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    2005年, 第15卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2005-06-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    EXTERNAL SOURCES OF URBAN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN CHINA
    YU Tao-fang, GU Chao-lin, CHEN Xiu-ying
    2005 (2):  95-102. 
    摘要 ( 726 )   PDF(1032KB) ( 1178 )  

    Urban competition refers to capacities of cities for attracting, capturing, controlling, dominating and transforming certain resources during urban development, and capacities for wealth creating, life-standard improving and sustainable development maintenance. This paper first analyzes the external sources of urban competitive advantages: the global network-based advantages and the location-based ones. Then with the aid of method of principal component analysis in SPSS 10.0 for Windows, the Chinese urban global and local competitive advantages are explored. The finding is that the global network-and location-based advantages are remarkable for the cities in the eastern China. While for those in the western and the middle regions, affected by much lower regional competitive advantages and lower degrees of urban-regional integration, the urban competitive advantages are deeply influenced and weakened.

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    EVOLUTIONARY MODEL OF FREE ECONOMIC ZONES——Different Generations and Structural Features
    MENG Guang-wen
    2005 (2):  103-112. 
    摘要 ( 833 )   PDF(2920KB) ( 1788 )  

    Free economic zone(FEZ)has a long history and plays a more and more important role in the world economy. Most studies, however, focused on the theoretical analysis of benefit and cost as well as the economic role of FEZ in the less developed countries and little attention has been paid to the evolution of FEZ. This paper will improve the above-mentioned studies and put forward the structural and spatial evolutionary model of FEZ by analyzing the development of objectives, preferential policy, governance structure, industrial sectors and location of FEZs based on the international economic and political development. FEZs develop towards: 1)more comprehensive and macro objectives, 2)more industry-oriented and multi-preferential policies, 3)more cross-national and combination zones with administrative areas, 4)more technology-intensive and multi-industries, 5)more flexible location and larger spatial dimensions, 6)more rapid evolution and typologies, and 7)more economic integration to the host economy.

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    SPATIAL-TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF REGIONAL CONVERGENCE AT COUNTY LEVEL IN JIANGSU
    PU Ying-xia, MA Rong-hua, GE Ying, HUANG Xing-yuan
    2005 (2):  113-119. 
    摘要 ( 608 )   PDF(565KB) ( 1360 )  

    The dynamics of regional convergence include spatial and temporal dimensions. Spatial Markov chain can be used to explore how regions evolve by considering both individual regions and their geographic neighbors. Based on per capita GDP data set of 77 counties from 1978 to 2000, this paper attempts to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of regional convergence in Jiangsu. First, traditional Markov matrix for five per capita GDP classes is constructed for later comparison. Moreover, each region's spatial lag is derived by averaging all its neighbors' per capita GDP data. Conditioning on per capita GDP class of its spatial lag at the beginning of each year, spatial Markov transition probabilities of each region are calculated accordingly. Quantitatively, for a poor region, the probability of moving upward is 3.3% if it is surrounded by its poor neighbors, and even increases to 18.4% if it is surrounded by its rich neighbors, but it goes down to 6.2% on average if ignoring regional context. For a rich region, the probability of moving down ward is 1.2% if it is surrounded by its rich neighbors, but increases to 3.0% if it is surrounded by its poor neighbors, and averages 1.5% irrespective of regional context. Spatial analysis of regional GDP class transitions indicates those 10 upward moves of both regions and their neighbors are unexceptionally located in the southern Jiangsu, while downward moves of regions or their neighbors are almost in the northern Jiangsu. These empirical results provide a spatial explanation to the "convergence clubs" detected by traditional Markov chain.

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    ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND SCENARIOS OF URBANIZATION IN ARID AREA——A Case Study in Wuwei City of Gansu Province
    YOU Fei, LI Yu, DONG Suo-cheng
    2005 (2):  120-130. 
    摘要 ( 793 )   PDF(666KB) ( 1085 )  

    Based on data of questionnaire and field survey and two developing models of Business As Usual(BAU)and the Intensive Urbanization(IU), this article, taking Wuwei City, a medium size city and typical oasis arid area in Gansu Province with very vulnerable and sensitive natural environment but long history of oasis economy, as an example, evaluated the sustainability of its environment and analyzed the scenarios of Wuwei's household energy consumption, waste discharge in transportation industry, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, by the integration of the systematical dynamics model Stella and Polestar language to simulate the future development of the research area. The results showed that, first, the developing model of IU was propitious to Wuwei City named for oasis economy and vulnerable natural environment. The strategy of "Intensive Urbanization" can change the structure of energy utilization, and improve the efficiency of energy utilization. Second, the proportion of domestic energy consumption will decrease with industrialization and economic development, while that of tertiary industry, secondary industry and transportation will gradually grow up according to strategy of "Intensive Urbanization". Third, the Wuwei City is facing a severe eco-environmental crisis under the conventional patterns of development and a better future under a sustainable urbanization scenario, in the next 10 to 20 years. The different developing trends were clarified and the relative countermeasures were put forward for the policy makers according to the driving forces.

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    LAND USE/COVER CHANGE AND DRIVING FORCES IN SOUTHERN LIAONING PROVINCE SINCE 1950S
    LI Lei, ZHANG Ping-yu, HOU Wei
    2005 (2):  131-136. 
    摘要 ( 889 )   PDF(598KB) ( 1401 )  

    Land use/cover change(LUCC)is a key aspect of global environment change, and in a sense indicates the influence of human activities on natural environment. Regional case study is the core of LUCC research. Taking the southern Liaoning Province, a coastal area facing the Bohai Sea and the Huanghai Sea, as an example, supported by ARCVIEW and ARC/INFO, this paper reconstructed LUCC patterns in three periods of 1954, 1976 and 2000, and analyzed their spatial-temporal changes from 1954 to 2000. On the base of these, it also studied the LUCC's driving mechanism. The results show that the land transformation mainly occurs among cultivated land, forestland and urban and industrial land. Industrialization and urbanization in rural area are the major driving forces for cultivated land change, and the extension of the built-up area in cities is mainly the result of economic development and tertiary industry development, etc., which is at expense of cultivated land.

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    SUSTAINABLE LAND USE PLANNING BASED ON ECOLOGICAL HEALTH——Case Study of Beiwenquan Town, Chongqing, China
    SHAO Jing-an, WEI Chao-fu, XIE De-ti
    2005 (2):  137-144. 
    摘要 ( 945 )   PDF(471KB) ( 926 )  

    This paper, taking Beiwenquan Town of Beibei, Chongqing as an example, assessed the impacts of land use on ecological health by comprehensive index method, and discussed methodological system of sustainable land use planning based on ecological health. Results indicated that: 1)From 1992 to 2002, land use changes focused on 12 patterns with the total conversion area of 92.11%, which were related to cultivated land, residential and industrial-mining area, and orchard land. Urbanization and economic reconstruction were the leading driving forces. 2)There was obvious difference of the areas of ecotypes driven by land use change in wide valley and mild slope between 1992 and 2002, while there were little or no difference in steep slope and very steep slope. 3)Both of the conditions of ecological health in 1992 and 2002 were sound, and the ecotypes focused on the types of health and sub-health. But, health ecosystem in 1992, with an area of 764.64ha, accounting for 38.51% of the total evaluation area, was better than that in 2002, with an area of 636.10ha, accounting for 34.19% of the total evaluation area. 4)The ecotypes involved into different ranges have already degenerated, due to humankind's disturbance, while the conditions of ecological health in the same ranges in 1992, regardless of stability and reconstruction, were better than that in 2002. 5)The planning scenario based on ecological health was accorded with the practice condition of Beiwenquan Town: 388.29ha of cultivated land could meet the Beiwenquan demand of food and byproduct; 1045.26ha of forest land area, the Beiwenquan demand of ecological health; and 1004.73ha of the residential and industrial-mining area, the Beiwenquan building demand. 6)Sustainable land use planning based on ecological health had higher useful value, because it not only stood to ecological theory, but also satisfied the developmental demand of society and economy.

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    THEORIES AND METHODS OF STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF MODERN LOGISTICS DEVELOPMENT——A Case Study of Dalian City, China
    XU Ling, SHANG Jin-cheng, WANG Yu-mei
    2005 (2):  145-150. 
    摘要 ( 806 )   PDF(993KB) ( 1188 )  

    Modern logistics is a new industry during the construction of national economy. Based on analyzing the environmental problem that was led by the limitation of the strategy during enacting the program of the modern logistics, SEA for modern logistics was implemented. In this paper, procedure and indicator system in the SEA are constructed, and Environmental Check List to identify environmental impact factors of SEA for modern logistics is established. And a conception that indicates friendly degree of logistics system with resources and environment, degree of green, is introduced. With the example of modern logistics program of Dalian in China, two methods are applied, AHP and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method, in the implement of SEA for modern logistics development. It is concluded that degree of green of modern logistics in Dalian is high. However, several important factors should be paid much attention to in the SEA for modern logistics as well as in the formulation and implement of modern logistics in Dalian.

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    ESTIMATION OF ECOLOGICAL SERVICE VALUES OF WETLANDS IN SHANGHAI, CHINA
    ZHAO Bin, LI Bo, ZHONG Yang, NAKAGOSHI Nobukazu, CHEN Jia-kuan
    2005 (2):  151-156. 
    摘要 ( 1126 )   PDF(461KB) ( 1180 )  

    Shanghai is a coastal metropolitan city with various types of natural wetlands, which account for 23.5% of its total area. According to the definition of wetland in Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, the wetlands of Shanghai were classified into 4 types: coastal, riverine, lacustrine, and reservoir and pond wetlands. In order to examine the roles of wetlands in the life-support system of Shanghai, we calculated the area of each type of the wetlands using GIS technique, and then measured the ecological service values of different ecosystems in Shanghai based on the classification of ecosystem services proposed by COSTANZA et al.(1997). The estimated annual value of ecosystem services in the study area was 7.3×109 US$/a for the total area of 1356700 ha, among which about 97% was provided by the wetlands. Effective conservation and management of wetlands are therefore crucial to Shanghai's sustainable development. The limitations of the evaluation method for ecosystem service value were also discussed in the present paper.

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    EXPLORATION ON METHOD OF AUTO-CLASSIFICATION FOR MAIN GROUND OBJECTS OF THREE GORGES RESERVOIR AREA
    ZHANG Bao-lei, SONG Meng-qiang, ZHOU Wan-cun
    2005 (2):  157-161. 
    摘要 ( 723 )   PDF(372KB) ( 1023 )  

    Taking TM images, SPOT photos and DEM images as the basic information, this paper had not only put forward a kind of manual controlled computer-automatic extraction method, but also completed the task of extracting the main types of ground objects in the Three Gorges Reservoir area under relatively high accuracy, after finishing such preprocessing tasks as correcting the topographical spectrum and synthesizing the data. Taking the specialized image analysis software-eCognition as the platform, the research achieved the goal of classifying through choosing samples, picking out the best wave bands, and producing the identifying functions. At the same time the extraction process partly dispelled the influence of such phenomena as the same thing with different spectrums, different things with the same spectrum, border transitions, etc. The research did certain exploration in the aspect of technological route and method of using automatic extraction of the remote sensing image to obtain the information of land cover for the regions whose ground objects have complicated spectrums.

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    LAND-COVER DENSITY-BASED APPROACH TO URBAN LAND USE MAPPING USING HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGERY
    ZHANG Xiu-ying, FENG Xue-zhi, DENG Hui
    2005 (2):  162-167. 
    摘要 ( 925 )   PDF(2190KB) ( 916 )  

    Nowadays, remote sensing imagery, especially with its high spatial resolution, has become an indispensable tool to provide timely up-gradation of urban land use and land cover information, which is a prerequisite for proper urban planning and management. The possible method described in the present paper to obtain urban land use types is based on the principle that land use can be derived from the land cover existing in a neighborhood. Here, moving window is used to represent the spatial pattern of land cover within a neighborhood and seven window sizes(61 m×61 m, 68 m×68 m, 75 m×75 m, 87 m×87 m, 99 m×99 m, 110 m×110 m and 121 m×121 m)are applied to determining the most proper window size. Then, the unsupervised method of ISODATA is employed to classify the layered land cover density maps obtained by the moving window. The results of accuracy evaluation show that the window size of 99 m×99 m is proper to infer urban land use categories and the proposed method has produced a land use map with a total accuracy of 85%.

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    APPLICATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL VISULIZATION IN SIMULATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL LANDSCAPE EVOLVEMENT
    PAN Jun, XING Li-xin, LI Bai-shou, MENG Tao
    2005 (2):  168-172. 
    摘要 ( 848 )   PDF(328KB) ( 1115 )  

    The value of application of three-dimensional visualization and animation technique in dynamic simulation of geographical landscape formation is analyzed and, in particular, how to simulate the formation and evolvement of geographical landscape in temporal dimension is discussed thoroughly. Based on various modeling tools in 3DS MAX and original DEM data of the study area acquired from topographic map, real three-dimensional terrain model is generated by using the method of three-dimensional mesh approximation through DEM interpolating and surface modeling, which leads to the realization of the dynamic visualization and simulation of volcanic landscape, formation and evolvement. Furthermore, the dynamic three-dimensional visual virtual scenery of the formation and evolvement of the volcano in the Changbai Mountains of Jilin, China, is constructed. The applicability, potential, and corresponding technique of using 3DS MAX to dynamically simulate the formation of geographical landscape are expatiated.

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    URBAN TOURISM RESEARCH METHODOLOGY——A Case Study of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Area
    TAO Wei, ZHONG Wen-hui, HONG Yan
    2005 (2):  173-178. 
    摘要 ( 1354 )   PDF(572KB) ( 6962 )  

    This paper tries to apply a new and more comprehensive method to urban tourism research in an expanded field instead of only partially, unilaterally and separately focusing on the city itself. Taking the urban tourism of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao as an example, it aims at presenting a new spatial system of urban tourism research and pointing out the new orientation of urban tourism research in combination of macro level and micro level, from description to explanation. The meanings of the spatial framework construction for urban tourism study are to make clear how urban tourism studies vary with the changes of dimensions of time and space. This is a meaningful discussion because it will bring great changes to the using of literatures, the opening of research perspectives on urban tourism and the upgrading of theories, so as to create a new stage for urban tourism study.

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    RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FRACTIONATIONS OF Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn AND Ni AND SOIL PROPERTIES IN URBAN SOILS OF CHANGCHUN, CHINA
    GUO Ping, XIE Zhong-lei, LI Jun, KANG Chun-li, LIU Jian-hua
    2005 (2):  179-185. 
    摘要 ( 896 )   PDF(834KB) ( 1701 )  

    An extensive soil investigation was conducted in different domains of Changchun to disclose the fractionations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni in urban soils. Meanwhile correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regressions were used to define relationships between soil properties and metal fractions and the chief factors influencing the fractionation of heavy metals in the soils. The results showed that Pb, Ni and Cu were mainly associated with the residual and organic forms; most of Cd was concentrated in the residual and exchangeable fractions. Zn in residual and carbonate fraction was the highest. The activities of the heavy metals probably declined in the following order: Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni. The chemical fractions of heavy metals in different domains in Changchun City were of significantly spatial heterogeneity. Soil properties had different influences on the chemical fractions of heavy metals to some extent and the main factors influencing Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni fractionation and transformation were apparently different.

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    SLOPE LITHOLOGIC PROPERTY, SOIL MOISTURE CONDITION AND REVEGETATION IN DRY-HOT VALLEY OF JINSHA RIVER
    XIONG Dong-hong, ZHOU Hong-yi, YANG Zhong, ZHANG Xin-bao
    2005 (2):  186-192. 
    摘要 ( 932 )   PDF(593KB) ( 952 )  

    The dry-hot valley of the Jinsha River is one of the typical eco-fragile areas in Southwest China, as well as a focus of revegetation study in the upper and middle reaches of the Changjiang River. Due to its extremely dry and hot climate, severely degraded vegetation and the intense soil and water loss, there are extreme difficulties in vegetation restoration in this area and no great breakthrough has ever been achieved on studies of revegetation over the last several decades. Through over ten years' research conducted in the typical areas-the Yuanmou dry-hot valley, the authors found that the lithologic property is one of the crucial factors determining soil moisture conditions and vegetation types in the dry-hot valley, and the rainfall infiltration capability is also one of the key factors affecting the tree growth. Then the revegetation zoning based on different slopes was conducted and revegetation patterns for different zones were proposed.

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