at the provincial scale in China. The results showed the following. 1) Ten indicators with factor scores more than 0.8 were selected as the minimum data set. Four indicators comprising population density, per capita gross domestic product, irrigation efficiency, and per capita food consumption were the indirect driving factors, and six indicators comprising precipitation, farmland into forestry or pasture, forest cover, habitat area, water footprint, and wood extraction were the direct driving forces. 2) Spearman's rank correlation test was performed to compare the overall effectiveness in two periods:stage 1 and stage 2. The calculated coefficients were 0.245, 0.136, and 0.579, respectively, whereas the tabulated value was 0.562. This indicates that the driving forces obviously differed in terms of their contribution to the overall effectiveness and they caused changes in water conservation services in different stages. In terms of the variations in different driving force effects in the years 2000 and 2010, the overall, stage 1, and stage 2 variances were 0.020, 0.065, and 0.079 in 2000, respectively, and 0.018, 0.063, and 0.071 in 2010. This also indicates that heterogeneous driving force effects were obvious in the process during the same period. Identifying the driving forces that affect service changes and evaluating their efficiency have significant policy implications for the management of forest ecosystem services. Advanced effectiveness measures for weak regions could be improved in an appropriate manner. In this study, we showed that factor analysis coupled with TS-DEA based on the IN-DI-ESS framework can increase the parsimony of driving force indicators, as well as interpreting the interactions among indirect and direct driving forces with forest ecosystem water conservation services, and reducing the uncertainty related to the internal consistency during data selection.
Catchment-based Imperviousness Metrics Impacts on Floods in Niushou River Basin, Nanjing City, East China
SU Weizhong, DUAN Hongtao
2017, 27(2): 229-238. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0861-2
Concerns regarding urbanization impacts on floods gradually moved from end-of-pipe solutions, based on open channel hydraulics improvement, to imperviousness ratio limiting and then to land use control and to integrated planning at local and large scale levels. The Niushou River basin is one of the fastest urbanizing areas in Nanjing City, East China, however, the high urban land percentage has leaded to series of flooding events. The paper aims to reveal the impact of imperviousness ratio, patterns and drainage system on flooding areas based on the unit of catchment and Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The following conclusions were reached. 1) The ratio or spatial characteristics of the impervious surface affected the runoff volumes and associated floods areas. Despite the well-established drainage system, the high imperviousness ratio, particularly clustered pattern in locations such as hydrological sensitive zones aggravated the flooding tension across the basin. 2) The poor drainage hydraulic efficiency in local areas, and the lack of integral processes of infiltration, yield, storage and discharge in local catchment and larger basin are also significant factors. 3) The Niushou River basin development should improve the drainage transformations from a single local, short-term drainage process into integral, elastic processes of infiltration, yield, storage, and discharge.
Effects of Wetland Vegetation on Soil Microbial Composition: A Case Study in Tumen River Basin, Northeast China
QIN Lei, JIANG Ming, TIAN Wei, ZHANG Jian, ZHU Weihong
2017, 27(2): 239-247. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0853-2
Hydrology plays a dominant role in wetland plant distribution and microbial composition, but few studies explicitly attempted to relate the linkage between wetland vegetation and microbial community. The present study consisted of five wetland plant communities along three adjacent flood gradients zones (zone 1 dominated by Carex appendiculat, zone 2 dominated by Eleocharis ovate, and zone 3 dominated by Phragmites australis/Bidens pilosa/Calamagrostis angustifolia, which formed separate, monoculture patches). Gram negative and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) are more abundant in the site with short flooding period (zone 3) than in the site with long flooding period (zone 1), and they are also different in the P. australis, B. spilosa and C. angustifolia of zone 3. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the flooding period could explain 92.4% of variance in microbial composition. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) showed that available nitrogen (AN), total nitrogen (TN) and soil organic matter (SOM) could explain the 79.5% of variance in microbial composition among E. ovata, P. australis, B. pilosa and C. angustifolia. Results demonstrated that flooding period was the main factor in driving the microbial composition and plant-derived resources could influence soil microbial composition in the seasonally flooded zones.
Effect of Water Level Fluctuations on Wintering Goose Abundance in Poyang Lake Wetlands of China
XIA Shaoxia, LIU Yu, CHEN Bin, JIA Yifei, ZHANG Huan, LIU Guanhua, YU Xiubo
2017, 27(2): 248-258. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0840-z
The Poyang Lake is a Ramsar site and is the important over-wintering site for migratory waterbirds along the East Asian-Australasian Fly way. Examining the effects of water level fluctuations on waterbird abundance and analyzing the influencing mechanism is critical to waterbird protection in the context of hydrological alteration. In this study, the effect of water level regime on wintering goose abundance was examined and the influencing mechanism was interpreted. Synchronous waterbirds survey data, hydrological data, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MODIS-NDVI) data and habitat data derived from Landsat TM/ETM data and HJ/CCD data were combined. The satellite-derived Green Wave Index (GWI) based on MODIS-NDVI dataset was applied to detect changes in goose food resources. It was found that habitat size and vegetation conditions are key factors determining goose abundance. Geese numbers were positively correlated with habitat area, while intermediate range of vegetation productivity might benefit the goose abundance. Water level affects goose abundance by changing available habitat areas and vegetation conditions. We suggested that matching hydrological regime and exposed meadows time to wintering geese dynamics was crucial in the Poyang Lake wetlands. Our study could provide sound scientific information for hydrological management in the context of waterbird conservation.
Evaluation of Ecological Effectiveness of Protected Areas in Northwest China
YE Xin, LIU Guohua, LI Zongshan, GONG Li, WANG Meng, WANG Hao
2017, 27(2): 259-272. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0854-1
Protected areas (PAs) have experienced explosive growth in Northwest China over the last three decades, but their effectiveness in representing regional ecological system diversity has not attracted considerable attention. Low effectiveness would exacerbate the conservation-development conflicts, particularly those that arise as a result of the Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS). Thus, an assessment of the effectiveness of the PA network has become quite important. We proposed natural vegetation communities to represent regional ecological system diversities, and proposed Global 200 Priority Ecoregions, Important Bird Areas, and ecosystem function regions to represent important conservation areas. To determine their effectiveness, we studied the extent to which ecological system diversities and important conservation areas are represented by the existing 96 PAs. Our results indicated that the total coverage of vegetation communities in PAs in Northwest China is not sufficiently comprehensive. As the PA system has expanded, the growth in the total area of the PAs has been greater than that of their vegetation community richness. While most of the important conservation areas are covered by PAs, some regions have not yet reached the 10% threshold; further, PAs are distributed unevenly and conservation gaps remain in the region. Therefore, these regions should receive more attention when planning new PAs. It is vital that more biodiversity datasets and assessment of ecosystem function regions are integrated in order to provide a basis for the government to formulate appropriate protection and development strategies.
Accuracy Comparison of Gridded Historical Cultivated Land Data in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces
YUAN Cun, YE Yu, TANG Chanchan, FANG Xiuqi
2017, 27(2): 273-285. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0862-1
The spatial resolution of source data, the impact factor selection on the grid model and the size of the grid might be the main limitations of global land datasets applied on a regional scale. Quantitative studies of the impacts of rasterization on data accuracy can help improve data resolution and regional data accuracy. Through a case study of cropland data for Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in China, this research compared data accuracy with different data sources, rasterization methods, and grid sizes. First, we investigated the influence of different data sources on gridded data accuracy. The temporal trends of the History Database of the Global Environment (HYDE), Chinese Historical Cropland Data (CHCD), and Suwan Cropland Data (SWCD) datasets were more similar. However, different spatial resolutions of cropland source data in the CHCD and SWCD datasets revealed an average difference of 16.61% when provincial and county data were downscaled to a 10×10 km2 grid for comparison. Second, the influence of selection of the potential arable land reclamation rate and temperature factors, as well as the different processing methods for water factors, on accuracy of gridded datasets was investigated. Applying the reclamation rate of potential cropland to grid-processing increased the diversity of spatial distribution but resulted in only a slightly greater standard deviation, which increased by 4.05. Temperature factors only produced relative disparities within 10% and absolute disparities within 2 km2 over more than 90% of grid cells. For the different processing methods for water factors, the HYDE dataset distributed 70% more cropland in grid cells along riverbanks, at the abandoned Yellow River Estuary (located in Binhai County, Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province), and around Hongze Lake, than did the SWCD dataset. Finally, we explored the influence of different grid sizes. Absolute accuracy disparities by unit area for the year 2000 were within 0.1 km2 at a 1 km2 grid size, a 25% improvement over the 10 km2 grid size. Compared to the outcomes of other similar studies, this demonstrates that some model hypotheses and grid-processing methods in international land datasets are truly incongruent with actual land reclamation processes, at least in China. Combining the model-based methods with historical empirical data may be a better way to improve the accuracy of regional scale datasets. Exploring methods for the above aspects improved the accuracy of historical cropland gridded datasets for finer regional scales.
Rural Landscape Types and Recreational Value Spatial Analysis of Valley Area of Loess Plateau: A Case of Hulu Watershed, Gansu Province, China
DONG Suocheng, CHENG Hao, LI Yu, LI Fujia, WANG Zhe, CHEN Feng
2017, 27(2): 286-297. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0863-0
Rural landscape is a complex of natural landscape and human landscape, with various values. The recreational value of rural landscape is a kind of comprehensive benefit with economic, social and ecological, which is provided by the rural landscape as a recreational resource. Loess Plateau is located at the junction of northern and northwestern of China, with serious water and soil erosion and fragile ecological environment. Jingning County is the national poor county, belonging to Liupanshan concentrated poverty areas. Hulu Watershed in Jingning is the typical valley area of Loess Plateau. In the past few decades, Jingning facing the fragile ecology and poverty, has been focusing on apple industry, forming unique rural landscape, exploring an ecological development path, and making much progress in green industrialization and urbanization. The author, according to the apple tree's growing stages, divided the rural landscape of Hulu Watershed into 15 types and analyzed its spatial patterns. The recreational value of Hulu Watershed was evaluated at 1.8×108-3.6×108 yuan (RMB) in 2014, by Travel Cost Method and Contingent Valuation Method. The territorial differentiational features of recreational value were that the higher value landscape types concentrated in the surrounding areas of towns and central villages, and the areas along the traffic and river had more development potentiality. The main influence factors were the construction of rural landscape and the development of recreation industry. And the development paths of different landscape types were also proposed. The research conclusions can provide reference for the landscape exploration and recreation industry development in the similar underdeveloped areas in the valley area of Loess Plateau with fragile ecology and poverty.
Efficiency Pattern and Spatial Strategy of Ports in Yangtze River Delta Region
JIANG Ziran, ZHU Huayou, CAO Youhui
2017, 27(2): 298-310. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0864-z
This paper measures the efficiency of ports in the Yangtze River Delta Region (YRDR) in 2008 and 2013 using port berth quantity, quay length, and human resources as input indicators, using cargo and container throughput as output indicators, and considering traditional (foreign trade dependence and industrialization level) and modern environmental factors (traffic line density, financial development level, and informatization level). To achieve such aim, this study constructs a multi-stage data envelopment analysis model (DEA) that identifies effective port decision-making units (DMUs) and generates a highly accurate conclusion by eliminating the interference from the exogenous environment and random errors. First, the external environment significantly affects port efficiency, with the traditional environmental factors showing huge fluctuations and the modern environmental factors producing great benefits. Second, the efficiency of ports in YRDR has increased from 2008 to 2013 primarily because of their pure technical efficiency. Third, the weighted standard deviation ellipse (SDE) analysis results reveal that the efficiency pattern of ports significantly deviates from their throughput pattern, while the center of SDE of port efficiency moves from the eastern coastal regions to the northwest regions. Based on these findings, this paper proposes spatial development strategies for YRDR, such as creating an unblocked environment where spatial elements can freely circulate, intensifying port-city joint development, implementing differentiated policies, and focusing on the spatial collaboration of port efficiency.
Residents' Satisfaction with Public Services in Mountainous Areas: An Empirical Study of Southwestern Sichuan Province, China
SONG Xueqian, DENG Wei, LIU Ying, ZHAO Chen, WAN Jiangjun
2017, 27(2): 311-324. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0865-y
Enhancing the efficiency of public services is essential to residents in mountainous areas. It is also important to promote sustainable development of these regions. Analysing residents' satisfaction with public services in mountainous areas can help in evaluating outcomes of fiscal investment and identifying potential coping approaches for improving public service efficiencies. The residents' satisfaction with public services and the factors that influence such satisfaction were examined in this study. A study of 12 towns located in the southwestern Sichuan Province was performed using an entropy-weighted analytic hierarchy process (EWAHP), the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and Tobit regression methods. The results indicate that:1) the spatial distribution of satisfaction with public services is non-uniform, and the spatial distribution structure varies for different types of public services. 2) Residents' satisfaction with public services is influenced by both objective and subjective factors. Population density, economic distance, social and cultural divisions and elevation are the major objective factors, whereas bounded rationality, the hierarchy of needs and service expectations are the main subjective factors. The most effective strategies for enhancing residents' satisfaction with public services are likely to be clustering the population, choosing supply centres with different public services, regulating the cultural division in ethnic minority towns, selecting supply priorities in accordance with residents' needs, implementing targeted intervention policies and establishing ‘bottom-up’ and ‘top-down’ integrated decision-making mechanisms.
Change of Annual Extreme Water Levels and Correlation with River Discharges in the Middle-lower Yangtze River: Characteristics and Possible Affecting Factors
YE Xuchun, XU Chong-Yu, LI Yunliang, LI Xianghu, ZHANG Qi
2017, 27(2): 325-336. doi: 10.1007/s11769-017-0866-x
As one of the fastest developing regions in China, the middle-lower Yangtze River (MLYR) is vulnerable to floods and droughts. With obtained time series of annual highest water level (HWL), annual lowest water level (LWL) and the corresponding river discharges from three gauging stations in MLYR that covering the period 1987-2011, the current study evaluated the change characteristics of annual extreme water levels and the correlation with river discharges by using the methods of trend test, Mann-Whitney-Pettitt (MWP) test and double mass analysis. Major result indicated a decreasing/increasing trend for annual HWL/LWL of all stations in MLYR during the study period. A change point in 1999 was identified for annual HWL at the Hankou and Datong stations. The year 2006 was found to be the critical year that the relationship between annual extreme water levels and river discharges changed in the MLYR. With contrast to annual LWL in MLYR, further investigation revealed that the change characteristics of annual HWL were highly consistent with regional precipitation in the Yangtze River Basin, while the linkage with Three Gorges Dam (TGD) operation is not strong. Our observation also pointed out that the effect of serious down cutting of the riverbed and the enlargement of the cross-section area during the initial period of TGD operation caused the downward trend of the relationship between annual LWL and river discharge. Whereas, the relatively raised river water level before the flood season due to TGD regulation since 2006 explained for the changing upward trend of the relationship between annual HWL and river discharge.