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    2013年, 第23卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2013-05-29 上一期    下一期
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    Measurement and Interpretation of Connectivity of Chinese Cities in World City Network, 2010
    Ben DERUDDER, Peter J TAYLOR, Michael HOYLER, NI Pengfei, LIU Xingjian, ZHAO Miaoxi, SHEN Wei, Frank WITLOX
    2013 (3):  261-273.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0604-y
    摘要 ( 1039 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF(354KB) ( 1411 )  

    This is an empirical paper that measures and interprets the position of Chinese cities in the world city network in 2010. Building on a specification of the world city network as a ‘interlocking network' in which business services firms play the crucial role in city network formation, information is gathered about the presence of global service firms in cities. This information is converted into data to provide the ‘service value' of a city for a firm's provision of corporate services in a 526 (cities) × 175 (firms) matrix. These data are then used as the input to the interlocking network model in order to measure cities' connectivity and its predominant geographical orientation. Here we focus on the position of some key Chinese cities in this regard, and discuss and interpret results in the context of the urban dimensions of the ‘opening up' of the Chinese economy.

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    An Empirical Study on Chinese City Network Pattern Based on Producer Services
    ZHEN Feng, WANG Xia, YIN Jun, ZHANG Min
    2013 (3):  274-285.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0595-8
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    Globalization and informatization have accelerated city networking process over the world, which makes research on city network a hot topic in the fields of urban geography and economic geography. With Chinese economic structure adjustment and city economic growth, producer services have begun to play an increasingly important role in city-region networking. This paper employs the methodology of world city network to analyze and explain the spatial development characteristics of China's urban network system based on the data of nationwide producer services enterprise network. The research result indicated that the distribution of producer services network has a positive effect on the development of Chinese city networks. City network connectivity is closely related to the significance of city in producer services development, and the former will gradually decline with the drop of the latter. Accordingly, the 64 cities can be divided into the national central cities, regional central cities, sub-regional central cities and local central cities in accordance with their position and role in the nationwide producer services network. It is concluded that high-grade cities with quality producer services dominate the pattern of Chinese city networks and there emerges three spatial agglomerations of producer services enterprises in Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta, Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Economical Region. Moreover, the distribution of different producer services industry varies from city to city, which also affects the characteristics of network development.

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    Runoff Responses to Climate Change in Arid Region of Northwestern China During 1960-2010
    WANG Huaijun, CHEN Yaning, LI Weihong, DENG Haijun
    2013 (3):  286-300.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0605-x
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    Based on runoff, air temperature, and precipitation data from 1960 to 2010, the effects of climate change on water resources in the arid region of the northwestern China were investigated. The long-term trends of hydroclimatic variables were studied by using both Mann-Kendall test and distributed-free cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart test. Results indicate that the mean annual air temperature increases significantly from 1960 to 2010. The annual precipitation exhibits an increasing trend, especially in the south slope of the Tianshan Mountains and the North Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang in the study period. Step changes occur in 1988 in the mean annual air temperature time series and in 1991 in the precipitation time series. The runoff in different basins shows different trends, i.e., significantly increasing in the Kaidu River, the Aksu River and the Shule River, and decreasing in the Shiyang River. Correlation analysis reveals that the runoff in the North Xinjiang (i.e., the Weigan River, the Heihe River, and the Shiyang River) has a strong positive relationship with rainfall, while that in the south slope of the Tianshan Mountains, the middle section of the north slope of the Tianshan Mountains and the Shule River has a strong positive relationship with air temperature. The trends of runoff have strong negative correlations with glacier coverage and the proportion of glacier water in runoff. From the late 1980s, the climate has become warm and wet in the arid region of the northwestern China. The change in runoff is interacted with air temperature, precipitation and glacier coverage. The results show that streamflow in the arid region of the northwestern China is sensitive to climate change, which can be used as a reference for regional water resource assessment and management.

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    Water Quality Evaluation in Tidal River Reaches of Liaohe River Estuary, China Using a Revised QUAL2K Model
    YE Hanfeng, GUO Shuhai, LI Fengmei, LI Gang
    2013 (3):  301-311.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0586-9
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    Rivers in the Liaohe River Estuary area have been seriously polluted by discharges of wastewater containing petroleum pollutants and nutrients. In this paper, The Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2K) and its revised model as well as One-dimensional Tide Mean Model (1D model) were applied to predict and assess the water quality of the tidal river reach of the Liaohe River Estuary. Dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total phosphorus (TP) were chosen as water quality indices in the two model simulations. The modelled results show that the major reasons for degraded rivers remain petroleum and non-point source pollution. Tidal water also has a critical effect on the variation of water quality. The sensitivity analysis identifies that flow rate, point load and diffuse load are the most sensitive parameters for the four water quality indices in the revised QUAL2K simulation. Uncertainty analysis based on a Monte Carlo simulation gives the probability distribution of the four water quality indices at two locations (6.50 km and 44.84 km from the river mouth). The statistical outcomes indicate that the observed data fall within the 90% confidence intervals at all sites measured, and show that the revised QUAL2K gives better results in simulating the water quality of a tidal river.

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    Effects of Tillage Management on Infiltration and Preferential Flow in a Black Soil, Northeast China
    FAN Ruqin, ZHANG Xiaoping, YANG Xueming, LIANG Aizhen, JIA Shuxia, CHEN Xuewen
    2013 (3):  312-320.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0606-9
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    The impacts of no-tillage (NT) and moldboard plough (MP) managements on infiltration rate and preferential flow were characterized using a combined technique of double-ring device and dye tracer on a black soil (Mollisols) in Northeast China. The objective of this study is to evaluate how tillage practices enhance soil water infiltration and preferential flow in favor of soil erosion control in the study area. The steady infiltration rates under NT management are 1.6 and 2.1 times as high as those under MP management in the 6th and 8th years of the tillage management in place, while the infiltrated water amounts under NT management are 1.4 and 2.0 times as high as those under MP management, respectively. The depth of methylene blue penetrated into NT soil increases from 43 cm in the 6th year to 57 cm in the 8th year, which are 16 cm and 19 cm deeper than those in MP soil, respectively. The results of morphologic image show that more biological macro-pores occur in NT soil than in MP soil. These macro-pores play a key role in enhancing preferential flow in NT soil, which in turn promotes water infiltration through preferential pathways in NT soil. The results are helpful to policy-making in popularizing NT and have the implications for tillage management in regard to soil erosion control in black soil region of China.

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    Vegetation and Community Changes of Elm (Ulmus pumila) Woodlands in Northeastern China in 1983-2011
    LIU Li, WANG He, LIN Changcun, WANG Deli
    2013 (3):  321-330.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0607-8
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    Elm (Ulmus pumila), widely distributed in the north temperate zone, contributes to a special savanna-like woodland in typical grassland region in the northeastern China. This woodland performs a variety of ecological functions and environmental significance, such as decreasing soil erosion, stabilizing sand dunes, preserving species diversity. However, in the last approximate 30 years, the species composition, productivity and distribution area of elm woodland has decreased severely. A series of studies have been carried out to find out whether the climate changes or human disturbances caused the degradation of elm woodland and how these factors affected elm woodland. In this study, undisturbed, plowing and grazing elm woodland were investigated in 1983 and 2011 by using Point-Centered Quarter method. The relationship between vegetation changes and environmental factors was analyzed by Bray-Curtis ordination. The results show that in 2011, species diversity and understory productivity of undisturbed elm woodland decrease slightly compared to those of undisturbed elm woodland in 1983. However, nearly 60% of the species is lost in the plowing and grazing elm woodland relative to the species undisturbed elm woodland in 1983. Interestingly, plowing stimulates the growth of elm and certain understory species through furrowing soil and accelerating soil nutrient turnover rate. Grazing disturbance not only leads to species loss and productivity decrease, but also induces changes in elm growth (small, short and twisted). The mean age of the elm was 29 ± 2 yr in undisturbed and plowing elm woodland, while only 15 yr in the grazing elm woodland. The results of Bray-Curtis ordination analysis show that all sample stands clustered to three groups: Group I including the undisturbed sample stands of 83UE (undisturbed elm woodland in 1983) and 11UE (undisturbed elm woodland in 2011); Group II including sample stands of PE (elm woodland disturbed by plowing); Group III including samples stands of GE (elm woodland disturbed by grazing). The results indicate that the long time disturbance of the plowing and grazing have converted elm woodland to different community types. Climate change is not the primary reason causing the degradation of elm woodland, but plowing and grazing disturbance. Both plowing and grazing decrease the vegetation composition and species diversity. Grazing further decreases vegetation productivity and inhibits the growth of elm tree. Therefore, we suggest that reasonable plowing and exclusive grazing would be favorable for future regeneration of degraded elm woodland.

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    Predictive Vegetation Mapping Approach Based on Spectral Data, DEM and Generalized Additive Models
    SONG Chuangye, HUANG Chong, LIU Huiming
    2013 (3):  331-343.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0590-0
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    This study aims to provide a predictive vegetation mapping approach based on the spectral data, DEM and Generalized Additive Models (GAMs). GAMs were used as a prediction tool to describe the relationship between vegetation and environmental variables, as well as spectral variables. Based on the fitted GAMs model, probability map of species occurrence was generated and then vegetation type of each grid was defined according to the probability of species occurrence. Deviance analysis was employed to test the goodness of curve fitting and drop contribution calculation was used to evaluate the contribution of each predictor in the fitted GAMs models. Area under curve (AUC) of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was employed to assess the results maps of probability. The results showed that: 1) AUC values of the fitted GAMs models are very high which proves that integrating spectral data and environmental variables based on the GAMs is a feasible way to map the vegetation. 2) Prediction accuracy varies with plant community, and community with dense cover is better predicted than sparse plant community. 3) Both spectral variables and environmental variables play an important role in mapping the vegetation. However, the contribution of the same predictor in the GAMs models for different plant communities is different. 4) Insufficient resolution of spectral data, environmental data and confounding effects of land use and other variables which are not closely related to the environmental conditions are the major causes of imprecision.

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    A MODIS Time Series Data Based Algorithm for Mapping Forest Fire Burned Area
    YANG Wei, ZHANG Shuwen, TANG Junmei, BU Kun, YANG Jiuchun, CHANG Liping
    2013 (3):  344-352.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0597-6
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    Burned area mapping is an essential step in the forest fire research to investigate the relationship between forest fire and climate change and the effect of forest fire on carbon budgets. This study proposed an algorithm to map forest fire burned area using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameter (MODIS) time series data in Heilongjiang Province, China. The algorithm is divided into two steps: Firstly, the ‘core' pixels were extracted to represent the most possible burned pixels based on the comparison of the temporal change of Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Burned Area Index (BAI) and MODIS active fire products between pre-and post-fires. Secondly, a 15-km distance was set to extract the entire burned areas near the ‘core' pixels as more relaxed conditions were used to identify the fire pixels for reducing the omission error as much as possible. The algorithm comprehensively considered the thermal characteristics and the spectral change between pre-and post-fires, which are represented by the MODIS fire products and the spectral index, respectively. Tahe, Mohe and Huma counties of Heilongjiang Province, China were chosen as the study area for burned area mapping and a time series of burned maps were produced from 2000 to 2011. The results show that the algorithm can extract burned areas more accurately with the highest accuracy of 96.61%.

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    Spatial Analysis of Commuting Mode Choice in Guangzhou, China
    ZHOU Suhong, DENG Lifang, HUANG Meiyu
    2013 (3):  353-364.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-012-0569-2
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    Metropolitan cities in China are commonly confronted with unresolved traffic congestion issues, primarily due to rapidly increasing traffic demand. Group disparity between commuting mode choice and its spatial distribution on road networks has enabled us to examine the factors that give rise to the discrepancies and the fundamental spatial causes of traffic congestion. In recent years, micro-perspective, individual, and behavior-based spatial analysis have mushroomed and been facilitated with effective tools such as temporal geographic information systems (T-GIS). It is difficult to study the interrelations between transport and space on the basis of commuting mode choice since the mode choice data are invisible in a specific space such as a particular road network. Therefore, in the field of transport, the classical origin destination (OD) four-stage model (FSM) is usually employed to calculate data when studying commuting mode choice. Based on the relative principles of T-GIS and the platform of ArcGIS, this paper considers Guangzhou as a case study and develops a spatio-temporal tool to examine the daily activities of residents. Meanwhile, the traffic volume distribution in rush hours, which was analyzed according to commuting modes and how they were reflected in the road network, was scrutinized with data extracted from travel diaries. Moreover, efforts were made to explain the relationship between traffic demand and urban spatial structure. Based on the investigation, this research indicates that traffic volumes in divergent groups and on the road networks is driven by: 1) the socio-economic characteristics of travelers; 2) a jobs-housing imbalance under suburbanization; 3) differences in the spatial supply of transport modes; 4) the remains of the Danwei (work unit) system and market development in China; and 5) the transition of urban spatial structure and other factors.

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    Modeling Patch Characteristics of Farmland Loss for Site Assessment in Urban Fringe of Beijing, China
    LIU Xiaona, ZHANG Weiwei, LI Hong, SUN Danfeng
    2013 (3):  365-377.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-013-0600-2
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    Farmland protection and delimitation in the urban fringe considers not only natural factors but also the spatial characters and site factors. Taking Daxing District, Beijing in China as a case study, this paper used landscape ecology and power-law methods to analyze and evaluate farmland loss during the period of 2004-2007 based on the interpretation results of SPOT5 remote sensing images in 2004 and 2007. At the patch level, we selected four landscape indices, namely patch size, shape index, the nearest neighbor distance between farmland and construction land (including residential land and other construction land), and cropping type, to evaluate the risk of farmland loss and establish a farmland site analysis indicator system. The results showed that patch size and shape index have a significant positive correlation with farmland loss, whereas the distance to construction land has a clear negative correlation with farmland loss. As regards cropping type, fallow farmland is much easier for non-agricultural use than cultivated farmland. The relative transition ratio among vegetable land, fallow farmland and cultivated farmland is 1:5.6:1. The patch size of lost farmland follows a power-law distribution, indicating that not only small parcels but also large parcels can be lost. Patch size less than 4 ha or more than 15 ha is in high loss risk, between 4 ha and 10 ha in medium loss risk, and larger than 10 ha and less than 15 ha in low risk. Farmland with a more regular shape has a higher likelihood of loss. Patch shape index less than 2.0 is in high loss risk, between 2.0 and 3.0 in medium loss risk, and larger than 3.0 in low risk. Construction land has a varying impact on farmland loss, the residential land effected distance is 1000 m, and that of the other construction land is 2000 m. This analysis showed the relationships between site factors and farmland loss, and the analysis framework can provide support and reference for farmland protection and delimitation of prime farmland in China.

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    Impacts of Transportation Arteries on Land Use Patterns in Urbanrural Fringe:A Comparative Gradient Analysis of Qixia District, Nanjing City, China
    ZHANG Runsen, PU Lijie, ZHU Ming
    2013 (3):  378-388.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-012-0582-5
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    Integrated transportation and land use studies are of major interest to planners because they consider the interaction between transportation development and land use change. Quantifying the impact of transport infrastructure on land use change is necessary for evaluating the role of transportation development in the process of land use and land cover change in the urban-rural fringe. Taking Qixia District of Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province, China as a typical urban-rural fringe area, this paper analyzes the patterns and characteristics of land use change along three major transportation arteries using land use data from 2000 and 2008. We examine the spatial differentiation and gradient of land use pattern around railway, expressway, and highway corridors to investigate whether land use change in the urban-rural fringe is related to distance from transportation arteries and to clarify the varying impacts of different forms of transport infrastructure on land use patterns. We find that construction land generally tends to be located close to major transportation arteries, and that railways have the most obvious influence on land use change in the urban-rural fringe, while the impact of expressways was not significant. We conclude that there exists a causal relationship between the presence of transportation arteries and land use change in the urban-rural fringe, but this relationship varies across different types of linear transport infrastructure.

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