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    2005年, 第15卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2005-12-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    STATUS, CAUSES AND COMBATING SUGGESTIONS OF SANDY DESERTIFICATION IN QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU
    LIU Yi-hua, DONG Guang-rong, LI Sen, DONG Yu-xiang
    2005 (4):  289-296. 
    摘要 ( 660 )   PDF(353KB) ( 1187 )  

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the major sandy desertification regions of China. Based on the recent investigation on sandy desertification, this paper analyses the status such as the type, area, distribution and damage of sandy land desertification in the plateau. Through the analysis on the factors affecting sandy desertification in the region's natural and socio-economic systems as well as the processes and their interrelations, it can be concluded that sandy desertification in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau resulted from the combined actions of normal natural sand drift processes, natural sandy desertification processes caused by climatic changes and man-made sandy desertification caused by improper human activities. In addition, it also predicts the possible developmental trend including the increase in desertification area and the enhancement in desertification developmental degree with the exacerbation of the complex processes, and finally puts forward some strategic suggestions to combat sandy desertification in the coming years.

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    ECONOMIC APPROACH FOR CONTROL AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN CHINA
    WANG Xiao-yan, CAO Li-ping
    2005 (4):  297-302. 
    摘要 ( 636 )   PDF(246KB) ( 765 )  

    This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.

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    FUZZY COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION MODEL OF ECOLOGICAL DEMONSTRATION AREA
    YU Ya-juan, GUO Huai-cheng, LIU Yong, WANG Shu-tong, WANG Jin-feng
    2005 (4):  303-308. 
    摘要 ( 908 )   PDF(325KB) ( 735 )  

    Ecological demonstration area (EDA) is an authorized nomination, which should be assessed from several aspects, including ecological, social, environmental, economic ones and so on. It is difficult to advance an exact developing level index of EDA due to its indicator system's complexity and disequilibrium. In this paper, a framework of indicators was set to evaluate, monitor and examine the comprehensive level of ecological demonstration area (EDA). Fuzzy logic method was used to develop the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model (FCEM), which could quantitatively reveal the developing degree of EDA. Huiji District of Zhengzhou, Henan Province, one of the 9th group of national EDAs, was taken as a study case. The framework of FCEM for the integrated system included six subsystems, which were social, economic, ecological, rural, urban and accessorial description ones. The research would be valuable in the comprehensive quantitative evaluation of EDA and would work as a guide in the construction practices of Huiji ecological demonstration area.

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    EVOLVEMENT OF URBAN SPATIAL STRUCTURE AND MAIN DRIVES IN WUXI, CHINA
    ZHANG Luo-cheng, ZHU Tian-ming, YAO Shi-mou
    2005 (4):  309-314. 
    摘要 ( 784 )   PDF(498KB) ( 768 )  

    With the quick development of urbanization, urban expansion has been paid more and more attention to by researchers from western countries and China. Here Wuxi City of China is selected as a case study. Located in the core-area of Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta, as the sources of Chinese township enterprise, Wu culture, and national industry, Wuxi has experienced great change in the urban spatial structure, especially in the land use structure, and urban shape and scale. The ratio of industrial land was about one-third of the construction land in 2003.Residential and public infrastructure land had decreased a little from 195 to 2003, but it remains to be the main construction land at present. Green land has increased at the highest speed due to the demand of sustainable development. After the reform and opening to the outside world, this kind of evolvement of urban spatial expansion is helpful for sustainable development. Economic development, transportation, and administrative planning are the main reasons for these changes. During different periods, the main drives are different. Economic development is the basic factor that influences urban expansion. Transportation influences urban evolvement in different times, but now the importance is not as great as 30 years ago, because administrative force plays an important function in urban planning of China and influences urban evolvement.

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    LAND USE CHANGE AND ITS SOCIO-ECONOMIC DRIVING FORCES UNDER STRESS OF PROJECT IN OLD RESERVOIR AREA --Case Study of Linshui Reservoir Area of Dahonghe Reservoir in Sichuan Province
    SHAO Jin-gan, HUANG Xue-qin, QU Ming, WEI Chao-fu, XIE De-ti
    2005 (4):  315-324. 
    摘要 ( 1032 )   PDF(638KB) ( 770 )  

    The old reservoir areas built in 1950s-1970s left behind many socio-economic problems, because of the administrative backward migration and little migration fund, and all these problems would be tied to land. Based on interviewing with peasant households, combining land use survey and socio-economic statistical index, this paper analyzed land use change and its corresponding driving forces in Linshui reservoir area of Dahonghe Reservoir. Results showed that land use change in the reservoir area was mainly embodied on low-lying land submergence and migration requisition land. The former changed the land use patterns, and the latter mainly reconstructed original land property and made land over-fragmented. Cultivated land per capita was 0.041ha in this area, below the cordon of cultivated land per capita enacted by FAO. Currently, there were still 30.25% of peasant households being short of grain in trimester of one year, and there were 35.27% of people living under the poverty line. The conditions of eco-environment in Linshui Reservoir Area were worse, and healthy and sub-healthy eco-environment accounted for less proportion, composed of green belt around the reservoir area and paddy field ecosystem, and economic forest and orchard ecosystem, respectively. The stress of the reservoir project was macroscopic background to analyze the driving factors of land use change, and real underlying diving factor of the land use change in the area was the change of cultural landscape under the stress of reservoir project. The rapid increase of population was the key factor to induce the change of man-land relationship in the reservoir area, the low level of rural economy was the crucial factor to decide how migrants input for production, and the belief of migrants, influencing the land use patterns in a certain extent, was the inducing factor to keep land use stable. The low-lying submergence and infrastructure construction accompanied the reservoir project were leading factors driving land use change in the area, while changes in land use pattems, after the reservoir being built, were the responses of peasant households' behaviors to land use change.

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    EVAPOTRANSPIRATION OF LOW-LYING PRAIRIE WETLAND IN MIDDLE REACHES OF HEIHE RIVER IN NORTHWEST CHINA
    WU Jin-kui, DING Yong-jian, WANG Gen-xu, SHEN Yong-ping, Yusuke YAMAZAKI, Jumpei KUBOTA
    2005 (4):  325-329. 
    摘要 ( 779 )   PDF(307KB) ( 891 )  

    Low-lying prairie wetland, which has characteristics of both grassland and wetland, has irreplaceable ecological fmctions in inland river basins of Northwest China. Owing to its small-scale distribution, so far, the observation and research on it are rare. The estimation ofevapotranspiration is significant to ecological and environmental construction, scientific management of pasture and protection of wetland. For studying the evapotranspiration (ET) of low-lying prairie wetland in the middle reaches of the Heihe River, an inland river, in Northwest China, the automatic weather station in Linze Ecological Experimental Station of Lanzhou University (39°1'3"N, 100°03'2"E), Linze, Gansu Province,was selected as a case study. Based on meteorological data collected, Bowen-Ratio Energy Balance (BREB) method was used to calculate the evapotranspiration (ET) of low-lying prairie wetland. The analysis results showed that in a whole year (September 2003 -August 2004), the total ET was 611.mm and mean daily 1.67mm/d. The ET varied with different growing stages. In non-growing stage (NGS), initial growing stage (IGS), middle growing stage (MGS) and end growing stage (EGS), the ET was 0.7, 2.01, 3.82 and 1.49mm/d, with a percentage of total ET of 18.26%, 9.20%, 61.83% and 10.71% respectively. In March, ET began to increase. But in April, the ET increased most. After that, it increased gradually and got the maximal value in July. From then on, the ET decreased gradually. In September, the ET decreased rapidly. With the ending of growing and the freezing of soil, the ET stopped from the middle of November to February in next year. Hourly ET analysis showed that at 8:00 a.m. (during MGS at 7:00 a.m.), the evapotranspiration began, at 13:00 p.m.got its maximal value and at 19:00 p.m. (during MGS at 20:00 p.m.), the evapotranspiration stopped. The intensity of ET in sunny day was much larger than that in cloudy day in the same growing stage.

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    RESPONSES OF WETLAND ECO-SECURITY TO LAND USE CHANGE IN WESTERN JILIN PROVINCE, CHINA
    WANG Zhi-qiang, ZHANG Bai, YANG Guang, WANG Zong-ming, ZHANG Shu-qing
    2005 (4):  330-336. 
    摘要 ( 1046 )   PDF(705KB) ( 787 )  

    By the use of the software of ARCGIS, dynamic changes of the landscape elements, landscape structure,conversion processes of the landscape gradients and the responses of wetland eeo-security to land use/cover changes (LUCC) in the western Jilin Province were studied from 1930 to 2000. The results show that the landscape elements of grassland, wetland, forestland and water area shrank rapidly, and wetlands underwent huge losses in the study period due to the conversion from wetland into arable land and grassland in large quantities. The responses of wetland eco-security to LUCC were inverse evolvement of wetland vegetation, loss of biodiversity, water deficiency in wetland ecosystem, the changes of the heterogeneity of wetlands and the fragmentation of the wetland habitats. Suggestions were given for protection of wetlands and the regional sustainable development.

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    CLIMATIC FEATURES OF SUMMER TEMPERATURE IN NORTHEAST CHINA UNDER WARMING BACKGROUND
    LI Ji, GONG Qiang, ZHAO Lian-wei
    2005 (4):  337-342. 
    摘要 ( 1337 )   PDF(879KB) ( 780 )  

    By using, summer temperature data in 2 stations from 1951 to 2003, the variation characteristics of summer temperature in Northeast China (NET) were analyzed based on the background of climate warming. The results showed that the warming in summer was 0.15℃/10a in Northeast China, which was higher than that on the global, Northern Hemisphere or Northeast Asia scale in the recent 50 years. The responses of NET to global warming were shown in 3 aspects mainly. Firstly, it became warm and the average temperature increased in summer;secondly,the temperature variability increased, which displayed the increase of climatic instability;thirdly, the disaster of low temperature decreased and high temperature damage increased obviously, but the disaster of low temperature still existed in some areas under global warming background, which would be worthy of notice further.

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    SORPTION AND DESORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CADMIUM BY FOUR DIFFERENT SOILS IN NORTHEAST CHINA
    ZHANG Lei, SONG Feng-bin
    2005 (4):  343-347. 
    摘要 ( 1206 )   PDF(262KB) ( 860 )  

    Four soils, phaeozem (PM), saline-alkali soil (SA), meadow albic bleached soil (MA) and dark brown forest soil (DB) from Northeast China were used to examine the sorption and desorption characteristics of Cd and pH influence on it. According to sorption experiment without pH control, the order of amount of absorbed Cd by soils was:SA>PM>DB>MA. The results from non-linear fitting method showed that Langmuir and Freundrich models were more adaptable than Temkin model in describing the sorption data. The maximum sorption amounts from Langmuir model were: PM>SA>MA>DB. Exponential equation for PM and SA and quadratic equation for MA and DB were suitable to fit the desorption data. The order of average desorption percentage was: MA>DB>PM>SA. The amounts of sorption by PM, DB and MA reached the maximum in pH 9.0, while sorption by SA was linearly increased in the experimental range of pH 3.3-11.4. In uniform pH, however, Cd sorption by SA was the minimum among four soils, which indicated that the more amounts of Cd absorbed by SA in isotherm sorption were ascribed to the higher soil pH. The higher sorption of Cd in PM resulted from the higher percentage of organic matter and clay components.

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    CAUSES AND CONTROL COUNTERMEASURES OF EUTROPHICATION IN CHAOHU LAKE, CHINA
    SHANG Guang-ping, SHANG Jin-cheng
    2005 (4):  348-354. 
    摘要 ( 762 )   PDF(387KB) ( 1115 )  

    Chaohu Lake, located in the central Anhui Province, is one.of the five largest fresh lakes in China. Now it is one of the three most eutrophication lakes in China. The deterioration of its water quality has influenced the sustainable development of society, economy and environment of Hefei City, the capital of Anhui Province. A series of measures have been carried out to control its eutrophication, but it is still serious. On the basis of the lake water quality data from 1984 to 2003, the causes of the eutrophication of Chaohu Lake are analyzed. Studies indicated that the suitable natural conditions and human activities played a crucial role in the process of the eutrophication of Chaohu Lake.A great amount of industrial, agricultural and domestic sewage discharged into the lake is the main cause of eutrophication in the lake. Land use, soil erosion and shoreline collapse destroyed the watershed eco-environment and the terrestrial ecosystem of Chaohu Lake. And the building of Yuxi Gate extends the sluggish of the nutritious substance and speeds up the process of the eutrophication. From the view of systematic engineering and watershed ecology, a series of the countermeasures have been put forward to control the eutrophication.

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    ANALYSIS OF SURFACE SINK OF EXPLORATION VACANCY IN GOLD MINING AREA OF ZHAOYUAN CTIY BASED ON RS AND GIS
    WU Quan-yuan, AN Guo-qiang, BAO Wen-dong, ZHANG Zu-lu, XU Qiu-xiao, FANG Xue-mi
    2005 (4):  355-360. 
    摘要 ( 961 )   PDF(505KB) ( 920 )  

    Surface sink is a main geological calamity of gold mining areas and a main factor to restrict economic sustainable development of mining zone. Based on former investigations, this article draws the environment information of surface sink of exploration vacancy in gold mining area of Zhaoyuan City, Shangdong Province by RS technology. Through spatial simulation analysis and expert diagnoses on the basis of GIS technology, the article affirms the inducement factors of the surface sink. Then using these factors as distinguishing ones the authors prognosticate the criticality of other exploration vacancies. The results indicate that the surface sink area of study area in Zhaoyuan City, has already come to 0.78km2 and it is forecasted that 0.97km2 of the exploration vacancy belongs to high danger area. Decisive measures need taking in order to prevent this crucial problem. Another 1.57km2 of the exploration vacancies belongs to middle danger area, which will sink when meeting some inducing factors, such as earthquake. Still another 1.53kmn2 of the exploration vacancies belongs to low danger area that can not lead to surface sink when meeting common inducing factors.

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    REGIONAL TOURISM COOPERATION IN TRIANGLE ZONE OF LIAONING PROVINCE
    LONG Jiang-zhi
    2005 (4):  361-367. 
    摘要 ( 664 )   PDF(323KB) ( 933 )  

    Strengthening the regional tourism cooperation is the requirement of both tourism development and tourist competition drive. On the one hand, resources, products, market and infrastructure in tourism are characteristics of half-public goods, which are the externalities. On the other hand, tourism competition has evolved from individual scenic spot, or firm competition to regional competition, which also requires urgent regional tourism cooperation. In recent years, the regional economic cooperation has been becoming popular in the world. The triangle tourism zone of Liaoning Province, constituted by Shenyang, Dalian and Dandong, is the core region of Liaoning tourism system. This regional tourism cooperation has been raised for a long time, but has not made substantial progress as yet. In recent years, the strategic cooperation among them has been becoming urgent, along with the change of tourism competition models, as well as the desire for building a Northeast Asia tourist economy circle. Based on literature, this paper establishes a conceptual frame of regional tourism cooperation and applies it in the analysis of the strategic tourism cooperation of Liaoning Province's golden triangle zone. This paper firstly examines both qualifications and motives concerning with cooperation among the three cities, and believes that the biggest difficulties involve traditional ideas, administrative institutions, communications, economic performances, time constraints, and more overlap among their tourist markets. Then this paper continues to construct a cooperating mechanism, including participant arrangements, construction of operating mechanism and construction of assisting mechanism. At last, this paper proposes approaches to the strategic cooperation such as introducing Xiuyan County, strategic integration and developing differentiated and complemented tourism products.

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    ROLE OF INTERVENING OPPORTUNITY IN TOURIST DESTINATION DEVELOPMENT
    PAN Li-li, BAO Ji-gang
    2005 (4):  368-376. 
    摘要 ( 649 )   PDF(556KB) ( 1503 )  

    Intervening opportunity is an important factor in spatial interaction, and has very important impacts on tourist destination development in a region. There are few literatures on this topic in tourist researches, and especially in China fewer tourist researchers pay attention to intervening opportunity theory. This article, taking Lin'an as a case study, aims to introduce intervening opportunity theory in tourist destination development by the comprehensive analysis of some data including literatures, Intemet information, longitudinal data and some tourist surveys. Both quaitative and quantitative methods are all used in this research. Firstly, the authors expatiate upon the definition of intervening opportunity, by reviewing the literatures in detail, take Lin'an of Zhejiang Province as a case study, and then analyze some necessary factors of intervening opportunity, such as regional tourist demands and supplies, tourist attractions, spatial distance and transportation, tourist images and costs, regional competition and cooperation in tourist destinations. Finally the impacts of intervening opportunity on Lin'an tourist development are analyzed in detail. The results show that intervening opportunity do not occur everywhere, and there must be some critical factors, and intervening opportunity surely plays important roles in tourist destination development. The tourist development in Lin'an is attributed to intervening opportunity of the spatial location between Hangzhou and Huangshan that are two famous tourist cities in China, and the occurrence of intervening opportunities in Lin'an is the integration of some external and internal factors.

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    STUDY OF RURAL TOURISM IN TURPAN, CHINA
    KEYIM Parhad, YANG De-gang, ZHANG Xiao-lei
    2005 (4):  377-382. 
    摘要 ( 619 )   PDF(1544KB) ( 1192 )  

    Rural tourism has long been considered the means of accelerating economic and social development,and has become a development tool for many rural areas. In response to agricultural structure adjustment, rural tourism in China took into shape as a new economic growth point to meet the market demand at the late 1980s.Now, a structural frame of rural tourism has shaped, with the core of Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta, Beijing, Shanghai and Chengdu of China. But in Xinjiang, the westem part of China, there are hardly any studies in this field in spite of its richness of tourism resources. In this paper, development of rural tourism is studied in Turpan of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. With its rich natural and cultural tourism resources, Turpan has become one of the pioneer tourism destinations in China. But same to the rural tourism development of the other areas' of China, rural tourism programs in Turpan mainly aimed at sightseeing activities, and little attention had been paid to the protection and exploitation of national minority culture-an important factor to satisfy both tourists demand and local economic development. However, this kind of rural tourism development policy is harmful on the long run. Because, many tourists seek tourist destinations that offer pleasant experiences related to not only the natural environment but also historic heritage and cultural patterns. The study suggests that on the base of government support in the long term, to enhance tourism training, to protect and exploit national minority culture are essential elements of rural tourism development in Turpan.

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