2016 Vol. 26, No. 3

Display Method:
Eco-compensation and Harmonious Regional Development in China
LIU Chunla, LIU Weidong, LU Dadao, CHEN Mingxing, Michael DUNFORD, XU Mei
2016, 26(3): 283-294. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0758-x
Harmonious regional development poses difficult problems, especially in so far as the harmonious regional development of ecological resources is concerned. China has explored several eco-compensation models, and in each province eco-compensation has different characteristics. These methods have had significant impacts. The aim of this paper is first to examine the meaning of eco-compensation and to present a framework for analyzing it. Next the development of eco-compensation in China is examined. Finally, four typical models of eco-compensation are compared: the government financial transfer payment compensation model; the ecological resource exploiters' payment compensation model; the ecological destruction compensation model; and the ecological resource tax collection compensation model. Each model has its own unique feature and potential to contribute to harmonious regional development.
Distribution and Accumulation of Soil Carbon in Temperate Wetland, Northeast China
LYU Mingzhi, SHENG Lianxi, ZHANG Zhongsheng, ZHANG Li
2016, 26(3): 295-303. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0809-y
Estimating carbon sequestration and nutrient accumulation rates in Northeast China are important to assess wetlands function as carbon sink buffering greenhouse gas increasing in North Asia. The objectives of this study were to estimate accreting rates of carbon and nutrients in typical temperate wetlands. Results indicated that average soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) contents were 37.81%, 1.59% and 0.08% in peatlands, 5.33%, 0.25% and 0.05% in marshes, 2.92%, 0.27% and 0.10% in marshy meadows, respectively. Chronologies reconstructed by 210Pb in the present work were acceptable and reliable, and the average time to yield 0-40 cm depth sediment cores was 150 years. Average carbon sequestration rate (Carbonsq), nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation rates were 219.4 g C/(m2·yr), 9.16 g N/(m2·yr) and 0.46 g P/(m2·yr) for peatland; 57.13 g C/(m2·yr), 5.42 g N/(m2·yr) and 2.16 g P/(m2·yr) for marshy meadow; 78.35 g C/(m2·yr), 8.70 g N/(m2·yr) and 0.71 g P/(m2·yr) for marshy; respectively. Positive relations existed between Carbonsq with nitrogen and precipitations, indicating that Carbonsq might be strengthened in future climate scenarios.
Co-benefits of Local Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gas Reduction Achieved by Hydropower Development in Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region, China
ZHAO Wei, KONG Fan'e, SHEN Weishou
2016, 26(3): 304-313. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0810-5
Hydropower development in Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region plays a vital role in co-control of local air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) in China. According to emission factors of local air pollutants and GHG of coal-fired power industry in different hydropower service regions, we estimate the effect and synergy of local air pollutants and GHG reduction achieved by hydropower development in Tibet, examine the main factors constraining the effect and synergy, using correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results show that: 1) During the period from 2006 to 2012, the effect of local air pollutants and GHG reduction achieved by hydropower development in Tibet decreased as a whole, while the synergy increased first and decreased afterwards. 2) The effect and synergy of local air pollutants and GHG reduction achieved by hydropower development in Tibet vary significantly across different hydropower service regions. The effect based on emission levels of Central China power grid (CCPG) and Northwest China power grid (NCPG) was more significant than that based on emission level of national power grid (NPG) from 2006 to 2012, and the synergy based on emission levels of CCPG and NCPG was also more significant than that based on emission level of NPG from 2010 to 2012. 3) The main factors constraining the effect and synergy based on emission levels of NCPG and CCPG included SO2 removal rate and NOx removal rate, the effect and synergy based on emission level of NPG was mainly influenced by net coal consumption rate. 4) Transferring hydropower from Tibet to NCPG and CCPG, and substituting local coal-fired power with hydropower can greatly help to co-control local air pollutants and GHG, transform the emission reduction pattern of the power industry and optimize energy structure.
Landform Planation Index Extracted from DEMs: A Case Study in Ordos Platform of China
QIAN Yeqing, XIONG Liyang, LI Jilong, TANG Guoan
2016, 26(3): 314-324. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0811-4
Planation surface, a surface that is almost flat, is a kind of low-relief landforms. Planation surface is the consequence of the denudation and planation processes under a tectonic stable condition. The quantitative expression of the characteristics of planation surface plays a key role in reconstructing and describing the evolutionary process of landforms. In this study, Landform Planation Index (LPI), a new terrain derivative, was proposed to quantify the characteristics of planation surface. The LPIs were calculated based on the summit surfaces formed according to the clustering results of peaks. Ten typical areas in the Ordos Platform located in the central part of the Loess Plateau of China are chosen as the test areas for investigating their planation characteristics with the LPI. The experimental results indicate that the LPI can be effectively used to quantify the characteristics of planation surfaces. In addition, the LPI can be further used to depict the patterns of spatial differentiation in the Ordos Platform. Although the present Ordos Platform area is full of the high-density gullies, its planation characteristics is found to be well preserved. Furthermore, the characteristics of the planation surfaces can also reflect the original morphology of the Ordos Platform before the loess dusts deposition process evolved in this area. The statistical results of the LPI show that there is a gradually increasing tendency along with the increasing of slope gradient of summit surface. It indicates that the characteristics of planation surfaces vary among test areas with different landforms. These findings help to deepen the understanding of planation characteristics of the loess landform and its underlying paleotopography. Results of this study can be also served as an important theoretical reference value for revealing the evolutionary process of loess landform.
Design of an Index System for Deep Groundwater Management Efficiency Evaluation: A Case Study in Tianjin City, China
NAN Tian, SHAO Jingli, CAO Xiaoyuan, ZHANG Qiulan, CUI Yali
2016, 26(3): 325-338. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0812-3
An effective evaluation system can provide specific and practical suggestions to the deep groundwater management. But such kind of evaluation system has not been proposed in China. In this study, an evaluation index system is specifically developed to evaluate deep groundwater management efficiency. It is composed of three first-level indicators (law enforcement capability, management ability, and management effectiveness) and eleven second-level indicators. The second-level indicators include seven mandatory indicators and four optional indicators. Piecewise linear function is used to normalize the quantitative indicators, and expert scoring method and questionnaire survey method are used to normalize the qualitative indicators. Then a comprehensive indicator weighting evaluation method is used to evaluate the first-level indicators and the target topic. A case study is carried out to evaluate deep groundwater management efficiency in Tianjin City. According to the evaluation score in each period, the management efficiency of every district in Tianjin City gradually improved. The overall evaluation score in the early deep groundwater extraction period is 0.12. After a series of deep groundwater protection efforts, this score reached to 0.61 in 2007, and met the regulation criteria. The evaluation results also showed that the further groundwater management efforts in Tianjin City should be focused on building a dynamic database to collect comprehensive deep well-log data; and on a reasonable design and distribution of the groundwater monitoring network. It demonstrated that the index system is suitable to locate the deficiencies of current groundwater management systems and to guide further improvements. It can then be used to protect deep groundwater.
Effects of Wetland Utilization Change on Spatial Distribution of Soil Nematodes in Heihe River Basin, Northwest China
ZHU Hongqiang, MAO Zhixia, LONG Zhangwei, WANG Yan, SU Yongzhong, WANG Xuefeng
2016, 26(3): 339-351. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0813-2
The first account of the effects of wetland reclamation on soil nematode assemblages were provided, three sites in Heihe River Basin of Northwest China, that is grass wetland (GW), Tamarix chinensis wetland (TW) and crop wetland (CW) treatments, were compared. Results showed that the majority of soil nematodes were presented in the 0-20 cm soil layers in CW treatments, followed by in the 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm layers in GW treatments. Plant-feeding nametodes were the most abundant trophic groups in each treatment, where GW (91.0%) > TW (88.1%) > CW (53.5%). Generic richness (GR) was lower in the TW (16) than that in GW (23) and CW (25). The combination of enrichment index (EI) and structure index (SI) showed that the soil food web in GW was more structured, and those in TW was stressed, while the enrichment soil food web was presented in the CW treatment. Several ecological indices which reflected soil community structure, diversity, Shannon-Weaver diversity (H'), Evenness (J'), Richness (GR) and modified maturity index (MMI) were found to be effective for assessing the response of soil namatode communities to soil of saline wetland reclamation. Furthermore, saline wetland reclamation also exerted great influence on the soil physical and chemical properties (pH, Electric conductivity (EC), Total organic carbon (TOC), Total nitrogen (Total-N) and Nitrate Nitrogen (N-NO3-)). These results indicated that the wetland reclamation had significantly effects on soil nematode community structure and soil properties in this study.
Mapping Deciduous Broad-leaved Forested Swamps Using ALOS/Palsar Data
BIAN Hongfeng, YAN Tingting, ZHANG Zhengxiang, HE Chunguang, SHENG Lianxi
2016, 26(3): 352-365. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0805-2
Accurate, updated information on the distribution of wetlands is essential for estimating net fluxes of greenhouse gases and for effectively protecting and managing wetlands. Because of their complex community structure and rich surface vegetation, deciduous broad-leaved forested swamps are considered to be one of the most difficult types of wetland to classify. In this research, with the support of remote sensing and geographic information system, multi-temporal radar images L-Palsar were used initially to extract the forest hydrological layer and phenology phase change layer as two variables through image analysis. Second, based on the environmental characteristics of forested swamps, three decision tree classifiers derived from the two variables were constructed to explore effective methods to identify deciduous broad-leaved forested swamps. Third, this study focused on analyzing the classification process between flat-forests, which are the most severely disturbed elements, and forested swamps. Finally, the application of the decision tree model will be discussed. The results showed that: 1) L-HH band (a L band with wavelength of 0-235 m in HH polarization mode; HH means Synthetic Aperture Radars transmit pulses in horizontal polarization and receive in horizontal polarization) in the leaf-off season is shown to be capable of detecting hydrologic conditions beneath the forest; 2) the accuracy of the classification (forested swamp and forest plat) was 81.5% based on hydrologic features, and 83.5% was achieved by combining hydrologic features and phenology response features, which indicated that hydrological characteristics under the forest played a key role. The HHOJ (refers to the band created by the subtraction with HH band in October and HH band in July) achieved by multi-temporal radar images did improve the classification accuracy, but not significantly, and more leaf-off radar images may be more efficient than multi-seasonal radar images for inland forested swamp mapping; 3) the lower separability between forested swamps dominated by vegetated surfaces and forest plat covered with litter was the main cause of the uncertainty in classification, which led to misleading interpretations of the pixel-based classification. Finally, through the analysis with kappa coefficients, it was shown that the value of the intersection point was an ideal choice for the variable.
Evolution Process of Urban Spatial Pattern in Hubei Province Based on DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data
ZHENG Wensheng, RUN Jiying, ZHUO Rongrong, JIANG Yupei, WANG Xiaofang
2016, 26(3): 366-376. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0814-1
This paper intends to investigate the urban spatial patterns of Hubei Province and its evolution from three different perspectives: urban nodes, urban connections and urban clusters. The research adopts nighttime light imagery of cities in Hubei Province, the viewpoint of ‘point-axis-area’ in the ‘point-axis system’ theory, and employs light index model, gravity model and social network analysis. The findings are as follows: 1) In terms of urban nodes, the urbanization process of Hubei has been carried out mainly on the basis of external expansion rather than internal increasing. The polarization trend of urban connection network is strengthening. 2) As for urban connections, the estimation of urban connections using light index model is capable of containing various actual flow, and the connections are getting increasingly closer. 3) In regard to urban groups, seven urban groups of varying sizes have formed. On that basis, three stable and relatively independent urban groups as the centers, namely Wuchang, Yichang and Xiangyang emerge as well. But the structures of ‘Wuhan Metropolitan Area’, ‘Yichang-Jingzhou-Jingmen City Group’ and ‘Xiangyang-Shiyen-Suizhou City Group’, which are defined by local development strategy in Hubei Province, are different from the above three urban groups.
From Sequential to Parallel Growth of Cities: Theory and Evidence from Canada
SHENG Kerong, FAN Jie, SUN Wei, MA Hailong
2016, 26(3): 377-388. doi: 10.1007/s11769-015-0750-5
This paper examines city growth patterns and the corresponding city size distribution evolution over long periods of time using a simple New Economic Geography (NEG) model and urban population data from Canada. The main findings are twofold. First, there is a transition from sequential to parallel growth of cities over long periods of time: city growth shows a sequential mode in the stage of rapid urbanization, i.e., the cities with the best development conditions will take the lead in growth, after which the cities with higher ranks will become the fastest-growing cities; in the late stage of urbanization, city growth converges according to Gibrat's law, and exhibits a parallel growth pattern. Second, city size distribution is found to have persistent structural characteristics: the city system is self-organized into multiple discrete size groups; city growth shows club convergence characteristics, and the cities with similar development conditions eventually converge to a similar size. The results will not only enhance our understanding of urbanization process, but will also provide a timely and clear policy reference for promoting the healthy urbanization of developing countries.
Human Settlement Analysis Based on Multi-temporal Remote Sensing Data: A Case Study of Xuzhou City, China
ZHU Jishuai, TIAN Shufang, TAN Kun, DU Peijun
2016, 26(3): 389-400. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0815-0
To evaluate urban human settlement, we propose a human settlement environment development index (HSEDI) model by choosing vegetation coverage, land surface temperature, impervious surfaces, slope, wetness, and water condition as the evaluation factors. We applied the proposed model to Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China. Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1998 to 2010 and digital elevation model (DEM) data with a 30-m resolution were used to calculate the values of the six evaluation factors. The HSEDI value in Xuzhou City was found to be between 2.24 and 8.10 from 1998 to 2010, and it was further divided into five levels, uninhabitable, moderately uninhabitable, generally inhabitable, moderately inhabitable, and inhabitable. The best HSEDI value was in 2007. The generally inhabitable region was about 100.98 km2, covering 30.87% of the total area in 2007; the moderately inhabitable region was about 170.58 km2 covering 52.15% of the total area; the inhabitable region was about 32.03 km2, covering 9.79% of the total area; the percentage of the uninhabitable region was zero; and that of the moderately uninhabitable region was very small, less than 1.00%. Moreover, we analyzed the habitability in the respect of spatial patterns and change detection. Results show that the degraded regions of habitability quality are mainly located in the urban fringe and the improved regions are mainly located in the main urban and rural areas. Reason for the degraded habitability quality is the rapid progress of urbanization. However, the increase in urban green spaces and the construction of the main urban area promoted the improved habitability quality. Besides, we further analyzed socio-economic and socio-demographic data to confirm the results of the habitability analysis. The results indicate that the human settlement in Xuzhou City is in a satisfactory condition, but some efforts should be made to control the possible uninhabitable and moderately uninhabitable regions, and to improve the quality of the generally inhabitable regions.
Comprehensive Evaluation of Ski Resort Development Conditions in Northern China
LI Yu, ZHAO Minyan, GUO Peng, ZHENG Ji, LI Zehong, LI Fujia, SHI Yuanyuan, DONG Suocheng
2016, 26(3): 401-409. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0808-z
China's bid for the 2022 Winter Olympic Games will promote rapid development of domestic ski tourism. More than 10 provinces in the northern China list ski tourism as a new source of growth in the tourism industry. Formulating a scientific evaluation system is an important foundation for ski resort development. By referring to the conditions of existing international ski resorts, a comprehensive index system for evaluating ski resort development was developed based on natural factors, human factors, athletic sports, and popular ski tourism. The system was composed of one target layer, two indices, seven sub-indices and twenty-five basic indices. Based on data collected during a field investigation in 2012 and on a statistical model, the development conditions of the following ski resorts were quantified: Yabuli Ski Resort in Heilongjiang Province and Beidahu Ski Resort in Jilin Province in Northeast China, Wanlong Ski Resort in Hebei Province and Nanshan Ski Resort in Beijing in the northern China, and Silk Road International Ski Resort in Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang in the northwestern China. The resulting index values of development conditions at Beidahu, Yabuli, Wanlong, Nanshan, and Silk Road International Ski Resorts were 0.304, 0.278, 0.270, 0.214, and -0.025, respectively. Various natural and human factors exert positive and negative effects on the development potential of ski resorts. The development conditions of the five ski resorts were inferior to those of first-class international resorts. Therefore, the development conditions of the five ski resorts should be improved with future construction.
Spatial-temporal Characteristics and Factors Influencing Commuting Activities of Middle-class Residents in Guangzhou City, China
DAI Dandan, ZHOU Chunshan, YE Changdong
2016, 26(3): 410-428. doi: 10.1007/s11769-016-0806-1
The middle class in metropolitan Chinese cities has become an important social group. With the rapid development of urbanization and constant advancement of suburbanization, the middle class has increasingly come to influence city traffic. Research into middle-class commuting activities thus has practical significance for improving traffic congestion and reducing the commuting burden in metropolitan cities. Based on a dataset formed by 816 completed surveys, this paper analyzes the commuting mode, time and distance of middle-class residents in Guangzhou City using the descriptive statistical method. The results indicate that private cars are the main commuting mode, followed by public transport. Meanwhile, middle-class residents mainly undertake medium-short time and medium-short distance commuting. The study subsequently uses multilevel logistic regression and multiple linear regression models to analyze the factors that influence commuting mode choice, time and distance. The gender, age, number of family cars, housing source and jobs-housing balance are the most important factors influencing commuting mode choice; housing, population density, jobs-housing balance and commuting mode significantly affect commuting time; and transport accessibility, jobs-housing balance and commuting mode are the notable factors affecting commuting distance. Finally, this paper analyzes what is affecting the commuting activities of middle-class residents and determines the differences in commuting activity characteristics and influence factors between middle-class and ordinary residents. Policy suggestions to improve urban planning and urban management are also proposed.