The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) passes through 281 km of sandy land, 11.07 km of which causes serious sand damage to the railway and thus, the control of blown sand is important for the safe operation of the railway. Construction of the railway and sand prevention system greatly changed the blown sand transport of the primary surface. Effective and feasible sand-control measures include stone checkerboard barriers (SCBs), sand fences (SFs), and gravel coverings. This study simulated the embankments, SCBs and SFs of the QTR in a wind tunnel, and analyzed their respective wind profile, sand deposition, and sand-blocking rate (SBR) in conjunction with field data, aiming at studying the influence of Golmud-Lhasa section of the QTR and sand prevention system on blown sand transport. The results of wind tunnel experiments showed that wind speed increased by 67.7%-77.3% at the upwind shoulder of the embankment and decreased by 50.0%-83.3% at upwind foot of embankment. Wind speed decreased by 50.0%-100.0% after passing through the first SF, and 72.2%-100.0% after the first row of stones within the first SCB grid. In the experiment of sand deposition, the higher the wind speed, the lower the SBR of SCB and SF. From field investigation, the amount of sand blocked by the four SFs decreased exponentially and its SBR was about 50.0%. By contrast, SCB could only block lower amounts of sand, but had a higher SBR (96.7%) than SF. Although, results show that SFs and SCBs along the Golmud-Lhasa section of the QTR provide an obvious sand blocking effect, they lead to the deposition of a large amount of sand, which forms artificial dunes and becomes a new source of sand damage.