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    2007年, 第17卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2007-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    Stability of Spatial Structure of Urban Agglomeration in China Based on Central Place Theory
    FANG Chuanglin, SONG Jitao, SONG Dunjiang
    2007 (3):  193-202.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0193-8
    摘要 ( 1249 )   PDF(560KB) ( 1628 )  

    This paper brings forward the concept of stability of the spatial structure of urban agglomeration(UA)based on Central Place Theory by introducing centrality index and fractal theory.Before assessment,K=4 is selected as parameter to calculate centrality index and fractal dimension(K represents the quantitive relationship between city and the counties in Central Place Theory),and then found the number of nodes,the type of spatial structure,the spatial al-location of nodes with different hierarchy affecting the stability of spatial structure.According to spatial contact direction and the level of stability,UAs in China are classified into five types.Finally,it is posed as a further question that how to use hierarchical relation K=6 and K=7 in central place system to coordinate with the assessment of stability of spatial structure is brought forward.

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    Distribution and Chain Pattern of Liquefied Natural Gas Industry in China
    ZHANG Yaoguang, ZHAO Yonghong, CHANG Hongwei, WANG Dan, MENG Zhaobin
    2007 (3):  203-209.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0203-x
    摘要 ( 1205 )   PDF(252KB) ( 1685 )  

    The production and consumption of natural gas in China has been developing rapidly in recent years.It is expected that the annual growth rate of the demand for natural gas will reach 12% in the next 15 years,and the gas consumption in the primary energy will increase from 0.3% to 10% or more by 2020.However,since the supply of natural gas cannot satisfy the requirements,China has begun to build liquefied natural gas(LNG)terminals in the coastal regions such as Guangdong and Fujian,and solve this problem by importing LNG from foreign countries.LNG needs to be transported by LNG ships from abroad.With the rapid growth of global gas production,the volume of LNG trade also increases,and the interregional production increased from 0.3% in 1970 to 26.2% in 2004.So,we need LNG ships more than before.This article puts forward the distribution of LNG ships and the speculation of the future of LNG transportation based on the studies on foreign LNG production,the LNG trade,the building of LNG ships,the LNG transportation,the chain model of LNG distribution,etc.

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    Using Multi-agent System for Residential Expansion Models——A Case Study of Hongshan District,Wuhan City
    PENG Chong, CHENG Jianquan
    2007 (3):  210-215.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0210-y
    摘要 ( 1003 )   PDF(670KB) ( 1174 )  

    Residential expansion is gaining more and more attention from government authorities and urban planners.However,most of the current urban models focus heavily on presenting economic,political and ecological objectives of urban development,while seldom taking the effects of human behavior into consideration.Multi-agent systems for land use/cover change(MAS/LUCC),which mainly concern the behavioral effects of stakeholders on the processes of land use/cover change,are promising to fill the gap.This article,based on the concepts of MAS/LUCC model,con-structs a multi-agent system for residential expansion model(MAS/RE)through the analysis of the behavior of gov-ernment authorities and households.The model takes complex human actions into account,namely urban master plan-ning,planning review and approval,policies of traffic,economy and environment,location and allocation choices of the households and their interrelationships.Taking Hongshan District of Wuhan City,Hubei Province as an illustration,the model is implemented on Arc/info platform to simulate residential expansion between 1996 and 2002.The study result shows that the model is suitable for understanding the process of residential expansion with the effects of human actions,and is especially effective for its capacity in presenting spatio-temporal and behavioral complexity.Therefore,the model can be a reference for policy-making for government authorities and urban planners.

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    Grey-relation Analysis of Traffic System and Urbanization in Jilin Province of China
    XIANG Wei, WANG Yu, LI Ning, ZHU Qingwei
    2007 (3):  216-221.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0216-5
    摘要 ( 1242 )   PDF(402KB) ( 1366 )  

    It has been long believed there should be some relations between traffic system and urbanization,but the in-teraction between them,especially on the regional level,has been not in consideration due to the difficulty in quantitative analysis.Based on the development of Jilin Province during 1981-2003,the paper analyzed the relation with the grey-relation model which was adjusted to fit specific problem,and came to some conclusions.Firstly,there exists ob-vious and strong correlation between traffic system and urbanization.Secondly,urbanization responds to the develop-ment of traffic system mainly on the level of urbanization,such as population and developed area,however,less on urbanization quality.Thirdly,traffic system influences urbanization as a whole except for several peculiar factors,which means we should optimize the whole traffic system to promote urbanization.Based on those conclusions,the paper illustrated the mechanism of traffic system,promoting urbanization scale and urbanization quality.

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    Dynamics of Coastal Land Use Patterns of Inner Lingdingyang Bay in the Zhujiang River Estuary
    XIA Zhen, JIA Peihong, LEI Yong, CHEN Yunzhen
    2007 (3):  222-228.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0222-7
    摘要 ( 1009 )   PDF(281KB) ( 1348 )  

    To satisfy the growing of land demand from economic development,a large scale of land reclamation from sea has been carried out in Inner Lingdingyang Bay in the Zhujiang(Pearl)River estuary in recent years.As a result,the tidal flat and the water channels became narrow,the frequency of floods increased,and the environment was un-dermined.Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey(GMGS)conducted an integrated project for marine geo-environ-ment and geo-hazards survey in 2003.With the integration of multi-temporal remote sensing images of 1977,1978,1988,1996,and 2003,GIS spatial analyzing approach and GPS technique,as well as field data and other background data of the region,this research investigated the comprehensive characteristics and the drivers of coastal land use dy-namics and shoreline changes in Inner Lingdingyang Bay.The results reveal that the reclaimed coastal land was mainly for agriculture and aquaculture in early years,but now they are used for construction sites of harbors and in-dustries,especially high-tech industry.

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    Carrying Capacity of Marine Region in Liaoning Province
    DI Qianbin, HAN Zenglin, LIU Guichun, CHANG Hongwei
    2007 (3):  229-235.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0229-0
    摘要 ( 928 )   PDF(302KB) ( 2160 )  

    Carrying capacity is one of important studies on coordinating development of population,resources,and environment.At present,the researches on it mainly concentrate on the carrying capacity for population and economy,such as the water resources carrying capacity,the land resources carrying capacity,the environment carrying capacity,etc.Based on the related theories and methods,this paper creatively proposed the concept and meaning of carrying capacity of marine region,and formed the appraisal system.According to the developing situation of marine economy of Liaoning Province in recent years,and by employing the method of the state space,this paper also measured the carrying capacity and carrying state of marine region and discussed the sustainable problems of marine economy of Liaoning.The research results show that the carrying state of marine region of Liaoning is in the state of overloading at present,but taking a favorable turn.

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    Object-oriented Urban Dynamic Monitoring——A Case Study of Haidian District of Beijing
    AN Kai, ZHANG Jinshui, XIAO Yu
    2007 (3):  236-242.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0236-1
    摘要 ( 1143 )   PDF(453KB) ( 1745 )  

    It is crucial to conduct the land use/cover research to obtain the global change information.Urban area is one of the most sensitive areas in land use/cover change.Therefore land use/cover change in urban areas is very im-portant in global change.It is vital to incorporate the information of urban land use/cover change into the process of decision-making about urban area development.In this paper,a new urban change detection approach,urban dynamic monitoring based on objects,is introduced.This approach includes four steps:1)producing multi-scale objects from multi-temporal remotely sensed images with spectrum,texture and context information;2)extracting possible changed objects adopting object-oriented classification;3)obtaining shared objects as the basic units for urban change detection;4)determining the threshold to segment the changed objects from the possible changed objects using Otsu method.In this paper,the object-based approach was applied to detecting the urban expansion in Haidian District,Beijing,China with two Landsat Thematic Mapper(TM)data in 1997 and 2004.The results indicated that the overall accuracy was about 84.83%,and Kappa about 0.785.Compared with other conventional approaches,the object-based approach was advantageous in reducing the error accumulation of image classification of each datum and in independence to the radiometric correction and image registration accuracy.

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    Experimental Research on Quantitative Inversion Models of Suspended Sediment Concentration Using Remote Sensing Technology
    WANG Yanjiao, YAN Feng, ZHANG Peiqun, DONG Wenjie
    2007 (3):  243-249.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0243-2
    摘要 ( 713 )   PDF(394KB) ( 1300 )  

    Research on quantitative models of suspended sediment concentration(SSC)using remote sensing technology is very important to understand the scouring and siltation variation in harbors and water channels.Based on laboratory study of the relationship between different suspended sediment concentrations and reflectance spectra measured synchronously,quantitative inversion models of SSC based on single factor,band ratio and sediment parameter were developed,which provides an effective method to retrieve the SSC from satellite images.Results show that the b1(430-500nm) and b3(670-735nm) are the optimal wavelengths for the estimation of lower SSC and the b4(780-835nm) is the optimal wavelength to estimate the higher SSC.Furthermore the band ratio B2/B3 can be used to simulate the variation of lower SSC better and the B4/B1 to estimate the higher SSC accurately.Also the inversion models developed by sediment parameters of higher and lower SSCs can get a relatively higher accuracy than the sin-gle factor and band ratio models.

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    Geomorphologic Study of Anhui Section of Changjiang River Using Landsat TM Image
    QI Yueming, TAN Haiqiao, LIANG Xing
    2007 (3):  250-256.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0250-3
    摘要 ( 1179 )   PDF(454KB) ( 1313 )  

    Fluvial landforms in the Anhui section of the Changjiang(Yangtze)River are often considered as the main factors for frequent floods.It is these special landforms that influence the channel changes of the Changjiang River.Using Landsat TM image of 2000,this paper conducted a series of image processing,including principal component analysis,multi-spectral composition,gray value statistics,and spectral analysis of ground objects.Then it got a new interpretation map of different kinds of fluvial landforms of the Changjiang River in the Anhui section.Based on the interpretation mentioned above,the paper analyzes the distribution and characteristics of such typical landforms as terraces,floodplains and battures,and their functions on the changes of river channel.The results show a consistence with the earlier conclusion that the Anhui section of the Changjiang River tends to deflect gradually toward south,which provides more implications for further study on the geomorphologic evolution of the river channel.

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    Characteristics of Drought and Flood in Zhejiang Province,East China:Past and Future
    FENG Lihua, HONG Weihu
    2007 (3):  257-264.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0257-9
    摘要 ( 933 )   PDF(314KB) ( 1163 )  

    On the basis of large amount of historical and measured data,this paper analyzed the regional,periodic,frequency,continuing,and response characteristics of droughts and floods in Zhejiang and proposed the conception of ratio of peak runoff.Main characteristics of droughts and floods in Zhejiang are as follows:1)The western Zhejiang region is plum rain major control area,and the eastern coastal region of Zhejiang is typhoon major control area.2)Within a long period in the future,Zhejiang will be in the long period that features droughts.3)In Zhejiang the 17th century was frequent drought and flood period,the 16th,19th,and 20th centuries were normal periods,while the 18th century was spasmodic drought and flood period.4)The severe and medium floods in Zhejiang were all centered around the M-or m-year of the 11-year sunspot activity period.5)There are biggish years of annual runoff occurred in El Niño year(E)or the following year(E+1)in Zhejiang.The near future evolution trend of droughts and floods in Zhejiang is as follows:1)Within a relatively long period in the future,Zhejiang Province will be in the long period of mostly drought years.2)Between 1999 and 2009 this area will feature drought years mainly,while the period of 2010-2020 will feature flood years mostly.3)Zhejiang has a good response to the sunspot activities,and the years around 2009,2015,and 2020 must be given due attention,especially around 2020 there might be an extremely severe flood year in Zhejiang.4)Floods in Zhejiang have good response to El Niño events,in El Niño year or the following year much attention must be paid to.And 5)In the future,the first,second,and third severe typhoon years in Zhejiang will be 2009,2012,and 2015,respectively.

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    Impact of Human Activities on Depositional Process of Tidal Flat in Quanzhou Bay of China
    WANG Aijun
    2007 (3):  265-269.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0265-9
    摘要 ( 885 )   PDF(284KB) ( 1301 )  

    As a very important component of a coastal system,tidal flats come to be a focus of the studies on land-ocean interaction in the coastal zone because those areas are subjected to intense human activities and are highly sensitive to the global change.The Quanzhou Bay,located along the middle part of Fujian coast of China,covers about 136.4km2,and the area of coastal wetland in the entire bay from intertidal to subtidal with 6m of water depth accounts for 96% of the total area.Seven short cores were collected and divided in situ with the interval of 5cm on the coastal wetlands of Quanzhou Bay on April 19,2006.The sediment samples were scattered and the grain sizes were measured by using Mastersizer 2000.Human beings' activities on tidal flat have disturbed the vertical distribution of sediments in stratigraphic sequence and accelerated the sedimentation rates.Grain size analysis results show that the grain size diameters increase and sediment becomes worse sorted towards the sea under the strong human disturbance;Spartina alterniflora can play a role of trapping the fine sediment;but near the bank,the sediment becomes coarse and there are two peak values on frequency curve influenced by the sandpile.The trough formed by human activities along the coastline changes the transport path of water and suspended sediment.The sediments are transported through the trough and deposit in it during the flood;the ebb flow is retarded by the flow output through the adjacent trough,and the deposited sediment can not be re-suspended;then,the sedimentation rate increases.In situ observation show that the sedimentation rate is about 8-10cm/yr.

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    Ecotoxicity of Cadmium to Maize and Soybean Seedling in Black Soil
    CAO Huicong, WANG Jinda, ZHANG Xuelin
    2007 (3):  270-274.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0270-z
    摘要 ( 853 )   PDF(217KB) ( 1836 )  

    Ecotoxicity and bioavailability of cadmium(Cd)to the maize(Zea mays L.)and the soybean(Glycine max(L.)Merr.)were investigated by acute toxicity experiment in the laboratory with black soil.Ecotoxicity and bioavailability of Cd were quantified by calculating the median effective concentration(EC50)and bioaccumulation factor(BAF).The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth(shoot and root).The results showed that concentrations of Cd in the soil had adverse effect on the growth of roots and shoots.Seed germination was not the sensitive indicator for the ecotoxicity of Cd in the soil,while the growth of roots was the most sensitive measurement endpoint.Absorbability and transport of Cd in plants depended on the test crop species and Cd concentrations in the soil.The maize retains more Cd in its roots,while the soybean transports more Cd to the shoots from roots.

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    2D-Cell Experiment on Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Transport in Saturated Zone of Groundwater
    LI Hong, LI Xingang, GAO Chuanbo, HUANG Guoqiang, JIANG Bin
    2007 (3):  275-279.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0275-7
    摘要 ( 827 )   PDF(201KB) ( 1052 )  

    As an additive of gasoline,methyl tert-butyl ether(MTBE)has a higher solubility in water,which is about 20 times as high as that of benzene.This characteristic results in MTBE dissolving out of the gasoline into the soil and groundwater.Due to relative unique physicochemical behavior of MTBE it would be an ideal candidate for use in environmental forensic investigations.In order to study the transport and distribution of MTBE in saturated zone of ground water,a two-dimensional experimental cell was setup to simulate the real environment of the groundwater flow.The effects of soil and groundwater flow velocity on the MTBE transport were investigated.The results show that the mobile distance of MTBE in vertical direction was smaller than that in horizontal direction paralleling with the groundwater flow.Because the main dynamics of groundwater flow direction was convection and dispersion,the movement of MTBE is also diffusion in the vertical direction.In addition,the transport of MTBE was more quick in high permeability porous media,and the increase of groundwater flow velocity can accelerate the MTBE plume de-velopment,but the irregularity and randomness of the plume are enhanced synchronously.These research results can give some helps for the investigation of MTBE movement in the groundwater,also can make some references for other petroleum contamination behavior.

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    Nodes and Field of Tourist Origins to Ancient Village——A Case Study of Huangcheng Village in Shanxi Province of China
    ZHONG Jing, ZHANG Jie, LI Donghe, ZHAO Yong, LU Song, SHI Chunyun
    2007 (3):  280-287.  doi: 10.1007/s11769-007-0280-x
    摘要 ( 632 )   PDF(362KB) ( 1674 )  

    Based on Hagget's theory of spatial structure,researches on the nodes and field of tourist origins to Huang-cheng Village in Shanxi Province of China have been explored.Nodal hierarchy structure of tourist origins is analyzed with cluster analysis and the gravity model.And field of tourist origins is analyzed with attraction radius index(R)and geography concentration index(G).In the field analysis,R and G of Huangcheng Village are compared with Xidi Village that is a world heritage located in Huangshan City of Anhui Province in China.According to comparison of loca-tions of two areas,influential factors for field area of Huangcheng Village are identified.It is concluded that:1)cluster analysis and gravity model can be complementary methods to each other for nodal hierarchy structure analysis of tour-ist origins;and 2)as far as location is concerned,the weak intensity effect of tourism resources in the tourist region is a major cause for explaining why tourist origins to Huangcheng Village are mainly its neighboring areas.Moreover,it is suggested that the regional effect of tourist resources should be regarded as a component of destination attractiveness when applying gravity model.

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