Denitrification is an important process of nitrogen removal in lake ecosystems. However, the importance of denitrification across the entire soil-depth gradients including subsurface layers remains poorly understood. This study aims to determine the spatial pattern of soil denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) and its environmental determinants across the entire soil depth gradients in the raised fields in Baiyang Lake, North China. In two different zones of the raised fields (i.e., water boundary vs. main body of the raised fields), the soil samples from -1.0 m to 1.1 m depth were collected, and the DEA and following environmental determinants were quantified: soil moisture, pH, total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N), total organic carbon (TOC), and rhizome biomass of Phragmites australis. The results showed that the soil DEA and environmental factors had a striking zonal distribution across the entire soil depth gradients. The soil DEA reached two peak values in the upper and middle soil layers, indicating that denitrification are important in both topsoil and subsurface of the raised fields. The correlation analysis showed that the DEA is negatively correlated with the soil depth (p < 0.05). However, this phenomenon did not occur in the distance to the water edge, except in the upper layers (from 0.2 m to 0.7 m) of the boundary zone of the raised fields. In the main body of the raised fields, the DEA level remained high; however, it showed no significant relationship with the distance to the water edge. The linear regression analysis showed significant positive correlation of the DEA with the soil TN, NO3--N, NH4+-N, and TOC; whereas it showed negative correlation with soil pH. No significant correlations with soil moisture and temperature were observed. A positive correlation was also found between the DEA and rhizome biomass of P. australis.
Based on patent cooperation data, this study used a range of city network analysis approaches in order to explore the structure of the Chinese city network which is driven by technological knowledge flows. The results revealed the spatial structure, composition structure, hierarchical structure, group structure, and control structure of Chinese city network, as well as its dynamic factors. The major findings are: 1) the spatial pattern presents a diamond structure, in which Wuhan is the central city; 2) although the invention patent knowledge network is the main part of the broader inter-city innovative cooperation network, it is weaker than the utility model patent; 3) as the senior level cities, Beijing, Shanghai and the cities in the Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta Region show a strong capability of both spreading and controlling technological knowledge; 4) whilst a national technology alliance has preliminarily formed, regional alliances have not been adequately established; 5) even though the cooperation level amongst weak connection cities is not high, such cities still play an important role in the network as a result of their location within 'structural holes' in the network; and 6) the major driving forces facilitating inter-city technological cooperation are geographical proximity, hierarchical proximity and technological proximity.