This paper principally focuses on the morphological differences, spatial pattern and regional types of rural settlements in Xuzhou City of Jiangsu Province in China. Using satellite images of Xuzhou City taken in 2007 and 2008 and models of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) and spatial metrics, the paper conducts a quantitative analysis of the morphological pattern of rural settlements, and finds significant characteristics. First, rural settlements in Xuzhou City are significantly agglomerated in terms of their spatial distribution; meanwhile, there is significant variation in the geographical density distribution. Second, the scale of rural settlements in Xuzhou City is larger than the average in Jiangsu Province, and the histogram of the scale data is more even and more like a gamma distribution. There are a significant high-value cluster in the scale distribution, and local negative correlation between the scale and density distribution of rural settlements in Xuzhou City. Third, the morphology of rural settlements in Xuzhou City shows relative regularity with good connection and integrity, but the spatial variation of the morphology is anisotropic. Finally, according to the characteristics of density, scale, and form of rural settlements, the rural settlements of Xuzhou City are divided into three types: A high-density and point-scattered type, a low-density and cluster-like type and a mass-like and sparse type. The research findings could be used as the scientific foundation for rural planning and community rebuilding, particularly in less-developed areas.