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    The Environmental Impacts of Informal Economies in China: Inverted U-shaped Relationship and Regional Variances
    YANG Jiangmin, TAN Yiming, XUE Desheng, HUANG Gengzhi, XING Zuge
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 585-599.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1210-z
    Accepted: 29 April 2021

    Abstract215)      PDF (3560KB)(207)      
    This paper aims to the debate on the nexus between informal economies and the environment by investigating the long-term dynamic impacts of China’s informal economies on pollution and considering regional differences in informal economies’ pollution. This paper uses the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model to estimate the size of informal economies and employs econometric models to examine their relationships to pollution based on provincial-level panel data from 2000 to 2017. The results indicate that informal economies’ effects on environmental pollution are not purely positive or negative. Rather, our model indicates that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between informal economies and pollution in the long run in China; this means that the level of environmental pollution increases at first and then decreases with the growth of informal economies. Further analysis shows that while this inverted, U-shaped relationship is significant in different regions of China, it is affected by different environmental impact factors. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications for environmental protection and sustainable development.
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    Cross-national Perspectives on Using Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Indicators for Monitoring Sustainable Development: A Database and Analysis
    WANG Xiangyu, SONG Changqing, CHENG Changxiu, YE Sijing, SHEN Shi
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 600-610.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1213-9
    Abstract66)      PDF (430KB)(75)      
    Sustainable development is the theme of the 21st century. To monitor the progress of sustainable development, the United Nations launched Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015. Subsequently, nations of the world have drawn up a list of localized indicators regarding the United Nations SDGs as a paradigm. We established a database including SDGs indicator systems of 11 economies by collecting and determining a large number of materials. Based on this database, we analyzed SDGs indicators by designing a conceptual framework of comparative analysis that included three views. We found that the SDGs indicator systems of 11 economies are different between the number of indicators, the proportion of different categories, and the connotation of indicators. Although the SDGs indicator systems among economies regarded the United Nations SDGs as a framework and included the major social problems related to sustainability, the inconsistency between SDGs indicator systems is large. It is a major reason why scholars lack the systematic method for developing indicators. There are challenges faced in data accessibility. The framework for comparative analysis could be applied to different economies.
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    Regional Equity and Influencing Factor of Social Assistance in China
    WANG Jiawei, YE Shilin, QI Xinhua
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 611-628.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1195-7
    Accepted: 06 February 2021

    Abstract114)      PDF (6240KB)(97)      
    Social assistance is the last safety net in the social security system and plays a vital role in poverty alleviation in countries around the world. Promoting the equal financial assistance is meaningful to achieve equalization of social assistance. Based on the provincial panel data from 2002 to 2017, this paper analyzes the dynamic characteristics and main influencing factors of the equity of social assistance in China, using the Theil index and geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The results suggest that the level of per capita social assistance expenditure (PSAE) in China keeps increasing year by year, but the changes in different regions and provinces are quite different. These changes not only significantly changed the spatial pattern of PSAE in China, but also greatly improved its spatial coupling with the deeply impoverished areas. Further analysis shows that the regional inequality of PSAE between provinces is obvious during the study period, and the inter-regional inequality is significantly higher than the intra-regional inequality. This makes inter-regional inequality become the main source of the regional inequality of PSAE in China for a long time. According to GWR results, there is obvious spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the influence intensity and direction of the per capita financial revenue, urbanization rate, urban unemployment rate, natural disaster-affected area, and transfer payment intensity on the PSAE. The urbanization rate and per capita financial revenue are the main driving factors of PSAE, and the impact intensity of per capita financial revenue tends to strengthen. The remaining three factors have a positive effect on PSAE, but the effect intensity is not high.
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    Spatial Heterogeneity of Agricultural Science and Technology Parks Technology Diffusion: A Case Study of Yangling ASTP
    WANG Zhao, LIU Jianhong, LI Tongsheng, REN Wanying, RUI Yang
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 629-645.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1196-6
    Accepted: 06 February 2021

    Abstract92)      PDF (1300KB)(106)      
    Agricultural science and technology parks (ASTPs) represent an important growth pole in China’s agricultural modernization. Clarifying their diffusion laws can optimize the technological diffusion process and improve its efficiency. Our study uses disaggregated spatial information in its model to analyze ASTP technology diffusion in a heterogeneous space. We constructed a comprehensive index system to evaluate the diffusion environmental quality and introduced the heterogeneous diffusion equation to calculate the technological diffusion probability. We applied this framework to a real-world scenario: the apple planting technology diffusion of the Yangling ASTP in the Loess Plateau, China. The results indicated: 1) the technological diffusion environment of the Loess Plateau advantageous apple producing area showed strong spatial heterogeneity caused by climate, topography, and external transportation links. 2) Under the combined effects of distance and spatial heterogeneity, the spatial diffusion pattern of the Yangling ASTP apple technology was expansion diffusion supplemented by hierarchical diffusion and banded diffusion, and 3) ASTP technology diffusion showed a strong distance attenuation effect, and the frictional effect of distance can be decreased by improving the diffusion environmental quality. These laws can promote regional balanced ASTP-driven development.
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    Spatio-temporal Evolution Characteristics and Driving Mechanism of the New Infrastructure Construction Development Potential in China
    GU Tianshi, ZHANG Peng, ZHANG Xujia
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 646-658.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1214-8
    Abstract58)      PDF (6043KB)(73)      
    With the advent of the era of big data and artificial intelligence, new infrastructure construction (NIC) has attracted the attention of many countries. The development of NIC provides an opportunity to bridge the digital divide and narrow the regional gap, providing continuous impetus to further promote economic development. Here, we considered 31 provincial-level administrative units in China (not including Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan of China due to data unavailable) and established comprehensive evaluation indicators for the development potential of NIC. Afterward, we used the entropy-weight TOPSIS model to determine the development potential of NIC and analyze its spatio-temporal evolution characteristics. Furthermore, the GeoDetector model was applied to explore the driving mechanism of the NIC development potential. The conclusions were as follows: 1) The Chinese NIC development potential is generally low. The eastern China was the region with the highest development potential year by year, while the development potential in the central China was found to be in an accelerating phase. 2) The evolution of the Chinese NIC development potential’s spatial pattern has been characterized by an inland extension and coastal agglomeration. Moreover, we identified a superior development zone, a rising development zone, an inferior development zone, and a declining development zone. 3) The scope of Chinese NIC development potential agglomeration areas has gradually expanded and its degree has gradually deepened. The range of high-value agglomeration in eastern area gradually expanded and its degree gradually deepened. 4) Investment in innovative talents appears as the core factor affecting the Chinese NIC development potential. Whether acting alone or synergistically with other factors, its promoting effect on Chinese NIC development potential is the strongest.
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    Predicting Surface Urban Heat Island in Meihekou City, China: A Combination Method of Monte Carlo and Random Forest
    ZHANG Yao, LIU Jiafu, WEN Zhuyun
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 659-670.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1215-7
    Abstract64)      PDF (1439KB)(241)      
    Given the rapid urbanization worldwide, Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has been a severe issue limiting urban sustainability in both large and small cities. In order to study the spatial pattern of Surface urban heat island (SUHI) in China’s Meihekou City, a combination method of Monte Carlo and Random Forest Regression (MC-RFR) is developed to construct the relationship between landscape pattern indices and Land Surface Temperature (LST). In this method, Monte Carlo acceptance-rejection sampling was added to the bootstrap layer of RFR to ensure the sensitivity of RFR to outliners of SUHI effect. The SHUI in 2030 was predicted by using this MC-RFR and the modeled future landscape pattern by Cellular Automata and Markov combination model (CA-Markov). Results reveal that forestland can greatly alleviate the impact of SUHI effect, while reasonable construction of urban land can also slow down the rising trend of SUHI. MC-RFR performs better for characterizing the relationship between landscape pattern and LST than single RFR or Linear Regression model. By 2030, the overall SUHI effect of Meihekou will be greatly enhanced, and the center of urban development will gradually shift to the central and western regions of the city. We suggest that urban designer and managers should concentrate vegetation and disperse built-up land to weaken the SUHI in the construction of new urban areas for its sustainability.
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    Spatial Structure of Urban Residents’ Leisure Activities: A Case Study of Shenyang, China
    MA Liya, XIU Chunliang
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 671-683.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1216-6
    Abstract40)      PDF (1453KB)(65)      
    The spatial characteristics of residents’ leisure activities not only reflect their demand for urban leisure space but also affect the urban spatial layout. This study takes Shenyang, China as an example and analyzes the characteristics of residents’ leisure activities through questionnaires. On this basis, it uses point of interest data and mobile phone signaling data to identify various types of residential and leisure functional relationships, and uses spatial analysis and community detection to assess the distance characteristics, flow patterns, and community structure of residents’ leisure activities, so as to discuss the spatial structure of residents’ leisure activities in Shenyang. The results showed that: 1) in addition to leisure at home, Shenyang residents mainly went to shopping malls, supermarkets, and parks for leisure activities, and the proportions of residents of the two types of leisure activities were approximately equal; 2) the average distances that residents traveled for shopping and park leisure were near in the middle and far in the periphery, and the travel costs of peripheral residents for centrally located leisure were higher than those for residents in central areas; 3) the flow patterns of the residential-shopping and residential-park functional relationships displayed clustering mode characteristics, and Shenyang presented a significant monocentric structure; and 4) residents’ shopping activities were concentrated in the southern community, and walking in the park activities were concentrated in the western community. Residents’ leisure activities were characterized by centripetal agglomeration, which was prone to problems such as traffic congestion and big city diseases. The spatial expansion process in the city was characterized by obvious directional inheritance and path dependence, and the construction of sub-cities is needed to improve the related service facilities.
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    Vegetation Index Reconstruction and Linkage with Drought for the Source Region of the Yangtze River Based on Tree-ring Data
    LI Jinjian, WANG Shu, QIN Ningsheng, LIU Xisheng, JIN Liya
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 684-695.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1217-5
    Abstract38)      PDF (966KB)(56)      
    Variations in vegetation are closely related to climate change, but understanding of their characteristics and causes remains limited. As a typical semi-humid and semi-arid cold plateau region, it is important to understand the knowledge of long term Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) variations and find the potential causes in the source region of the Yangtze River. Based on four tree-ring width chronologies, the regional mean NDVI for July and August spanning the period 1665–2013 was reconstructed using a regression model, and it explained 43.9% of the total variance during the period 1981–2013. In decadal, the reconstructed NDVI showed eight growth stages (17541764, 17661783, 1794–1811, 1828–1838, 1843–1855, 1862–1873, 1897–1909, and 1932–1945) and four degradation stages (16791698, 17261753, 1910–1923, and 1988–2000). And based on wavelet analysis, significant cycles of 2–3 yr and 3–8 yr were identified. In additional, there was a significant positive correlation between the NDVI and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) during the past 349 yr, and they were mainly in phase. However, according to the results of correlation analysis between different grades of drought/wet and NDVI, there was significant asymmetry in extreme drought years and extreme wet years. In extreme drought years, NDVI was positively correlated with PDSI, and in extreme wet years they were negatively correlated.
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    Identification of Suitable Hydrologic Response Unit Thresholds for Soil and Water Assessment Tool Streamflow Modelling
    JIANG Liupeng, ZHU Jinghai, CHEN Wei, HU Yuanman, YAO Jing, YU Shuai, JIA Guangliang, HE Xingyuan, WANG Anzhi
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 696-710.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1218-4
    Abstract41)      PDF (1198KB)(59)      
    Use of a non-zero hydrologic response unit (HRU) threshold is an effective way of reducing unmanageable HRU numbers and simplifying computational cost in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic modelling. However, being less representative of watershed heterogeneity and increasing the level of model output uncertainty are inevitable when minor HRU combinations are disproportionately eliminated. This study examined 20 scenarios by running the model with various HRU threshold settings to understand the mechanism of HRU threshold effects on watershed representation as well as streamflow predictions and identify the appropriate HRU thresholds. Findings show that HRU numbers decrease sharply with increasing HRU thresholds. Among different HRU threshold scenarios, the composition of land-use, soil, and slope all contribute to notable variations which are directly related to the model input parameters and consequently affect the streamflow predictions. Results indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity, average slope of the HRU, and curve number are the three key factors affecting stream discharge when changing the HRU thresholds. It is also found that HRU thresholds have little effect on monthly model performance, while evaluation statistics for daily discharges are more sensitive than monthly results. For daily streamflow predictions, thresholds of 5%/5%/5% (land-use/soil/slope) are the optimum HRU threshold level for the watershed to allow full consideration of model accuracy and efficiency in the present work. Besides, the results provide strategies for selecting appropriate HRU thresholds based on the modelling goal.
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    Trade-offs/Synergies in Land-use Function Changes in Central China from 2000 to 2015
    LI Qing, ZHOU Yong, XU Tao, WANG Li, ZUO Qian, LIU Jingyi, SU Xueping, HE Nan, WU Zhengxiang
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 711-726.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1219-3
    Abstract42)      PDF (5590KB)(85)      
    To solve the problems caused by irrational land-use, studying the functions of land-use, its changing characteristics, and the relationship between each land-use function will be beneficial for achieving sustainable land development. In this research, we constructed an evaluation framework of multiple land-use functions (LUFs) based on sustainable land-use theory. Specifically,, we classified the multiple LUFs into three types: agricultural production function (APF), living function (LVF), and ecological service function (ESF). We then spatialized the economic and social data, and implemented the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) model and RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) model to evaluate each sub-LUF (crop production, aquatic production, woodlands production, livestock production, living space, life quality, water supply, soil conservation, climate regulation, biological conservation) in central China in 2000 and again in 2015. Moreover, by analyzing the changes to LUFs and the relationships between each LUF change, we were able to discern patterns of LUF change in central China. The results show that: 1) 42.12% of total territory in the study area increased their APF from 2000 to 2015, while 43.41% of the lands increased their ESF yet only 8.98% of the lands increased their LVF; 2) in Hubei and Hunan, there was more land with an increase of APF than in Anhui or Jiangxi. The APF in Jiangxi exhibited the greatest decline over time period, the LVF increased more in the provincial capital cities than in other regions, and the ESF expanded more in Jiangxi than in the other provinces; and 3) the changes in APF were significantly and positively correlated with changes in LVF. Additionally, changes in ESF were negatively but non-significantly correlated with changes in APF and LVF.
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    The Effects of Groundwater Depth on the Soil Evaporation in Horqin Sandy Land, China
    YANG Tingting, ALA Musa, GUAN Dexin, WANG Anzhi
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 727-734.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1220-x
    Abstract48)      PDF (571KB)(54)      
    The interactions between groundwater depth and soil hydrological processes, play an important role in both arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The effect of groundwater depth on soil water variations were neglected or not explicitly treated. In this paper, we combine a simulation experiment and a water flow module of HYDRUS-1D model to study the variation in soil evaporation under different groundwater depth conditions and the relationship between groundwater depth and evaporation efficiency in Horqin Sandy Land, China. The results showed that with an increase in groundwater depth, the evaporation of soil and the recharge of groundwater decrease. In this study, the groundwater recharge did not account for more than 21% of the soil evaporation for the depths of groundwater examined. The soil water content at 60 cm was less affected by the evaporation efficiency when the mean groundwater depth was 61 cm during the experimental period. In addition, the evaporation efficiency (the ratio of actual evaporation to potential evaporation) decreases with the increase in groundwater depth during the experiment. Furthermore, the soil evaporation was not affected by groundwater when the groundwater depth was deeper than 239 cm.
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    Risk Prevention and Control for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Based on the Process of Pressure-Transformation-Absorption in Chongqing, China
    ZHU Kangwen, CHEN Yucheng, ZHANG Sheng, YANG Zhimin, HUANG Lei, LEI Bo, XIONG Hailing, WU Sheng, LI Xixi
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 735-750.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1221-9
    Abstract33)      PDF (6635KB)(39)      
    According to China’s second national survey of pollution sources, the contribution of agricultural non-point sources (ANS) to water pollution is still high. Risk prevention and control are the main means to control costs and improve the efficiency of ANS, but most studies directly take pollution load as the risk standard, leading to a considerable misjudgment of the actual pollution risk. To objectively reflect the risk of agricultural non-point source pollution (ANSP) in Chongqing, China, we investigated the influences of initial source input, intermediate transformation, and terminal absorption of pollutants via literature research and the Delphi method and built a PTA (pressure kinetic energy, transformation kinetic energy, and absorption kinetic energy) model that covers 12 factors, with the support of geographical information system (GIS) technology. The terrain factor calculation results and the calculation results of other factors were optimized by Python tools to reduce human error and workload. Via centroid migration analysis and Kernel density analysis, the risk level, spatial aggregation degree, and key prevention and control regions could be accurately determined. There was a positive correlation between the water quality of the rivers in Chongqing and the risk assessment results of different periods, indirectly reflecting the reliability of the assessment results by the proposed model. There was an obvious tendency for the low-risk regions transforming into high-risk regions. The proportion of high-risk regions and extremely high-risk regions increased from 17.82% and 16.63% in 2000 to 18.10% and 16.76% in 2015, respectively. And the risk level in the main urban areas was significantly higher than that in the southeastern and northeastern areas of Chongqing. The centroids of all grades of risky areas presented a successive distribution from west to east, and the centroids of high-risk and extremely high-risk regions shifted eastward. From 2000 to 2015, the centroids of high-risk and extremely high-risk regions moved 4.63 km (1.68°) and 4.48 km (12.08°) east by north, respectively. The kernel density analysis results showed that the high-risk regions were mainly concentrated in the main urban areas and that the distribution of agglomeration areas overall displayed a transition trend from contiguous distribution to decentralized concentration. The risk levels of the regions with a high proportion of cultivated land and artificial surface were significantly increased, and the occupation of cultivated land in the process of urbanization promoted the movement of the centroids of high-risk and extremely high-risk regions. The identification of key areas for risk prevention and control provides data scientific basis for the development of prevention and control strategies.
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    Effect and Risk Assessment of Animal Manure Pollution on Huaihe River Basin, China
    WANG Youbao, PAN Fanghui, CHANG Jiayue, WU Rongkang, TIBAMBA Matthew, LU Xuecheng, ZHANG Xinxi
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (4): 751-764.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1222-8
    Abstract42)      PDF (11933KB)(51)      
    Currently the deteriorated water quality for Huaihe River Basin (HRB) in China was still serious because of the negative influence multiple pollution sources including animal manure. However, little attention was paid to the potential risk of animal manure for farmland and water quality of HRB. This study was quantified and forecasted animal manure risk and its spatiotemporal variations in HRB from 2008 to 2018, through pollution discharge coefficient method and pollution load calculation, combined with kriging interpolation method of ArcGIS technology, based on statistics principle. All the data were originated from livestock and poultry breeding in HRB from 2008 to 2018. The future risk of farmland and water environment in HRB was further forecasted. The results indicated that the livestock and poultry manure has become a key pollution source causing a negative influence on farmland and water quality owing to a large amount of animal manure production without efficient recycle utilization. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) discharge of animal manure in HRB almost accounted for 17.00% and 39.00% of the whole COD and TN discharge in China. The diffusion concentration of TN and TP in those regions of Shangqiu, Zhoukou, Heze, Zhumadian, Luohe, Jining, Xuchang, Kaifeng, Taian and Zhengzhou of HRB has exceeded the threshold value 10.00 mg/L of TN and 0.08 mg/L of TP, causing water eutrophication and cancer villages. The assessment of farmland and water quality risk revealed that Zhumadian, Zhoukou, Shangqiu, Taian, Jining, Heze, Linyi and Rizhao belonged to high risk areas in HRB, which were still obtained high farmland and water quality risk index in 2030. The results provided insight into an important significance of sustainable balance of livestock and poultry development and ecosystem in HRB.
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    Spatial Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Urban Resilience from the Perspective of Daily Activity: A Case Study of Nanjing, China
    SUN Honghu, ZHEN Feng
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (3): 387-399.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1201-0
    Abstract255)      PDF (5642KB)(213)      
    Based on the connotation of urban resilience and the main contradictions of China’s urbanization, urban resilience is placed within the main daily activities contradictory scene of the urban man-land system to build a theoretical framework of urban activity resilience. Relying on geographic big data, this study identifies the spatial characteristics of activity resilience, reveals the impact of activity environment on activity resilience in Nanjing, and proposes countermeasures. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) Activity resilience presents a composite spatial structure of circles and clusters, and most areas are resilient but at a low level. 2) There are significantly positive and negative global autocorrelation between activity resilience and activity scale, and activity stability. Simultaneously, there also exists a local spatial autocorrelation with the opposite positive and negative trends. 3) Activity environment has a significant effect on activity resilience, and the degree and direction of influence among different dimensions and regions are heterogeneous. 4) For activity resilience, it is necessary to increase the matching degree between the scale and stability of activities, and reduce the excessive concentration and flow of activities. For the activity environment, it is necessary to improve the accessibility of the ecological environment, strengthen the high-quality supply of the infrastructure environment, optimize the balance of the location environment, and promote the inclusiveness of the social environment.
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    Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect SO2 Emissions in the Yangtze River Delta? A Spatial Econometric Analysis
    GUO Zheng, Sophia Shuang CHEN, YAO Shimou, Anna Charles MKUMBO
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (3): 400-412.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1197-5
    Accepted: 06 February 2021

    Abstract104)      PDF (2978KB)(119)      
    As the major source of air pollution, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have become the focus of global attention. However, existing studies rarely consider spatial effects when discussing the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and SO2 emissions. This study took the Yangtze River Delta as the research area and used the spatial panel data of 26 cities in this region for 2004–2017. The study investigated the spatial agglomeration effects and dynamics at work in FDI and SO2 emissions by using global and local measures of spatial autocorrelation. Then, based on regression analysis using a results of traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) model and a spatial econometric model, the spatial Durbin model (SDM) with spatial-time effects was adopted to quantify the impact of FDI on SO2 emissions, so as to avoid the regression results bias caused by ignoring the spatial effects. The results revealed a significant spatial autocorrelation between FDI and SO2 emissions, both of which displayed obvious path dependence characteristics in their geographical distribution. A series of agglomeration regions were observed on the spatial scale. The estimation results of the SDM showed that FDI inflow promoted SO2 emissions, which supports the pollution haven hypothesis. The findings of this study are significant in the prevention and control of air pollution in the Yangtze River Delta.
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    Impact of the Built Environment on the Spatial Heterogeneity of Regional Innovation Productivity: Evidence from the Pearl River Delta, China
    WU Kangmin, WANG Yang, ZHANG Hong’ou, LIU Yi, YE Yuyao
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (3): 413-428.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1198-4
    Accepted: 06 February 2021

    Abstract90)      PDF (10018KB)(93)      
    With the global economy increasingly dependent on innovation, urban discourse has shifted to consider what kinds of spatial designs may best nurture innovation. We examined the relationship between the built environment and the spatial heterogeneity of regional innovation productivity (RIP) using the example of China’s Pearl River Delta (PRD). Based on a spatial database of 522 546 patent data from 2017, this study proposed an innovation-based built environment framework with the following five aspects: healthy environment, daily interaction, mixed land use, commuting convenience, and technology atmosphere. Combining negative binomial regression and Geodetector to examine the impact of the built environment on RIP, the results show that the spatial distribution of innovation productivity in the PRD region is extremely uneven. The negative binomial regression results show that the built environment has a significant impact on the spatial differentiation of RIP, and, specifically, that healthy environment, mixed land use, commuting convenience, and technology atmosphere all demonstrate significant positive impacts. Meanwhile, the Geodetector results show that the built environment factor impacts the spatial heterogeneity of RIP to varying degrees, with technology atmosphere demonstrating the greatest impact intensity. We conclude that as regional development discourse shifts focus to the knowledge and innovation economy, the innovation-oriented design and updating of built environments will become extremely important to policymakers.
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    Spatial-temporal Evolution of the Urban-rural Coordination Relationship in Northeast China in 1990–2018
    WANG Ying, CHEN Xiaohong, SUN Pingjun, LIU Hang, HE Jiaxin
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (3): 429-443.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1202-z
    Abstract71)      PDF (3132KB)(100)      
    To comprehensively understand the law of urban-rural relationship and propose scientific measures of urban-rural coordinated development in Northeast China, this study uses the coupling coordination degree model and geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) model to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns and the corresponding driving mechanisms of its urban-rural coordination since 1990. The results are as follows. First, the urban-rural coupling coordination degree in Northeast China was very low and improved slowly, but its stages of evolution is a good interpretation of the strategic arrangements of China’s urbanization. Second, the urban-rural coupling coordination degree in Northeast China had spatial differences and was characterized by central polarization, converging on urban agglomeration, which was high in the south and low in the north. Moreover, the gap between the north and south weakened. Third, the spatial-temporal evolution of the urban-rural coordination relationship in Northeast China was influenced by pulling from the central cities, pushing from rural transformation, and government regulations. The influence intensity of the three mechanisms was weak, but the pulling from the central cities was stronger than that of the other two mechanisms. Furthermore, the spatial difference between the three mechanisms determines the spatial pattern and its evolution of the urban-rural coordination relationship in Northeast China. Fourth, to promote the development of urban-rural coordination in Northeast China, it is essential to advance urban-rural economic correlation, enhance the government’s role in regulating and guiding, and adopt different policies for each region in Northeast China.
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    Spatiotemporal Variations and Controls on Anthropogenic Heat Fluxes in 12 Selected Cities in the Eastern China
    CAO Zheng, WEN Ya, SONG Song, HUNG Chak Ho, SUN Hui
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (3): 444-458.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1203-y
    Abstract70)      PDF (12673KB)(84)      
    Spatiotemporal variations of anthropogenic heat flux (AHF) is reported to be associated with global warming. However, confined to the low spatial resolution of energy consumption statistical data, details of AHF was not well descripted. To obtain high spatial resolution data of AHF, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light time-series product and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) product were applied to construct the human settlement index. Based on the spatial regression relationship between human settlement index and energy consumption data. A 1-km resolution dataset of AHF of 12 selected cities in the eastern China was obtained. Ordinary least-squares (OLS) model was applied to detect the mechanism of spatial patterns of AHF. Results showed that industrial emission in selected cities of the eastern China was accountable for 63% of the total emission. AHF emission in megacities, such as Tianjin, Jinan, Qingdao, and Hangzhou, was most significant. AHF increasing speed in most areas in the chosen cities was quite low. High growth or extremely high growth of AHF were located in central downtown areas. In Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Jinan, Hangzhou, Changzhou, Zhaoqing, and Jiangmen, a single kernel of AHF was observed. Potential influencing factors showed that precipitation, temperature, elevation, normalized different vegetation index, gross domestic product, and urbanization level were positive with AHF. Overall, this investigation implied that urbanization level and economic development level might dominate the increasing of AHF and the spatial heterogeneousness of AHF. Higher urbanization level or economic development level resulted in high increasing speeds of AHF. These findings provide a novel way to reconstruct of AHF and scientific supports for energy management strategy development.
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    Vegetation Phenology in Permafrost Regions of Northeastern China Based on MODIS and Solar-induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence
    WEN Lixiang, GUO Meng, YIN Shuai, HUANG Shubo, LI Xingli, YU Fangbing
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (3): 459-473.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1204-x
    Abstract36)      PDF (9525KB)(87)      
    Vegetation phenology is an indicator of vegetation response to natural environmental changes and is of great significance for the study of global climate change and its impact on terrestrial ecosystems. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI), extracted from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), are widely used to monitor phenology by calculating land surface reflectance. However, the applicability of the vegetation index based on ‘greenness’ to monitor photosynthetic activity is hindered by poor observation conditions (e.g., ground shadows, snow, and clouds). Recently, satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from OCO-2 sensors have shown great potential for studying vegetation phenology. Here, we tested the feasibility of SIF in extracting phenological metrics in permafrost regions of the northeastern China, exploring the characteristics of SIF in the study of vegetation phenology and the differences between NDVI and EVI. The results show that NDVI has obvious SOS advance and EOS lag, and EVI is closer to SIF. The growing season length based on SIF is often the shortest, while it can represent the true phenology of vegetation because it is closely related to photosynthesis. SIF is more sensitive than the traditional remote sensing indices in monitoring seasonal changes in vegetation phenology and can compensate for the shortcomings of traditional vegetation indices. We also used the time series data of MODIS NDVI and EVI to extract phenological metrics in different permafrost regions. The results show that the length of growing season of vegetation in predominantly continuous permafrost (zone I) is longer than in permafrost with isolated taliks (zone II). Our results have certain significance for understanding the response of ecosystems in cold regions to global climate change.
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    Evaluation of Precipitation Datasets from TRMM Satellite and Downscaled Reanalysis Products with Bias-correction in Middle Qilian Mountain, China
    ZHANG Lanhui, HE Chansheng, TIAN Wei, ZHU Yi
    Chinese Geographical Science    2021, 31 (3): 474-490.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1205-9
    Abstract31)      PDF (4764KB)(63)      
    Accurate estimates of precipitation are fundamental for hydrometeorological and ecohydrological studies, but are more difficult in high mountainous areas because of the high elevation and complex terrain. This study compares and evaluates two kinds of precipitation datasets, the reanalysis product downscaled by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) output, and the satellite product, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) product, as well as their bias-corrected datasets in the Middle Qilian Mountain in Northwest China. Results show that the WRF output with finer resolution performs well in both estimating precipitation and hydrological simulation, while the TMPA product is unreliable in high mountainous areas. Moreover, bias-corrected WRF output also performs better than bias-corrected TMPA product. Combined with the previous studies, atmospheric reanalysis datasets are more suitable than the satellite products in high mountainous areas. Climate is more important than altitude for the ‘falseAlarms’ events of the TRMM product. Designed to focus on the tropical areas, the TMPA product mistakes certain meteorological situations for precipitation in subhumid and semiarid areas, thus causing significant ‘falseAlarms’ events and leading to significant overestimations and unreliable performance. Simple linear bias correction method, only removing systematical errors, can significantly improves the accuracy of both the WRF output and the TMPA product in arid high mountainous areas with data scarcity. Evaluated by hydrological simulations, the bias-corrected WRF output is more reliable than the gauge dataset. Thus, data merging of the WRF output and gauge observations would provide more reliable precipitation estimations in arid high mountainous areas.
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