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    2006年, 第16卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2006-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    STRUCTURE AND RESTRUCTURING OF BEIJING-TIANJIN-HEBEI MEGALOPOLIS IN CHINA
    YU Tao-fang
    2006 (1):  1-8. 
    摘要 ( 797 )   PDF(730KB) ( 869 )  

    Scott proposes to use the term global city-regions to designate the phenomena that bear some resemblance to the "world cities" firstly identified by Hall and Friedmann and Wolff, and to the "global cities" of Sassen but whose essential social logic and contextual characteristics have evolved considerably since these pioneering studies were published. In simple geographical terms, a global city-region can be refered to comprise any major metropolitan area or any contiguous set of metropolitan areas together with a surrounding hinterland of variable extent-itself a locus of scattered urban settlements-whose internal economic and political affairs are bound up in intricate ways in intensifying and far-flung extra-national relationships. Scott refers to these extra-national relationships as a symptom of "globalization". As economic motors and political actors, the global city regions have been regarded as crucial parts of development strategies in China. In the "Eleventh Five-year Plan" issued by the National Development and Reform Commission of P. R. China, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province (Jing-Jin-Ji) region, one of the typical megalopolises or global city regions in the East Coastal China is paid more attention. This paper first analyzes the regional structure of the Jing-Jin-Ji region based on data of the fifth national population census of China. And then through the changes of the population growth, the dynamic process and mechanisms of the regional restructuring in the Jing-Jin-Ji is explored and discussed.

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    STATUS AND DYNAMIC CHANGE OF REGIONAL MAN-LAND SYSTEM IN VIEW OF MICRO-LEVEL QUANTITATIVE ASPECT-Case Study of Gongyi City of Henan Province
    QIAO Jia-jun, LI Xiao-jian, KONG Yun-feng
    2006 (1):  9-17. 
    摘要 ( 602 )   PDF(279KB) ( 846 )  

    A micro-level analysis on man-land system is important in understanding the content of human geography in rural areas, particularly in the different regions. This paper is based on a survey undertaken in the three villages of Wugou Village, Hutuo Village, and Xiaonan Village of Gongyi City, Henan Province in April 2003. The survey covers three types of economic and social activities from 214 households. Data collected include 120 attributes for each household. By using theories from the relevant disciplines such as geography, mathematics, physics, ecology, and system sciences, this paper develops a framework employing the concept of system entropy in the status function of the man-land system. In this framework, the entropy change is used to show the evolution of the system, and the entropy flow to express the flow among the spatial parts of the system. Following the framework, and using a large set of household data from surveys, the paper makes a quantitative analysis of the village-level man-land system from a micro-perspective. After a theoretical investigation, the corresponding strategies in the paper are then put forward in order to adjust the unbalanced trend of the village man-land system from both perspectives of small-area and individual actors.

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    ANALYSIS AND MODELING ON CULTIVATED LAND CONVERSION——Case Study of Hebei Province
    LIANG Shuang, JIANG Nan, GU Shu-zhong
    2006 (1):  18-23. 
    摘要 ( 792 )   PDF(202KB) ( 973 )  

    With the acceleration of the urbanization and industrialization of China, it is inevitable that cultivated land converts to built-up land for industrial, commercial and residential uses, which would impose pressure both on food security and on the sustainability of urbanization itself for such a country with large population and few cultivated land. Based on the three-time Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) digital images and statistic data of Hebei Province, the general facts of cultivated land conversion and its driving forces were analyzed by establishing econometric model in this paper. Some conclusions were drawn as the following: during 1985-2000, the rate of cultivated land converting to built-up area in Hebei was 4.01% or 0.27% per year. Of all the converted cultivated land, 20.96% was converted to built-up area and of all the new built-up areas, 83.4% was converted from cultivated land; meanwhile the conversion is uneven not only in time but also in space; factors such as edge length shared by cultivated land and built-up land, agricultural value per hectare, non-agriculture value per hectare, GDP, total population, farmer's net income per capita and time had significant effects on this conversion.

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    SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF LAND TRANSFER——Case Study of Shanghai, Nanjing and Taizhou in Changjiang River Delta
    DU Wen-xing, HUANG Xian-jin, ZHAI Wen-xia, PENG Bu-zhuo
    2006 (1):  24-31. 
    摘要 ( 764 )   PDF(316KB) ( 1126 )  

    The policy of land transfer has greatly influenced the macro economy of China with the commencement of another innovation of land use system. Therefore, it is urgent to put forward some rational and feasible suggestions for local government to manage the market of land transfer. Moreover, it is important in the field of study on agricultural land use change to analyze the spatial differentiation and structural specification of land transfer, which are caused by rural households' behavior. This paper selected 11 factors covering four aspects of rural households' family structure, family location, family income structure and the natural quality of land resources, all of which influence the behavior differentiation of rural households, to establish the index model indicating spatial differentiation of land transfer. Results show that the spatial differentiation of land transfer can be divided into four degrees and three categories through analyzing rural households' questionnaires from Shanghai, Nanjing and Taizhou in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta. Since up to 80% of rural households belong to middle degrees, it can be concluded that the rural land market develops evenly in the study areas. And it is also indicated that the natural quality of land resources and the maximum income of rural land are most important factors influencing the spatial differentiation of land transaction. Considering different factors, the countermeasures can be carried out to enhance the spatial differentiation of land transfer so as to promote economic development and social security of rural China. All in all, both micro-factors and macro-factors influencing rural households' behavior of rural land transfer should be taken into account in order to make spatial differentiation and structural specification of rural land transfer notable.

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    SUSTAINABLE RURAL LIVELIHOOD AND ECOLOGICAL SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN UPPER REACHES OF CHANGJIANG RIVER——Case Study of Zhaotong of Yunnan Province
    SHENG Ke-rong, FAN Jie, MA Hai-long
    2006 (1):  32-40. 
    摘要 ( 554 )   PDF(158KB) ( 955 )  

    Sustainable livelihood theory provides a comprehensive framework for understanding the interactions between livelihoods of peasant households and regional environment change in low-income areas. Based on field survey and 946 questionnaires from peasant household conducted in the case study area of Zhaotong, Yunnan Province, the paper has analyzed the basic characteristics of the rural livelihoods, including the asset base status, the income-generating activities, the energy consumption pattern, and the fertility behavior, in the upper reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. The micro-level findings show the conflicts among extensive agricultural development models, rural energy consumption structures heavily relying on biomass and the environment protection. The conversion of cropland to forest and grass program(CCFGP) has exerted an important influence on the livelihoods of the peasant households, but its design has given little considerations to their long-term livelihood sources, which will affect its sustainability to a great extent. From the perspective of sustainable livelihoods framework, the objectives that must be addressed in the ecological shelter construction in the upper reaches of the Changjiang River should include, first, facilitating access of peasant households to credit, technology and public services, second, encouraging the peasant households to adopt agricultural technology with environmental benefits and strengthen resources-conserving investments, and third, paying close attention to the rural energy problems and the long-term livelihood sources of the households with CCFGP. Given the weak asset base and difficulties of livelihood strategies shift, ecological shelter construction in the upper reaches of the Changjiang River will take a long time.

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    MOTIVATION OF CHINESE INVESTMENT IN VIETNAM
    REN Yi
    2006 (1):  41-47. 
    摘要 ( 909 )   PDF(90KB) ( 757 )  

    China attracted a record of US$52.7×109 in foreign direct investment (FDI) in the year 2002, surpassing the United States to become the world's largest FDI recipient. China's success in attracting FDI has received significant attention from academics. Several theoretical approaches have been developed to explain the determinants of FDI in China. However, it seems to be ignored that China has also become a growing provider of significant FDI to the rest of the world. According to United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)'s 2004 report, as a developing country, replacing Japan, China has made the list of the expected top five home countries worldwide for the first time in terms of geographical coverage (2004-2005). Vietnam is second largest market and another emerging transition tiger in Southeast Asia. Both China and Vietnam were and are experiencing transitions from centrally planned economy to free market economy. This paper, therefore, attempts to explore the development of Chinese investment in Vietnam, analysing the main motives for, and characteristics of, Chinese Multinational Enterprises' (MNEs) investment in Vietnam.

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    FRACTAL ANALYSIS APPLIED TO SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF CHINA'S VEGETATION
    ZHU Xiao-hua, Patel NILANCHAL, ZUO Wei, YANG Xiu-chun
    2006 (1):  48-55. 
    摘要 ( 1118 )   PDF(218KB) ( 975 )  

    Based on the fractal theory, the spatial structure of China's vegetation has been analyzed quantitatively in this paper. Some conclusions are drawn as the following. 1) The relationships between size and frequency of patch area and patch shape index exist objectively for China's vegetation. 2) The relationships between perimeter and area exist objectively for China's vegetation. 3) The fractal dimension of evergreen needleleaf forests on mountains in subtropical and tropical zones is the largest, while the smallest for deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf mixed forests in temperate zone, reflecting the most complex spatial structure for evergreen needleleaf forests on mountains in subtropical and tropical zones and the simplest for deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf mixed forests in temperate zone. 4) The fractal dimensions of China's vegetation types tend to decrease from the subtropics to both sides. 5) The stability of spatial structure of deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf mixed forests in temperate zone is the largest, while the smallest for double-cropping rice, or double-cropping rice and temperate-like grain, and tropical evergreen economic tree plantations and orchards, reflecting the steadiest for deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf mixed forests in temperate zone and the most unstable for double-cropping rice, or double-cropping rice and temperate-like grain, and tropical evergreen economic tree plantations and orchards in spatial structure. 6) The stability of spatial structure of China's vegetation tends to decrease from the temperate zone to both sides. It is significantly pertinent to understand the formation, evolution, dynamics and complexity rule of ecosystem of vegetation.

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    THEORY AND METHOD FOR WETLAND BOUNDARY DELINEATION
    YIN Shu-bai, LU Xian-guo
    2006 (1):  56-62. 
    摘要 ( 813 )   PDF(225KB) ( 795 )  

    Based on the analysis of the subjectivity of wetland boundary criteria and their causes at present, this paper suggested that, under the condition that the mechanism of wetland formation process has not been understood, "black box" method of System Theory can be used to delineate wetland boundaries scientifically. After analyzing the difference of system construction among aquatic habitats, wetlands and uplands, the lower limit of rooted plants was chosen as the lower boundary criterion of wetlands. Because soil diagnostic horizon is the result of the long-term interaction among all environments, and it is less responsive than vegetation to short-term change, soil diagnostic horizon was chosen as the indicator to delineate wetland upper boundary, which lies at the thinning-out point of soil diagnostic horizon. Case study indicated that it was feasible using the lower limit of rooted plants and the thinning-out point of soil diagnostic horizon as criteria to delineate the lower and upper boundaries of wetland. In the study area, the thinning-out line of albic horizon was coincident with the 55.74m contour line, the maximum horizon error was less than 1m, and the maximum vertical error less than 0.04m. The problem on wetland definition always arises on the boundaries. Having delineated wetland boundaries, wetlands can be defined as follows: wetlands are the transitional zones between uplands and deepwater habitats, they are a kind of azonal complex that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water, with the lower boundary lying at the lower limit of rooted plants, and the upper boundary at the thinning-out line of upland soil diagnostic horizon.

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    DRY-WET EVOLUTION IN GUANGDONG PROVINCE DURING LAST 500 YEARS
    XUE Ji-bin, ZHONG Wei, ZHEN Zhi-guo, LIU Wei
    2006 (1):  63-69. 
    摘要 ( 855 )   PDF(192KB) ( 1047 )  

    Based on the historical records in Guangdong Province during the last 500a, the moist index sequence was reconstructed and analyzed by the correlation analysis, wavelet analysis and the power spectrum analysis. The results indicate that: 1) The El Niño events have evident correlations with the droughts happened in the west and north of Guangdong Province, which intensified the dryness and wetness distribution patterns in these areas in a certain degree. 2) Good correspondence relations exist among the moist index sequence, Greenland ice core oxygen isotope record and the winter-half-year temperature sequence in the eastern China, which showed an apparent monsoonal disposal pattern of moisture and temperature. 3) By applying the wavelet analysis to deal with the data, several apparent periodicities are revealed, among which some can be attributed to the solar activities. At the same time, the ENSO event, monsoon (especially the East Asian monsoon) activity and the human activity may also have some influences on the periodicities of the climatic changes in Guangdong Province. 4) Guangdong will persist in dry period before 2040(±5 years) though some little waterlogged period will also exist in this interval, and after that great floods maybe take place in Guangdong. We think that the variety range of the dryness and wetness has increasing tendency in Guangdong Province in future several even hundred years.

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    GIS SUPPORTED HEDONIC MODEL FOR ASSESSING PROPERTY VALUE IN WEST OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA
    ZHOU De-min, XU Jian-chun, GONG Hui-li
    2006 (1):  70-78. 
    摘要 ( 792 )   PDF(1123KB) ( 965 )  

    A hedonic linear regression model is constructed in this paper to estimate property value. In our model, the property value (sales price) is a function of several selected variables such as the property characteristics, social neighborhoods, level of neighborhood environmental contaminations, level of neighborhood crimes, and locational accessibility to jobs or services. Definitions and calculation of these variables are approached by using Geographic Information System tools. For improving estimation, gravity model is employed to measure both levels of neighborhood toxic sites and crimes; and a time-based method is used to measure the locational accessibility rather than simple straight-line distance measurement. This study discovers that the relationship between house value and its nearby highway is nonlinear. The methodology could help policy makers assess the external effects of a property. Our model also could be used potentially to identify the current and historic trends of development caused by neighborhood or environments change in the study area.

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    QUANTITATIVE MODELING OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT IN MIDDLE CHANGJIANG RIVER FROM MODIS
    LIU Can-de, HE Bao-yin, LI Mao-tian, REN Xian-you
    2006 (1):  79-82. 
    摘要 ( 815 )   PDF(135KB) ( 1018 )  

    Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to observe bodies of water. Among satellite sensors commonly used for water quality studies, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has potential in water quality monitoring, because of its moderate spatial resolution and high temporal resolution. In this paper, the utility of MODIS data for suspended sediment monitoring in the middle Changjiang (Yangtze) River is studied. It is concluded that suspended sediment concentration correlates well with reflectance values (R1-R2)/(R1+R2) retrieved from MODIS 250m image data (R2=0.72, n=41). Based on this correlation, we obtain the empirical model of suspended sediment concentration in the middle Changjiang River from MODIS. It is shown that it is useful for MODIS data to monitor this parameter of water quality.

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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SOIL MOISTURE USING DUAL-FREQUENCY MICROWAVE RADIOMETER
    GUAN Zhi, ZHAO Kai, SONG Dong-sheng
    2006 (1):  83-86. 
    摘要 ( 819 )   PDF(46KB) ( 805 )  

    An experiment of measuring soil moisture was carried out by using dual-frequency microwave radiometer designed by the authors. The measured data were analyzed by using statistical regression method and the empirical regression model of retrieving soil moisture in L-band and C-band was developed. The soil moisture in a rainfall event was retrieved using the experiential regression model, which is consistent well with the field sampling value. The results show that when soil moisture is lower than 75%, the brightness temperature is linear with soil moisture. However, when soil moisture is higher than 75%, the brightness temperature is not linear with soil moisture, so it is difficult for microwave radiometer to measure the changes of soil moisture. The experiment verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of microwave remote sensing soil moisture. Although this method for linear regression based on the data measured with the radiometer is simple, and has strong adaptability, generally it has only local application value, and lacks universal applicability for different areas and different conditions.

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    FUZZY SYNTHETIC EVALUATION ON RESIDENT'S PERCEPTIONS OF TOURISM IMPACTS——Case of Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China
    LU Xiao-li, WU Chun-you, XIAO Gui-rong
    2006 (1):  87-94. 
    摘要 ( 717 )   PDF(86KB) ( 1017 )  

    Tourism can have both positive and negative outcomes for residents in tourism destinations. It is a good method to analyze the status of tourism impact by means of investigating residents' perceptions of it. Various methods have been used in previous authoritative studies. However, owing to inherent imprecision, difficulties always exist in some conventional methodologies when describing the interpretation of linguistic or measured uncertainties for real-world random phenomena. The purpose of this research is to present the fuzzy synthetic evaluation method to investigate residents' perceptions of tourism impacts. At first, basic attributes and a hierarchical framework of tourism impacts are defined and formed. Secondly, the weighted vectors are determined according to the knowledge and experience of experts. Thirdly, the weighted evaluation matrices are aggregated to get the fuzzy sets of tourism impacts. In the last stage, the final fuzzy sets are defuzzified to get the rank of the residents' perceptions of tourism impacts. A case study in Jiuzhaigou National Park of China is provided to demonstrate the application of this method.

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