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    2005年, 第15卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2005-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    ISSUES ON CHINA'S ENERGY SECURITY
    ZHANG Lei, JIANG Wei
    2005 (1):  1-6. 
    摘要 ( 667 )   PDF(419KB) ( 1446 )  

    For many years, China has made great strides in constructing a sizeable and stable energy supply system rooted mainly in domestic coal supply. That system, however, is subject to immense strain as a result of rapid economic growth, rising living standard, widespread environmental degradation, limited oil reserves and uneven resources distribution. Industrialization and urbanization since the early 1980s have imposed structural constraints on its traditional coal-based energy supply model. Eventually, China became a net oil-importer in 1993 when ten million tons of crude oil and petroleum products from abroad fed into the local economies of the coastal areas. Such a change meant that energy security has become an increasingly sensitive issue to the central government of China. This paper argues that China could benefit from a more open energy supply by striking to a balance of both domestic and international sources, rather than the traditional mode emphasized on a highly self-sufficiency rate.

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    QUALITY EVALUATION OF CHINESE CAPITAL CITIES' LIVING SPACE IN 2001
    WANG Xing-zhong, SUN Feng-hua, GUO Liu-jian, HE Xiao-dong
    2005 (1):  7-15. 
    摘要 ( 624 )   PDF(596KB) ( 971 )  

    The quality dimension of the urban living space was addressed much earlier abroad;nevertheless, it has not been studied in the Chinese academia up to date, as evidenced by the limited research literature. Through recourse to Rich BOYER's nine-factor theory, this study attempted to evaluate and rank 31 target cities, by using the data from the China Statistical Yearbook 2002. Our research results show that the quality of a city's living space is in positive correlation with its size, and that there will be changing demands for the quality of the urban living space as a result of future social, economic, sci-tech, cultural and educational developments, combined with the improvement of the overall quality of urban residents. Previous research was focused on the quality of food, housing, education, transportation and entertainment. However, with the development of the knowledge-economy, such factors as information accessibility, green environment, and air quality, will be major considerations in the quality evaluation of the urban living space.

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    CHEMICAL WEATHERING PROCESSES AND ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONSUMPTION OF HUANGHE RIVER AND CHANGJIANG RIVER BASINS
    LI Jing-ying, ZHANG Jing
    2005 (1):  16-21. 
    摘要 ( 658 )   PDF(389KB) ( 1422 )  

    Rock weathering plays an important role in studying the long-term carbon cycles and global climatic change. According to the statistics analysis, the Huanghe(Yellow)River water chemistry was mainly controlled by evaporite and carbonate weathering, which were responsible for over 90% of total dissolved ions. As compared with the Huanghe River basin, dissolved load of the Changjiang(Yangtze)River was mainly originated from the carbonate dissolution. The chemical weathering rates were estimated to be 39.29 t/(km2·a)and 61.58 t/(km2·a)by deducting the HCO3- derived from atmosphere in the Huanghe River and Changjiang River watersheds, respectively. The CO2 consumption rates by rock weathering were calculated to be 120.84×103 mol/km2 and 452.46×103 mol/km2 annually in the two basins, respectively. The total CO2 consumption of the two basins amounted to 918.51×109 mol/a, accounting for 3.83% of the world gross. In contrast to other world watersheds, the stronger evaporite reaction and infirm silicate weathering can explain such feature that CO2 consumption rates were lower than a global average, suggesting that the sequential weathering may be go on in the two Chinese drainage basins.

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    IMPACTS OF ANTARCTIC OSCILLATION ON SUMMER MOISTURE TRANSPORT AND PRECIPITATION IN EASTERN CHINA
    QIN Jun, WANG Pan-xing, GONG Yan
    2005 (1):  22-28. 
    摘要 ( 1072 )   PDF(779KB) ( 1457 )  

    Using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and monthly precipitation over 160 conventional stations in China, analyses of moisture transport characteristics and corresponding precipitation variation in the east part of China in summer are made, and studies are carried out on possible influence on moisture transport and precipitation in summer by the variation of Antarctic Oscillation(AAO). The results show that the abnormal variation of the AAO affected the summer precipitation in China significantly. The variation of AAO can cause the variation of intension and location of Northwestern Pacific High, which in turn cause the variation of summer monsoon rainfall in the eastern China.

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    APPLICATION OF FUZZY OPTIMIZATION MODEL IN ECOLOGICAL SECURITY PRE-WARNING
    WU Kai-ya, HU Shu-heng, SUN Shi-qun
    2005 (1):  29-33. 
    摘要 ( 562 )   PDF(342KB) ( 1181 )  

    Ecological security is a vital problem that people all over the world today have to face and solve, and the situation of ecological security is getting more and more severe and has begun to impede heavily the sustainable development of social economy. Ecological environment pre-warning has become a hotspot for the modern environment science. This paper introduces the theories of ecological security pre-warning and tries to constitute a pre-warning model of ecological security. In terms of pressure-state-response model, the pre-warning guide line of ecological security is constructed while the pre-warning degree judging model of ecological security is established based on fuzzy optimization. As a case, the model is used to assess the present condition pre-warning of the ecological security of Anhui Province. The result is in correspondence with the real condition: the ecological security situations of 8 cities are dangerous and 9 cities are secure. The result shows that this model is scientific and effective for regional ecological security pre-warning.

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    ENVIRONMENTAL EVOLUTION OF ORDOS DESERT IN CHINA SINCE 1.1 MA B. P. AS INDICATED BY YULIN STRATIGRAPHICAL SECTION AND ITS GRAIN-SIZE ANALYSIS RESULTS
    LI Bao-sheng, GAO Shang-yu, DONG Guang-rong, JIN He-ling
    2005 (1):  34-41. 
    摘要 ( 736 )   PDF(796KB) ( 907 )  

    Yulin section is a typical sedimentary record for reflecting the environmental evolution of Ordos Desert, China in the past 1.1Ma. By analyzing its sequence and grain-size composition some views have been put forward in this paper as follows. The layers of sand, loess and palaeosol in Yulin section were respectively formed by wind and the pedogenesis on parent material of the sand and loess. Since 1.1 Ma B. P., Ordos Desert has alternately experienced 11 stages of shifting dunes under extreme cold-dry climatic environment, 7 stages of fixed and semi-fixed dunes and 8 stages of dust(loess)under cold-dry climatic condition;and the pedogenesis environment under 15 times of warm-humid climate and 3 times of temperate-humid climate(brownish-drab soils and black soils formed respectively). The aeolian sand had already existed in Ordos Desert at latest by 1.1 Ma B. P., and from that time on it has undergone a series of alternative processes of shifting sands, fixed and semi-fixed dunes, loess and soils. Ordos Desert has been situated in the transitional belt of the Mongolian High Pressure and margin of the southeast summer monsoon since 1.1 Ma B. P., and influenced repeatedly by migration of the lithofacies belts of shifting sands, fixed and semi-fixed dunes, loess and soils, which have been caused by the climatic fluctuations of glacial and interglacial periods.

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    NECESSITY AND METHOD OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF CHINA
    REN Li-jun, SHANG Jin-cheng
    2005 (1):  42-46. 
    摘要 ( 972 )   PDF(308KB) ( 1060 )  

    Public participation has been one of important problems in the strategic environmental assessment(SEA). In this paper, the origin and the present research-conditions of public participation in SEA were analyzed. And the necessity of public participation was illuminated from following three aspects: 1)the public participation in China's SEA is a key method of gaining the public support;2)the public participation is one important source of gaining information;3)the public participation is a good way to overcome the obstruction in the traditional mechanism of making strategy decision. Effective public participation should be involved in the whole process of SEA, and the public participators should include the public representatives of the groups affected by environmental change, the specialists in SEA and relevant fields, persons who are interested in the strategy and media, and so on. Various methods of public participation in SEA, including the methods of obtaining information and information feedback or consultation, were discussed. Further, the function, the advantages and the disadvantages of each method were discussed in detail, too.

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    FEATURES OF SPERMATOPHYTIC FLORA OF HENAN PROVINCE IN CHINA
    ZHANG Gui-bin
    2005 (1):  47-51. 
    摘要 ( 936 )   PDF(321KB) ( 1182 )  

    Based on the latest data, the features of spermatophytic flora of Henan Province located in Central China Plain(the heart region of China)are summarized and demonstrated in this paper. They are as follows: 1)Plant species are rich, with 2953 wild species in 896 genera of 152 families, putting Henan in front rank in the northern areas of China. 2)Its origin is from far ancientry, and there exist many primitive families and genera as well as many relic species. 3)The character of transition is very conspicuous with complex and varied geographical elements, but the temperate type being the dominant. There are 15 types and 18 variants of distribution types at the genera level, the typical Temperate, Tropic and East Asia elements respectively make up 47.9%, 29.5% and 14.5%. 4)It is rich in species endemic to China, with 1514 species, ranking first in the northern areas in China. 5)The floristic spatial differentia is obvious. The southeastern Henan belongs to East China plant region, the southwestern to Central China, the northern and the central to North China.

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    MEASUREMENT OF AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES AT COUNTY LEVEL IN JIANGSU PROVINCE
    GE Ying, PU Ying-xia, YAO Shi-mou
    2005 (1):  52-59. 
    摘要 ( 925 )   PDF(678KB) ( 1382 )  

    Agglomeration economies are the important factors for the regional development. However, the common indicators to measure them, such as Gini Coefficients neglect the spatial ingredient of data, leading to a-spatial estimates. In order to assess spatial neighbor effects of agglomeration economies, this study makes the new attempts by applying a series of techniques of spatial autocorrelation analysis, specifically, measuring the economies of urbanization and localization at the county level in the secondary and tertiary industries of Jiangsu Province in 1999 and 2002. The conclusions in this study reveal that on the whole, the localization effects on the economies of the secondary industry might be stronger than urbanization effects for that period, and highly agglomerative economies were limited within the southern Jiangsu and parts of middle along the Changjiang(Yangtze)River. Moreover, the tertiary industry has been strong urbanization rather than localization economies in the whole Jiangsu. Unlike the secondary industry, the tertiary industry held the high levels of agglomeration economies can be also found in the poor northern Jiangsu, and then the spatial clusters of trade and services might be basically seen in each of urban districts in 13 cities. All in all, spatial autocorrelation analysis is a better method to test agglomeration economies.

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    ANALYSIS AND CALCULATION OF REGULATED WATER RESOURCES OF GROUNDWATER RESERVOIR
    DAI Chang-lei, CHI Bao-ming, GAO Shu-qin
    2005 (1):  60-63. 
    摘要 ( 764 )   PDF(289KB) ( 1022 )  

    Groundwater reservoir is a kind of important engineering, which can optimize water resources arran-gement by means of artificial regulation. Regulated water is the blood and value performance of groundwater reservoir. To resolve the problem of real-time quantification of regulated water, the paper analyzed sources and compositions of regulated water in detail. Then, under the conditions of satisfying water demand inside research area, the paper analyzed quantity available and regulation coefficient of different regulated water and established a formula to calculate regulated water. At last, based on a pore groundwater reservoir in the middle reaches of the Yinma River, Jilin Province, the paper calculated regulated water with the formula and the result shows that the method is feasible. With some constraint conditions, the formula can be adopted in other similar areas.

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    IMPROVEMENT OF SANDY SOIL WITH WATER-CONSERVING MEMBRANE AND ITS EFFECT ON CROP GROWTH
    LI Xiu-jun, CUI Xiang-hao, LI Qu-sheng
    2005 (1):  64-69. 
    摘要 ( 592 )   PDF(418KB) ( 1326 )  

    Water-conserving membrane is a new material of improving sandy soil. It is based on the rule that a compound with organic and inorganic components can produce colloid after its integrating with Ca2+ in soil. The water-conserving membrane will obstruct capillary and increase viscidity of sandy soil, so as to decrease leakage and evaporation in sandy soil. The water-conserving membrane contains polyacrylic acid(PAA)and bentonite. When PAA concentration and pH of solution are different, water-conserving membrane can be made in different depth of soil. This experiment shows that the solution with 0.2% PAA does not harm and poison the crops, on the contrary, promotes crop germination. The solution with 0.2% or 0.4% PAA can accelerate corn growth. Accordingly, different crops need the application of the different PAA concentrations in the cultivation. Therefore, on the basis of different vadose coefficient in sandy soil, the solution with different PAA concentration can improve sandy soil and increase its water-conserving competence very well. The solution can be used to improve sandy soil and control desert enlargement in arid, semi-arid and semi-humid areas.

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    COMPARATIVE STUDY ON RESIDENTS' PERCEPTION OF TOURISM IMPACT AT TOURIST PLACES-A Case Study of Xidi, Zhouzhuang and Jiuhua Mountain
    SU Qin, CAO You-hui, LIN Bing-yao
    2005 (1):  70-79. 
    摘要 ( 688 )   PDF(597KB) ( 1265 )  

    Based on the questionnaire investigation, the authors make a comparative study on local residents' perception of tourism impacts in Xidi, Zhouzhuang and Jiuhua Mountain. The result shows that residents of the three places tend to have strong and consistent perception of its positive economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts, but distinctly diverse ones of its negative impacts. Residents in Xidi and Zhouzhuang also have noticeable perception of its negative environmental impacts while those in Jiuhua Mountain have weaker perception of them. The research confirms the fact that residents are more liable to have positive perceptions at the early stage of the life cycle of the tourist places. The authors conclude that there exists a nonlinear relationship between residents' perception and tourism development stages, and that tourism socio-cultural impact may appear at an early stage of tourism development instead of being no universal.

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    PROGRESS IN QUATERNARY AEOLIAN ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH
    LU Rui-jie, CHEN Yuan, HASI Eerdun, YUE Xing-ling
    2005 (1):  80-87. 
    摘要 ( 661 )   PDF(521KB) ( 1135 )  

    Quaternary aeolian environment researches were mainly conducted by analyzing the information carriers, extracting valuable evidences about aeolian environment changes, so to presume and reconstruct paleoenvironments. This paper formulated progress in Quaternary aeolian environment research using dune-morphological records, sedimentological records and bio-fossils records, as well as advances about chronology;presented that people should pay more attention to further synthetic study of multi-types of records including dune morphology, size, formation time, sediment supply, and their relations with wind regime in future, especially the research on dating method.

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    CAUSES AND COUNTERMEASURES FOR CHAOHU LAKESHORE COLLAPSE
    GAO Chao, WANG Xin-yuan, YANG Ze-dong, LU Ying-cheng, HE Hui
    2005 (1):  88-93. 
    摘要 ( 968 )   PDF(504KB) ( 1564 )  

    By interpreting the remote sensing data of aerial photos and satellite images in different time, combining with field investigation, landform and water level observation, collecting data of weather, hydrology in Chaohu Lake, Anhui Province from 1957 to 2003, the reasons for collapse of Chaohu lakeshore were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1)The collapse of the Chaohu lakeshore is controlled macroscopically by two sets of north-east and the north-west faults, and the degree of collapse is determined microcosmically by lithology. 2)The constant change of water level, resulting from precipitation, wind speed and its direction, is one of the main reasons for intermittence collapse. 3)The soil and water loss or mud and sand filling up, resulting from artificial factors, such as inconsequence control of Chaohu sluice or irrational agricultural and industrial activities, etc., can uplift the lake's bed and drive water level up. The high water level also results in the collapse. Judging from the above mentioned reasons for the collapse, we have proposed some countermeasures: 1)Putting the lakeshore slope protection project such as stone and cement mortar into practice, and upstream slope should be 1:2.5 or 1:3, some parts of them should be 1:4, if they were not stable. The back slope, which is from Gui Mountain to Zhongmiao Temple, should be 1:1.5-1:3. 2)Constructing a greenbelt for the lakeshore, planting some vegetation such as osier, bulrush and poplar, to resist waves between the high and the low water level. 3)Controlling Chaohu Lake water level scientifically. Corrosion of lakeshore that contains gravel clay and ferruginous-manganese concretionary structures, can decrease at low water level. 4)Renovating Chaohu Lake drainage area, strengthening the administration and supervision, breaking regionalism and establishing special administration organization.

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