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    2005年, 第15卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2005-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    SCISSORS DIFFERENCE AND ITS IMPACTS ON ECONOMIC VALUE OF CULTIVATED LAND IN CHINA
    WANG Xiu-fen, CHEN Bai-ming, BI Ji-ye
    2005 (3):  193-199. 
    摘要 ( 928 )   PDF(1023KB) ( 817 )  

    The problem of price scissors difference between industrial products and agricultural products is one of the important problems in China. It impacts not only the living standard improvement of farmers but also the economic value of cultivated land, furthermore results in the direct and indirect loss of cultivated land resources. China's cultivated land area has decreased dramatically in recent years. An important reason for the decrease is the relatively low cost of cultivated land occupancy, which results from the distortion of economic value of cultivated land due to the existence of scissors difference. This study firstly analyzed the dynamic change of scissors difference and calculated the absolute and relative magnitude of scissors difference from 1997 to 2002, then computed the economic value of cultivated land before and after scissors difference adjustment in 2002, and finally discussed the inverted scissors difference. Results suggest that the scissors difference has a remarkable impact on the economic value of cultivated land, and the adjustment of scissors difference even inverted scissors difference to the economic value of cultivated land is indispensable.

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    SPATIAL-TEMPORAL CHANGES AND TRENDS OF AGEING IN CHINA
    WANG Wu-yi, ZHANG Li, LI Hai-rong, LI Ri-bang, YANG Lin-sheng, LIAO Yong-feng
    2005 (3):  200-205. 
    摘要 ( 1059 )   PDF(486KB) ( 1282 )  

    This study focuses on the development stages of ageing and its regional differences in China based on examination of official statistics and documents. The development of ageing in China has experienced three major stages. Firstly, in the 1950s, low coefficient of elderly population (over 65 years) paced up to primary adult type. Secondly, there was a deeply drop of the elderly population because of natural disaster and political factors in the 1960s. Thirdly, from the 1970s to the end of 20th century, the constant increasing of elderly coefficient made China close to elderly society. With statistic data of population, Logistic model is used to simulate the future development of ageing, and two characteristics of development of ageing are presented. Firstly, as for ageing from 2005 to 2050, the elderly coefficient will grow up significantly from 8.48% to 16.30%. Secondly, after 2025, the increasing rate of elderly coefficient will slow down gradually. The regional differences of elderly population in China can be summarized as follows: 1) the eastern China possesses higher elderly coefficient and huger elder population than the western China; 2) about 47.4% of municipalities and provinces in the eastern China become elderly especially Shanghai, Zhejiang Province, Jiangsu Province, Beijing, Tianjin and Shandong Province; 3) ageing intensity is higher in rural area than urban area but getting close each other, and there are more elderly people in rural area than in urban area. Therefore, these will arose aged care problems, and it becomes important issue to establish the social security system in rural areas as soon as possible for elderly people.

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    EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF GUANGZHOU-HONG KONG CORRIDOR
    LI Ping, CAO Xiao-shu
    2005 (3):  206-211. 
    摘要 ( 809 )   PDF(971KB) ( 1102 )  

    With its rapid development in the past two decades, the Pearl River Delta has become one of the most developed regions in China. During this period, an important corridor between Hong Kong and Guangzhou has emerged and shaped the spatial structure of the region. The growth of this region has been greatly marched with the twin poles of Guangzhou and Hong Kong, and the economic and social development has taken place in a corridor between these two metropolises. This paper provides an analysis of the significance of this corridor in terms of its infrastructure, population, land use, and economic development. Massive infrastructure construction in the corridor has played an important role in its development. The corridor has high-frequent transport, and each transport mode has contributed in a different way to the process of development of the corridor. With high land use intensity and high population density, it is developing the characteristics of a megalopolis. As a pathway of connection between Guangzhou and Hong Kong, the corridor includes not only physical infrastructure, such as roads, railways and airports, but also logistics operations, human resources, information and capital, which plays important roles in accelerating business development. It demonstrates how this Main Street has become one of the most important factors in regional development.

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    SUSTAINABLE URBAN-RURAL RELATION IN RAPID URBANIZATION AREAS-Case of Transformation of "Urban Village" in Guangzhou
    WEI Li-hua, YAN Xiao-pei
    2005 (3):  212-218. 
    摘要 ( 860 )   PDF(239KB) ( 1320 )  

    Many studies have been made concerning the problems, characteristics, formation, transformation measures, etc. of urban village from sociology, urban planning and geography, etc., which have made insightful analysis. However, most of these studies started mainly from the standpoint of the city government, drumming for the landscape-oriented urbanization, namely pulling-down the urban village and constructing the splendid residence or business buildings. The article maintains that the most important thing the city government should do is to pay much attention to the sustainable living of urban villagers, who would lose their main income source, namely, the collective dividend and the family housing rent. The single method of compensation has been proved to be harmful to the villagers' community, in which some young villagers relying on rent were no longer to do anything but stay at home. On the other hand, considering the floating population has become the main stream of renters in urban villages, the emergence of urban villages was inevitable and would continue to exist in a long time under the socio-economic transition in urban China and globalization. Based on the analysis above, the transformation of urban village should take more concerns on the housing demands of floating population besides compensation for local villagers. Meanwhile, it is necessary to avoid the "landscape-oriented urbanization" without the "peasant-to-citizen" transformation.

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    SCENARIOS SIMULATION OF COUPLING SYSTEM BETWEEN URBANIZATION AND ECO-ENVIRONMENT IN JIANGSU PROVINCE BASED ON SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL
    LIU Yao-bin, LI Ren-dong, LI Chun-hua
    2005 (3):  219-226. 
    摘要 ( 1031 )   PDF(400KB) ( 952 )  

    By means of ISM (Interpretative Structural Modeling) and SD (System Dynamics) methods, this paper made a system dynamics model of urbanization and eco-environment coupling in Jiangsu Province according to the implication and PSR (Pressure State Response) framework of urbanization and eco-environment coupling. Moreover, five typical scenarios during 2000-2015 have been simulated and analyzed based on the time serial statistical data during 1990-2003 in Jiangsu, which indicates: firstly, there are significant differences between the results and the scenarios, and the five coupling models all have comparative advantages and drawbacks; secondly, in terms of the characteristics and regional development disparities of Jiangsu and the general rule of world urbanization process, this paper reveals that only when either population urbanization model or social urbanization model to be correspondingly adopted, the sustainable development among population, economy, urbanization and eco-environment can be realized.

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    VARIATIONAL ITERATION SOLVING METHOD FOR SEA-AIR OSCILLATOR MODEL OF INTERDECADAL CLIMATE FLUCTUATIONS
    MO Jia-qi, LIN Yi-hua, WANG Hui
    2005 (3):  227-230. 
    摘要 ( 641 )   PDF(221KB) ( 1016 )  

    Atmospheric physics is a very complicated natural phenomenon and needs to simplify its basic models for the sea-air oscillator. And it is solved by using the approximate method. The variational iteration method is a simple and valid method. In this paper the coupled system for a sea-air oscillator model of interdecadal climate fluctuations is considered. Firstly, through introducing a set of functions, and computing the variations, the Lagrange multipliers are obtained. And then, the generalized expressions of variational iteration are constructed. Finally, through selecting appropriate initial iteration from the iteration expressions, the approximations of solution for the sea-air oscillator model are solved successively.

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    MAGE ANALYSIS OF GEOSTATIONARY METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS OVER TIBETAN PLATEAU
    GUO Zhong-yang, DAI Xiao-yan, WU Jian-ping, LIN Hui
    2005 (3):  231-237. 
    摘要 ( 665 )   PDF(387KB) ( 1090 )  

    Disaster weather forecasting is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, the trajectories of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) were automatically tracked over the Chinese Tibetan Plateau using Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) brightness temperature (Tbb) from June to August 1998, and the MCSs are classified according to their movement direction. Based on these, spatial data mining methods are used to study the relationships between MCSs trajectories and their environmental physical field values. Results indicate that at 400hPa level, the trajectories of MCSs moving across the 105°E boundary are less influenced by water vapor flux divergence, vertical wind velocity, relative humidity and K index. In addition, if the gravity central longitude locations of MCSs are between 104°E and 105°E, then geopotential height and wind divergence are two main factors in movement causation. On the other hand, at 500hPa level, the trajectories of MCSs in a north-east direction are mainly influenced by K index and water vapor flux divergence when their central locations are less than 104°E. However, the MCSs moving in an east and south-east direction are influenced by a few correlation factors at this level.

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    SAFETY ANALYSIS OF WATER RESOURCES AND ECO-ENVIRONMENT IN SHIYANG RIVER BASIN
    ZHANG Ji-shi, ZHANG Yong-qiu, PU Rui-feng, CHEN Ren-sheng, CHENG Zhong-shan, WANG Ming-quan
    2005 (3):  238-244. 
    摘要 ( 679 )   PDF(336KB) ( 1058 )  

    The research on the present situation of soil and water development and utilization in Shiyang River Basin shows that water resources and eco-environment situation in this area are near the edge of collapse. Since the water crises occurred in the 1970s, problems caused by continuous decrease of water resources have been becoming serious year by year and eco-environment crisis occurred as a consequence. Up to now, 10 380ha of irrigated lands have been abandoned due to sand coverage and water shortage in the basin. Ground water was over exploded in Wuwei and Minqin because of water shortage. Ground water table in many places dropped under 5m (which is the ecology water table level), thus about 3000ha of Elaeagnus angustifolia forest come to dead and another 5800ha become feeble, and wind-drift sand near the oasis become alive. According to the current situation, if water utilization scope was not enlarged, a water transfer volume of 600×106m3/a from other areas will be suitable to keep water resources and eco-environment safety in the basin, and also 70×106m3/a will be left as spare water. Under this condition the water resources and eco-environment of the basin can reach the critical safety line of 2.032×109m3/a; or if 180×106m3 of water can be transferred from other areas, the water resources can reach the safety warning line of 1.732×109m3/a.

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    HISTORICAL DESERTIFICATION PROCESS IN HEXI CORRIDOR,CHINA
    WANG Nai-ang, ZHANG Chun-hui, LI Gang, CHENG Hong-yi
    2005 (3):  245-253. 
    摘要 ( 944 )   PDF(396KB) ( 1221 )  

    Over the last 2000 years, approximately 38 ancient cities were abandoned through desertification in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Among them, 21.05% were abandoned during the Northern and Southern Dynasties, 21.05% during the end of the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, and 57.9% during the Ming and Qing dynasties. At the same time, main lakes were shrinking rapidly from the 5th Century to the 6th Century and the end of the Qing Dynasty. The climate in these periods was relatively arid and cold with frequent dusts. The phase of these changes indicated that there were three periods of desertification enlargement in the northern China. They were Northern and Southern Dynasties, the end of Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties, the Ming and Qing dynasties. The macro-process of desertification in the study area was controlled mainly by the climatic changes. But from the facts that the population density in the middle of Qing Dynasty had exceeded the critical index of population pressure in arid area and the usage rate of water resources had exceeded 40% in Hexi Corridor, this paper also suggests that human activities have played an important role in desertification processes of the study area mainly during the recent 300 years.

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    SPATIAL GRADIENT ANALYSIS OF URBAN GREEN SPACES COMBINED WITH LANDSCAPE METRICS IN JINAN CITY OF CHINA
    KONG Fan-hua, Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI, YIN Hai-wei, Akira KIKUCHI
    2005 (3):  254-261. 
    摘要 ( 1163 )   PDF(882KB) ( 1228 )  

    Urban green spaces have been arisen growing concern responded to the social and environmental costs of urban sprawl. A wide range of planning and policies has been and/or will be designed to protect urban green spaces and optimize their spatial pattern. A better design or planning of urban green space can make a major contribution to quality of environment and urban life, and furthermore can decide whether we can have a sustainable development in the urban area. Information about the status quo of urban green spaces can help planners design more effectively. However, how to quantify and capture such information will be the essential question we face. In this paper, to quantify the urban green space, a new method comprising gradient analysis, landscape metrics and GIS was developed through a case of Jinan City. The results demonstrate: 1) the gradient analysis is a valid and reliable instrument to quantify the urban green space spatial pattern precisely; 2) using moving window, explicit landscape metrics were spatially realized. Compared with quantifying metrics in the entire landscape, it would be better to link pattern with process and establish an important basis for analyzing the ecological and socioeconomic functions of green spaces.

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    EFFECTS OF WATER TABLE AND NITROGEN ADDITION ON CO2 EMISSION FROM WETLAND SOIL
    YANG Ji-song, LIU Jing-shuang, YU Jun-bao, WANG Jin-da, QIN Sheng-jin, LI Xin-hua
    2005 (3):  262-268. 
    摘要 ( 744 )   PDF(358KB) ( 911 )  

    Soil respiration is a main dynamic process of carbon cycle in wetland. It is important to contribute to global climate changes. Water table and nutritious availability are significant impact factors to influence responses of CO2 emission from wetland soil to climate changes. Twenty-four wetland soil monoliths at 4 water-table positions and in 3 nitrogen status have been incubated to measure rates of CO2 emission from wetland soils in this study. Three static water-table controls and a fluctuant water-table control, with 3 nitrogen additions in every water-table control, were carried out. In no nitrogen addition treatment, high CO2 emissions were found at a static low water table (Ⅰ) and a fluctuant water table (Ⅳ), averaging 306.7mg/(m2·h) and 307.89mg/(m2·h), respectively, which were 51%-57% higher than that at static high water table (Ⅱ and Ⅲ). After nitrogen addition, however, highest CO2 emission was found at Ⅱ and lowest emission at Ⅲ. The results suggested that nutritious availability of wetland soil might be important to influence the effect of water table on the CO2 emission from the wetland soil. Nitrogen addition led to enhancing CO2 emissions from wetland soil, while the highest emission was found in 1N treatments other than in 2N treatments. In 3 nutritious treatments, low CO2 emissions at high water tables and high CO2 emissions at low water tables were also observed when water table fluctuated. Our results suggested that both water table changes and nutritious imports would effect the CO2 emission from wetland.

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    AGE STRUCTURES OF MODULES OF CLONAL PEATLAND SEDGE Carex middendorffii
    BU Zhao-jun, YANG Yun-fei, LANG Hui-qing
    2005 (3):  269-274. 
    摘要 ( 775 )   PDF(302KB) ( 908 )  

    Age structure of a plant population carries important information on population dynamics. The traditional age classification of individuals by development phases could not explain the generation relationship neither between individuals nor between modules, and it could not accurately predict the future of population or the tendency of peatland evolution. In a peatland of the Xiao Hinggan Mountains, China, at the middle of the growth season, the age structures of 3 modules, ramets, active buds and rhizomes of a Carex middendorffii clonal population were investigated, with the method of classifying age classes of ramets and active buds by counting generation quantity of tiller nodes, and classifying age classes of rhizomes by their real survival time. The quantity of vegetative ramets was dominant. Tiller nodes of ramets can propagate vegetatively for a maximum of 3 generations. The population of ramets consisted of 3 age classes of ramets at the middle of the growth season, and showed a stable age structure. In the two sampling events, there was no significant difference between quantities and age structure of the population. The maximum age of an excavated rhizome was 12 years old. Rhizomes were classified in 8 age classes, and age classes 4-6 contributed most to the total biomass. There was no significant difference in total length and total biomass per unit area, or in biomass per unit length in rhizomes between the two samplings. Four age classes of active buds were recognized, and their number increased from July to August. The Carex middendorffii clonal population achieved regeneration by budding from the tiller nodes of ramets. The age structures of the 3 modules suggested that the Carex middendorffii clonal population could persist in the early development phase of the oligotrophic peatland in the Xiao Hinggan Mountains, but it could not be dominant. It also faces the risk to disappear from the community as the peatland develops further.

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    CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS ON IMAGES OF JIANGXI PROVINCE AS A TOURIST DESTINATION
    MAO Duan-qian, ZHANG Jie, BAO Hao-sheng
    2005 (3):  275-280. 
    摘要 ( 692 )   PDF(255KB) ( 1131 )  

    This paper delineates the images of Jiangxi Province as tourist destination perceived by about 2000 sample visitors at Lushan Mountain and other 3 famous resorts (Jinggangshan Mountains, Longhushan Mountain, and Sanqingshan Mountain), with a result that the most common image is the famous scenic mountain image with partial attribute of image of religious culture destination. In order to reveal the similarities and dissimilarities of images among the four destinations, a correspondence analysis on 16 image attributes was employed. The results indicate that the tourists' images on Longhushan Mountain, Sanqingshan Mountain and Lushan Mountain are very similar: having a lot of good tourist sites, famous mountain scenery, being close to nature and having good guide service, and others, but religious culture and good shopping facilities having not made deep impression on tourist, while Jinggangshan Mountains is famous for its red culture. The correspondence analysis visualizes the strengths and weaknesses of the destinations, which is useful for market positioning among the competitive places. Finally, some marketing suggestions for the four destinations were provided.

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    ANALYSIS ON AGRICULTRUAL INFORMATION DEMAND-Case of Jilin Province
    ZHANG Hui-min, JIANG Hui-ming
    2005 (3):  281-287. 
    摘要 ( 792 )   PDF(598KB) ( 823 )  

    With the rapid development of agricultural informalization in the world, the demand of agricultural information has been a focus in the international agriculture and information fields. Based on the investigation, this paper presented the four characteristics of the demand of agricultural information in China, including regionality, seasonality, great potential demand and variation in kind and level. The factors influencing the demand of agricultural information were analyzed by the Optimized Less Square (OLS) method. The result shows that, of all factors influcing agricultural information demand, the most important one is economy, the second is facility of information pass, and knowledge and education of user, credit of agricultural information service system and production situation follow. Taking Jilin Province as an example, this article also elaborated the agricultural information demand status, and deduced the regression model of agricultural information demand and verified it by the survey in rural Jilin.

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