In karst regions, the spatial heterogeneity of soil mineral oxides and environmental variables is still not clear. We investigated the spatial heterogeneity of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, P2O5, K2O, and MnO contents in the soils of slope land, plantation forest, secondary forest, and primary forest, as well as their relationships with environmental variables in a karst region of Southwest China. Geostatistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) were applied to analyze the field data. The results show that SiO2 was the predominant mineral in the soils (45.02%-67.33%), followed by Al2O3 and Fe2O3. Most soil mineral oxide components had a strong spatial dependence, except for CaO, MgO, and P2O5 in the plantation forest, MgO and P2O5 in the secondary forest, and CaO in the slope land. Dimensionality reduction in PCA was not appropriate due to the strong spatial heterogeneity in the ecosystems. Soil mineral oxide components, the main factors in all ecosystems, had greater influences on vegetation than those of conventional soil properties. There were close relationships between soil mineral oxide components and vegetation, topography, and conventional soil properties. Mineral oxide components affected species diversity, organic matter and nitrogen levels.