2015 Vol. 25, No. 1

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Comparative Mountain Hydrology: A Case Study of Wis?ok River in Poland and Chaohe River in China
Leszek SOBKOWIAK, LIU Changming
2015, 25(1): 1-12. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0673-6
Hydrological processes in river basins of similar size and morphology may differ significantly due to different climatic conditions. This paper presents a comparative analysis of hydrological characteristics of two river basins located in different climatic zones: the Wis?ok River Basin in the south-eastern Poland and the Chaohe River Basin in the northern China. The criteria of their choice were similarities in the basin area, main river length and topography. The results show that climate plays a key role in shaping fluvial conditions within the two basins. It is concluded that: 1) precipitation in the Wis?ok River Basin is more evenly distributed in the yearly cycle, while in the Chaohe River Basin it is highly concentrated in the few summer months; 2) spring snowmelt significantly contributes to runoff in the Wis?ok River Basin, while its role in the Chaohe River Basin is negligible; 3) in the Wis?ok River Basin, besides the peak flow in spring, there is also a period of high water in summer resulting from precipitation, while in the Chaohe River Basin there is only one high water period in summer; 4) the Wis?ok River Basin shows relatively higher stability in terms of the magnitude of intra- and inter-seasonal discharges; 5) during the multi-year observation period, a decrease in both precipitation and runoff was recorded in the two river basins.
Variation of Floods Characteristics and Their Responses to Climate and Human Activities in Poyang Lake, China
LI Xianghu, ZHANG Qi
2015, 25(1): 13-25. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0724-z
The Poyang Lake is one of the most frequently flooded areas in China. Understanding the changing characteristics of floods as well as the affecting factors is an important prerequisite of flood disaster prevention and mitigation. The present study identified the characteristics variations of historical floods in the Poyang Lake and their tendencies based on the Mann-Kendall (M-K) test, and also investigated the related affecting factors, both from climate and human activities. The results revealed that the highest flood stages, duration as well as hazard coefficient of floods showed a long-term increasing linear trend during the last 60 years with the M-K statistic of 1.49, 1.60 and 1.50, respectively. And, a slightly increasing linear trend in the timing of the highest stages indicated the floods occurred later and later during the last six decades. The rainfall during the flood season and subsequent discharges of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River and runoff from the Poyang Lake Basin were mainly responsible for the severe flood situation in the Poyang Lake in the 1990s. In addition, the intensive human activities, including land reclamation and levee construction, also played a supplementary role in increasing severity of major floods. While, the fewer floods in the Poyang Lake after 2000 can be attributed to not only the less rainfall over the Poyang Lake Basin and low discharges of the Changjiang River during flood periods, but also the stronger influences of human activity which increased the floodwater storage of the Poyang Lake than before.
Variations in Optical Scattering and Backscattering by Organic and Inorganic Particulates in Chinese Lakes of Taihu, Chaohu and Dianchi
LYU Heng, WANG Qiao, WU Chuanqing, ZHU Li, LI Yunmei, HUANG Jiazhu
2015, 25(1): 26-38. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0689-y
This study presents an investigation of the scattering and backscattering properties of the particulates in three Chinese inland lakes (the Taihu Lake, the Chaohu Lake and the Dianchi Lake) based on in situ measurements taken at 119 sites. We modeled the particulate scattering spectra using a wavelength-dependent power-law function, finding that the power-law exponents in the Taihu Lake and the Chaohu Lake differ from those in the Dianchi Lake but are similar to the values in the U.S. coastal waters. In contrast to the open ocean, the backscattering properties in the three lakes can not be determined only from chlorophyll-a concentration. The backscattering ratio spectra exhibit a wavelength dependence feature in all three lakes, generally decreasing with the increasing wavelength. Analysis results of the correlations between the backscattering ratio and the individual water quality parameters clearly show that there are distinctive relations among the three lakes, attributed primarily to different compositions of optically active materials in the three lakes. Analysis of the mass-specific scattering and backscattering coefficients shows that the coefficients at wavelength 532 nm in the Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake are similar, but they are apparently different from those in the Dianchi Lake. Lastly, Model I multiple linear regressions were adopted to partition the mass-specific cross-sections for scattering and backscattering into organic and inorganic cross-sections to further interpret the scattering and backscattering properties. The relative contribution of organic and inorganic particulates to scattering and backscattering is clearly different among the three lakes. The scattering and backscattering properties of the particulates in the three inland lakes vary significantly based on our collected data. The results indicated that the existing semi-analytical water quality retrieval models of the Taihu Lake can not be applied perfectly to the Chaohu Lake and the Dianchi Lake.
Influence of Golmud-Lhasa Section of Qinghai-Tibet Railway on Blown Sand Transport
XIAO Jianhua, YAO Zhengyi, QU Jianjun
2015, 25(1): 39-50. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0722-1
The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) passes through 281 km of sandy land, 11.07 km of which causes serious sand damage to the railway and thus, the control of blown sand is important for the safe operation of the railway. Construction of the railway and sand prevention system greatly changed the blown sand transport of the primary surface. Effective and feasible sand-control measures include stone checkerboard barriers (SCBs), sand fences (SFs), and gravel coverings. This study simulated the embankments, SCBs and SFs of the QTR in a wind tunnel, and analyzed their respective wind profile, sand deposition, and sand-blocking rate (SBR) in conjunction with field data, aiming at studying the influence of Golmud-Lhasa section of the QTR and sand prevention system on blown sand transport. The results of wind tunnel experiments showed that wind speed increased by 67.7%-77.3% at the upwind shoulder of the embankment and decreased by 50.0%-83.3% at upwind foot of embankment. Wind speed decreased by 50.0%-100.0% after passing through the first SF, and 72.2%-100.0% after the first row of stones within the first SCB grid. In the experiment of sand deposition, the higher the wind speed, the lower the SBR of SCB and SF. From field investigation, the amount of sand blocked by the four SFs decreased exponentially and its SBR was about 50.0%. By contrast, SCB could only block lower amounts of sand, but had a higher SBR (96.7%) than SF. Although, results show that SFs and SCBs along the Golmud-Lhasa section of the QTR provide an obvious sand blocking effect, they lead to the deposition of a large amount of sand, which forms artificial dunes and becomes a new source of sand damage.
Spatial-temporal Characteristics of Land Use Intensity of Coastal Zone in China During 2000-2010
DI Xianghong, HOU Xiyong, WANG Yuandong, WU Li
2015, 25(1): 51-61. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0707-0
Based on remote sensing and GIS techniques, land use maps in 2000, 2005 and 2010 in China's coastal zone were produced, and structural raster data of land use were further generated to calculate land use intensity comprehensive index (LUICI) for analyzing land use spatial-temporal characteristics at 1 km scale. Results show that: 1) from the perspective of spatial patterns of landforms at a macro scale, there is a significant difference in land use intensity between the north and the south of China's coastal zone. Hotspots of changes mainly concentrated in metropolitan areas, estuaries and coastal wetlands; 2) elevation is an important factor that controlling land use spatial patterns at local scale. Land use intensity is much higher within areas below the elevation of 400 m and it decreased significantly as the elevation increasing; 3) there is a significant land-ocean gradient for land use intensity, which is low in island and near-shore areas, but high in the regions that 4-30 km far away the coastline because of much intensive human activities; however, in recent decades land use intensity had been promoted significantly in low near-shore area due to extensive sea reclamations; 4) significant differences of land use intensity were also found among provincial administrative units. A rising trend of land use intensity was found in provincial-level administrative units from 2000 to 2010. To sum up, elevation, land-ocean gradient, socio-economic status and policy are all influencing factors to the spatial patterns and temporal variations of land use intensity in China's coastal zone.
A Hybrid Inexact Optimization Model for Land-use Allocation of China
ZHOU Min, CAI Yunlong, GUAN Xingliang, TAN Shukui, LU Shasha
2015, 25(1): 62-73. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0708-z
Land scarcity has become the prominent obstacle on the way to sustainable development for China. Under the constraints of land shortage, how to allocate the finite land resources to the multiple land users in China considering various political, environmental, ecological and economic conditions have become research topics with great significance. In this study, an interval fuzzy national-scale land-use model (IFNLM) was developed for optimizing land systems of China. IFNLM is based on an integration of existing interval linear programming (ILP), and fuzzy flexible programming (FFP) techniques. IFNLM allows uncertainties expressed as discrete interval values and fuzzy sets to be incorporated within a general optimization framework. It can also facilitate national-scale land-use planning under various environmental, ecological, social conditions within a multi-period and multi-option context. Then, IFNLM was applied to a real case study of land-use planning in China. The satisfaction degree of environmental constraints is between 0.69 and 0.97, the system benefit will between 198.25 × 1012 USD and 229.67 × 1012 USD. The results indicated that the hybrid model can help generate desired policies for land-use allocation with a maximized economic benefit and minimized environmental violation risk. Optimized land-use allocation patterns can be generated from the proposed IFNLM.
A Vector-based Cellular Automata Model for Simulating Urban Land Use Change
2015, 25(1): 74-84. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0719-9
Cellular Automata (CA) is widely used for the simulation of land use changes. This study applied a vector-based CA model to simulate land use change in order to minimize or eliminate the scale sensitivity in traditional raster-based CA model. The cells of vector-based CA model are presented according to the shapes and attributes of geographic entities, and the transition rules of vector-based CA model are improved by taking spatial variables of the study area into consideration. The vector-based CA model is applied to simulate land use changes in downtown of Qidong City, Jiangsu Province, China and its validation is confirmed by the methods of visual assessment and spatial accuracy. The simulation result of vector-based CA model reveals that nearly 75% of newly increased urban cells are located in the northwest and southwest parts of the study area from 2002 to 2007, which is in consistent with real land use map. In addition, the simulation results of the vector-based and raster-based CA models are compared to real land use data and their spatial accuracies are found to be 84.0% and 81.9%, respectively. In conclusion, results from this study indicate that the vector-based CA model is a practical and applicable method for the simulation of urbanization processes.
Sensitivity of Chinese Industrial Wastewater Discharge Reduction to Direct Input Coefficients in an Input-output Context
TANG Zhipeng, GONG Peiping, LIU Weidong, LI Jiangsu
2015, 25(1): 85-97. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0666-5
Industrial wastewater discharge in China is increasing with the country's economic development and it is worthy of concern. The discharge is primarily relevant to the direct discharge coefficient of each sector of the economy, its direct input coefficient and the final demand in input-output models. In this study, we calculated the sensitivity of the reduction in the Chinese industrial wastewater discharge using the direct input coefficients based on the theory of error-transmission in an input-output framework. Using input-output models, we calculated the direct and total industrial wastewater discharge coefficients. Analysis of 2007 input-output data of 30 sectors of the Chinese economy and of 30 provincial regions of China indicates that by lowering their direct input coefficients, the manufacturers of textiles, paper and paper products, chemical products, smelting and metal pressing, telecommunication equipment, computers and other electronic equipment will significantly reduce their amounts of industrial wastewater discharge. By lowering intra-provincial direct input coefficients to industrial sectors themselves of Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, there will be a significant reduction in industrial wastewater discharge for the country as a whole. Investment in production technology and improvement in organizational efficiency in these sectors and in these provinces can help lessen the direct input coefficients, thereby effectively achieving a reduction in industrial wastewater discharge in China via industrial restructuring.
How Unique is ‘China Model’: A Review of Theoretical Perspectives on China's Urbanization in Anglophone Literature
WANG Fenglong, LIU Yungang
2015, 25(1): 98-112. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0713-2
As a major aspect of the ‘China Model’, urbanization in China is being heatedly discussed in the Anglophone literature in the last two decades. By considering China's urbanization as a ‘testing ground’ of ‘western’ theories, these studies are important for the understanding of China's ongoing urban restructuring and exchanging knowledge with ‘western’ insights. Based on a survey of existing studies, this paper identifies various endogenous and exogenous concepts and explanations of China's urbanization. It is suggested that China's urbanization is mainly driven by a combination of political decentralization and neoliberalization with various forms of social stratification and mobility. However, it is argued that the distinctness of the ‘China Model’, which is usually used to support the legitimacy of studies of China's urbanization, has led to many controversial arguments and diminished the due contributions of Chinese scholars in the knowledge production of China's urbanization. To consolidate the legitimacy of studies on China's urbanization and enhance the roles of Chinese scholars, we suggest future studies to pay more attentions to the fundamental theories with looser constraints and ‘true questions’ on China's urbanization.
Urban Metabolism Based on Emergy and Slack Based Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China
SONG Tao, CAI Jianming, XU Hui, DENG Yu, NIU Fangqu, YANG Zhenshan, DU Shanshan
2015, 25(1): 113-123. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0680-7
The key to studying urban sustainable development depends on quantifying stores, efficiencies of urban metabolisms and capturing urban metabolisms' mechanisms. This paper builds up the metabolic emergy account and quantifies some important concepts of emergy stores. Emphasis is placed on the urban metabolic model based on the slack based model (SBM) method to measure urban metabolic efficiencies. Urban metabolic mechanisms are discussed by using the regression method. By integrating these models, this paper analyzes the urban metabolic development in Beijing from 2001 to 2010. We conclude that the metabolic emergy stores of Beijing increased significantly from 2001 to 2010, with the emergy imported accounting for most of the increase. The metabolic efficiencies in Beijing have improved since the 2008 Olympic Games. The population, economic growth, industrial structures, and environmental governance positively affect the overall urban metabolism, while the land expansion, urbanization and environmentally technical levels hinder the improving of urban metabolic efficiencies. The SBM metabolic method and the regression model based on the emergy analysis provide insights into the urban metabolic efficiencies and the mechanism. They can promote to integrate such concepts into their sustainability analyses and policy decisions.
Differentiation of Rural Households' Consciousness in Land Use Activities: A Case from Bailin Village, Shapingba District of Chongqing Municipality, China
WANG Cheng, WANG Liping, JIANG Fuxia, LU Zhangwei
2015, 25(1): 124-136. doi: 10.1007/s11769-014-0688-z
What rural households think and what kind of strategies they take, the basic driving force in land use activities, contribute greatly to the increase of their own revenues, the development of agricultural yields, and even the prosperity of rural areas. Differentiation in rural household behaviors and their consciousness in land use activities is widespread in rural China nowadays. It is important to understand the changing characteristics and laws of land use behaviors of rural households driven by their consciousness, so as to regulate their land use activities. In most empirical studies of land use change at rural household level, the land use consciousness, which acts directly on land use behaviors, is often neglected. In our research, the changes of land use behaviors of rural households are analyzed, through identifying how the land use consciousness affect the land use objectives, land management scales and land inputs of all the rural households in Bailin Village of Chongqing Municipality in the western mountainous China. Also, how the land use consciousness of different rural households comes into being under external stimuli is examined and the self-adjustment process of their consciousness according to their own conditions is also discussed. Finally, broad policy instruments are suggested to promote the rationalization of rural households' land use consciousness and the standardization of their land use behaviors.