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    2004年, 第14卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2004-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    R/S AND WAVELET ANALYSIS ON EVOLUTIONARYPROCESS OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC DISPARITY IN CHINA DURING PAST 50 YEARS
    XU Jian-hua, LU Yan, SU Fang-lin, AI Nan-shan
    2004 (3):  193-201. 
    摘要 ( 1522 )   PDF(1866KB) ( 1103 )  

    This paper shows the dynamic process of regional disparity of economic development in China in the past 50 years from a new insight by using the rescaled range statistic (R/S) analysis and wavelet analysis of the Theil index sequence with different time scales. The main conclusions are: 1) The regional disparity of economic development in China, including the inter-provincial disparity, inter-regional disparity and intra-regional disparity, has existed for many years. Theil index by the comparative price has revealed the true trend for comparative disparity of regional economic development from 1952 to 2000. 2) Decomposition of Theil index indicates that the dynamic trend of comparative inter-provincial disparity in the coastal region is in line with dynamic trend of inter-provincial disparity in the whole China. 3) The R/S analysis results tell us that during 1966-1978, the Hurst exponent H=0.504≈0.5, which indicates that in that period the evolution of comparative inter-provincial disparity of economic development showed a random characteristic, and in the other periods, i.e. 1952-1965, 1979-1990 and 1991-2000, the Hurst exponent H>0.5, which indicates that in those periods the evolution of the comparative inter-provincial disparity of economic development in China had a long-enduring characteristic. 4) By using wavelet analysis at different time scale, we arrived at a conclusion that the evolutionary process of the disparity of economic development of China is not a simple inverted U shape but a compound of several U shapes. The result tells us that the evolutionary plot of inter-provincial disparity in China follows the inverted U on the whole at the higher scale, 24(16 years). That is to say, the disparity tends to rise in the first stage of economic development, and fall slowly over the peak in the second stage of economic development. However, if we shorten the time scale to 23 (8 years), then a link of several U shapes will appear.

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    INFLUENTIAL FACTORS COMBINATION AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN STAGES OF URBAN COMPETITIVENESS——Case Study of Suzhou in China
    YU Tao-fang, GU Chao-lin
    2004 (3):  202-208. 
    摘要 ( 722 )   PDF(965KB) ( 1151 )  

    The urban competitive advantages rely on the combination and interaction of influential factors. As a dynamic progressive process, the city at different time has different competition influential factors combination. Because of this, the urban competitive advantages take on time-series characteristics. Stages of urban competition can be summed up into three ones, the basic factor-driven, the investment-driven and the innovation-driven. The finding of the study on the stages of urban competitive advantages in Suzhou is that in the current stage of Suzhou its competitive advantage is the investment-driven. The investment, especially FDI, plays remarkable functions for Suzhou competition with other cities.

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    EMERGY ANALYSIS OF GRAIN PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN JIANGSU AND SHAANXI PROVINCES
    LIU Xin-wei, CHEN Bai-ming, ZHANG Ding-xiang
    2004 (3):  209-214. 
    摘要 ( 678 )   PDF(356KB) ( 1345 )  

    Efficiency and sustainability of grain production are now important in China. In this study, the grain production systems of Jiangsu and Shaanxi Provinces were compared, to analyze their efficiency and sustainability in terms of utilization of natural resources, inputs of purchased energy and materials, and outputs. Flows of energy and materials between environment and human society were identified, and the natural and human work involved in generating inputs as materials or energy were valued in terms of equivalent amount of solar energy required for their production using emergy method. The results showed environmental resources were continually playing a less important role in the systems, when inorganic subsidiary emergy inputs increased drastically while organic ones decreased or increased little. Deterioration of input emergy structure affected the systems' efficiency and sustainability,resulting in emergy investment ratios and environmental loading ratios increasing while yield ratios and sustainability indices decreasing. In general, efficiency and sustainability of grain production in Jiangsu are worse than those in Shaanxi. This analysis also suggested that inorganic subsidiary emergy should be introduced properly, and peasants in Jiangsu should utilize natural conditions wisely while those in Shaanxi pay enough attention to soil and surface water conservation.

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    EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL SERVICES OF JILIN PROVINCE, NORTHEAST CHINA
    YU Shu-xia, SHANG Jin-cheng, GUO Huai-cheng
    2004 (3):  215-220. 
    摘要 ( 870 )   PDF(304KB) ( 1355 )  

    The main purpose of this study is to give evaluation of ecological services of Jilin Province, Northeast China. To take this value into decision-making and GDP accounting system is considered to be one of the economic solutions for ecological problems. The evaluation is based on the methods proposed by COSTANZA et al., and some modifications about unit value of forest and cropland system were made according to the real characters of ecosystem, climate, natural conditions etc., in Jilin Province. Total value of ecosystem services is about 554.404×109 yuan(RMB)/a, which is about 4.9 times of GDP of the corresponding period. The results of this study could be used as a fundamental work for the construction of ecological province, which was carried out from 2001, and could provide ecological information for decision-making. Furthermore, the necessities for the further studies on the evaluation of ecological services and natural capital were discussed.

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    BIOGEOGRAPHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SOME PLANTSPECIES FROM A TROPICAL MONTANE RAIN FORESTIN SOUTHERN YUNNAN
    ZHU Hua
    2004 (3):  221-226. 
    摘要 ( 674 )   PDF(1579KB) ( 1010 )  

    A pristine montane rain forest was recently discovered from Mengsong of Xishuangbanna in the southern Yunnan. It attracts botanists that many primitive plant taxa across various life forms were co-existed in the montane rain forest. In order to know the biogeography of the montane rain forest, distribution patterns of some species of biogeographical importance from the montane forest were enumerated and their biogeographical implications were discussed with geological explanation. It was concluded that the montane rain forest in the southern Yunnan has strong affinity to montane rain forests in Sumatra or Southeast Asia in broad sense. It was tentatively suggested that Sumatra could be once connected to Myanmar and drifted away due to northward movement of continental Asia by bumping of India plate.

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    IMPLEMENTATION OF CLEANER PRODUCTION STRATEGIES TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE CITY
    CHEN Jie
    2004 (3):  227-238. 
    摘要 ( 894 )   PDF(1299KB) ( 1131 )  

    Rapid urbanization and growing size of cities will have an increasing impact on the global environment in the 21st century. As an engine of urban development to drive economic growth and technological innovations, industry has moved its focus from controlling environmental hazards to stimulating sustainable industrial development throughout the entire product lifecycle. These process- and technology-driven innovations for industrial production are prerequisites for enhancement of urban environment and sustainable development of cities. In this review, problems of environment and resources scarcity associated with rapid urbanization are demonstrated. And, on the basis of expatiations on the concepts and policies of the cleaner production(CP) and other similar initiatives with the goal of preventing pollution at the source and of managing the raw material more efficiently, two different ways to link the practice of cleaner production in industrial sector with performance of urban environment are discussed in detail. Then, the introduction, practice and legislation of CP strategies in China are outlined, and possibility for China to develop CPC (Cleaner Practices for Cities) approaches in the demonstration cities is discussed. Finally, some suggestions on implementation of CPC strategies are put forward.

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    ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTS ON HUMAN SETTLEMENT IN THE CHANGJIANG RIVER DELTA IN NEOLITHIC AGE
    ZHANG Qiang, LIU Chun-ling, ZHU Cheng, JIANG Tong
    2004 (3):  239-244. 
    摘要 ( 779 )   PDF(735KB) ( 1237 )  

    Dating data, altitude of Neolithic sites, climatic changes from sedimentary records and previous research results were collected and analyzed to detect possible connections between climatic changes and human activities in the Changjiang River Delta in the Neolithic Age. The results indicated that hydrological changes greatly impacted the human activities in the study region. Low-lying geomorphology made the floods and sea level changes become the important factors affecting human activities, especially the altitude change of human settlements. People usually moved to higher places during the periods characterized by high sea level and frequent floods to escape the negative influences from water body expansion, which resulted in cultural hiatus in certain profiles. However, some higher-altitude settlements were not the results of climatic changes but the results of social factors, such as religious ceremony and social status. Therefore, further research will be necessary for the degree and types of impacts of climatic changes on human activities in the study area at that time.

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    SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN RESERVED DESERTIFICATION AREA——A Case Study in Yulin City, Shaanxi Province, China
    CHENG Shu-lan, OUYANG Hua, NIU Hai-shan, WANG Lin, ZHANG Feng, GAO Jun-qin, TIAN Yu-qiang
    2004 (3):  245-250. 
    摘要 ( 913 )   PDF(2524KB) ( 1026 )  

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) was considered to be a key index in evaluation of soil degradation and soil C sequestration. To discuss the spatial-temporal dynamics of SOC in arable layer in reversed desertification area, a case study was conducted in Yulin City, Shaanxi Province, China. Data of SOC were based on general soil survey in 1982 and repeated soil sampling in 2003. Soil organic carbon content (SOCC) was determined by K2Cr3O7-FeSO4 titration method, and soil organic carbon density (SOCD) was calculated by arithmetic average and area weighted average method, respectively. On average, SOCC and SOCD of the arable layer in the study area from 1982 to 2003 had increased 0.51g/kg and 0.16kg/m2, respectively. Considering main soil types, the widest distributed Arid-Sandic Entisols had lowest values and increments of SOCC and SOCD during the study period; while the second widest Los-Orthic Entisols had higher values and increments of SOCC and SOCD, compared to the mean values of the whole region. The results indicated that reversed desertification process was due to the modification of land use and management practices, such as natural vegetation recovery, planting grass, turning arable land to grassland, and soil and water conservation etc., which can improve SOCC and SOCD and thus enhance soil C sequestration.

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    RS AND GIS-BASED FOREST FIRE RISK ZONE MAPPING IN DA HINGGAN MOUNTAINS
    YIN Hai-wei, KONG Fan-hua, LI Xiu-zhen
    2004 (3):  251-257. 
    摘要 ( 1039 )   PDF(2201KB) ( 1267 )  

    The Da Hinggan Mountains is one of the most important forest areas in China, but forest fire there is also of high frequency. So it is completely necessary to map forest fire risk zones in order to effectively manage and protect the forest resources. Two forest farms of Tuqiang Forest Bureau (53°34'-52°15'N,124°05'-122°18'E) were chosen as typical areas in this study. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) play a vital role and can be used effectively to obtain and combine different forest-fire-causing factors for demarcating the forest fire risk zone map. Forest fire risk zones were described by assigning subjective weights to the classes of all the coverage layers according to their sensitivity to fire, using the ARC/INFO GIS software. Four classes of forest fire risk ranging from low to extremely high were generated automatically in ARC/INFO. The results showed that about 60.33% of the study area were predicted to be upper moderate risk zones, indicating that the forest fire management task in this area is super onerous. The RS and GIS-based forest fire risk model of the study area was found to be highly compatible with the actual fire-affected sites in 1987. Therefore the forest fire risk zone map can be used for guidance of forest fire management, and as basis for fire prevention strategies.

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    SHALLOW SEA WATER DEPTH RETRIEVAL BASED ON BOTTOM CLASSIFICATION FROM REMOTE SENSING IMAGERY
    PANG Lei, ZHANG Ming-bo, ZHANG Ji-xian, ZHENG Zhao-qing, LIN Zong-jian
    2004 (3):  258-262. 
    摘要 ( 829 )   PDF(1280KB) ( 1055 )  

    Remote sensing technique, replacing conventional sonar bathymetry technique, has become an effective complementary method of mapping submarine terrain where special conditions make the sonar technique difficult to be carried out. At the same time, as one kind of data set, multispectral remote sensing data has the disadvantage of being influenced by the variable bottom types in shallow seawater, when it is applied in bathymetry. This paper puts forward a new method to extract water depth information from multispectral data, considering the bottom classification and the true water depth accuracy. That is the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique based on the bottom classification. By the least square regression with significance, the experiment near Qingdao City has obtained more satisfactory bathymetry accuracy than that of the traditional single-band method, with the mean absolute error about 2.57m.

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    EDGE DETECTION METHOD OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGES BASED ON MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY OF MULTI-STRUCTURE ELEMENTS
    LIN Hui, DU Pei-jun, ZHAO Chang-sheng, SHU Ning
    2004 (3):  263-268. 
    摘要 ( 762 )   PDF(815KB) ( 1913 )  

    This paper puts forward an effective, specific algorithm for edge detection. Based on multi-structure elements of gray mathematics morphology, in the light of difference between noise and edge shape of RS images, the paper establishes multi-structure elements to detect edge by utilizing the grey form transformation principle. Compared with some classical edge detection operators,such as Sobel Edge Detection Operator, LOG Edge Detection Operator, and Canny Edge Detection Operator, the experiment indicates that this new algorithm possesses very good edge detection ability, which can detect edges more effectively, but its noise-resisting ability is relatively low. Because of the bigger noise of remote sensing image, the authors probe into putting forward other edge detection method based on combination of wavelet directivity checkout technology and small-scale Mathematical Morphology finally. So, position at the edge can be accurately located, the noise can be inhibited to a certain extent and the effect of edge detection is obvious.

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    USERS′ PERCEPTION OF KOWLOON PARK, HONG KONG:VISITING PATTERNS AND SCENIC ASPECTS
    WONG Koon-kwai, Manfred DOMROES
    2004 (3):  269-275. 
    摘要 ( 743 )   PDF(1856KB) ( 1769 )  

    Hong Kong is a hyper-dense city with 7×106 people living in an area of 1100km2. One way to improve the livability of compacted and congested cities like Hong Kong is through the provision of urban parks, an aspect that has largely been under-researched. This study focuses on how users perceive and utilize various facilities in the Kowloon Park. The findings revealed that the Kowloon Park is one of the most preferred parks in Hong Kong for both local residents and tourists. Users were quite satisfied with the park's facilities. Notably, the most important component of an urban park is its greenery. This is followed by water elements, seating places, and facilities for various recreational activities. The improvements users would like to see in urban parks include good design and management, meeting users' needs, overcoming barriers to use, and providing a high quality and varied experience for different groups in the community. The findings of this study provide a good basis to address park management issues from the users' perspective. In particular, parks should provide easy access, encourage optimum usage and enable complimentary improvements to the environment.

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    COMMUNITY-BASED ECOTOURISM IN NATURE RESERVE OF CHINA
    GUI Yan-li, FANG Yan-gang, LIU Ji-sheng
    2004 (3):  276-282. 
    摘要 ( 660 )   PDF(432KB) ( 1261 )  

    This paper introduces a new concept of community-based ecotourism (CBET) that originated in foreign countries. Then it analyzes the significance of CBET development in nature reserve (NR). The authors think that community participation is the evitable choice of nature reserve's conservation and development. CBET, as the self-improved model of ecotourism, can promote tourism community sustainable development. Based on the stakeholder analysis of CBET in NRs, this paper addresses the reality, especially the problem of CBET development in NRs of China. In order to develop CBET in NRs of China, this paper takes some suggestions to promote the community participation: 1)gradual political empowerment, 2) deep level economic incentive, 3) widespread educational support, 4) impartial distribution of community benefits, and 5) stakeholders cooperation.

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    RESEARCH ON IMAGO SPACE OF VALLEY CITY——A Case Study of Lanzhou City
    MENG Cai-hong, YANG Yong-chun, ZHANG Cong-guo
    2004 (3):  283-288. 
    摘要 ( 736 )   PDF(684KB) ( 951 )  

    Currently domestic researches on urban imago space concentrate in a few cities that lie in the advanced region, such as Beijing, Guangzhou, Wuhan, etc., but in so far as those cities that lie in the northwest inland region, the research of this aspect is still few. In order to supplement a special example to the urban imago space theory and to validate former theory, this article studied the Lanzhou urban imago space. During the course of researching, authors adopted some investigating methods, such as visiting on the spot, photograph identification method and sketch map identification method etc. Using investigated data, this paper made an elementary research on urban imago space of Lanzhou, which is a typical valley city in the western China. The result of study indicated that the urban imago space of Lanzhou takes Xiguan Cross as its center (Lanzhou involves four districts of Chengguan, Qilihe, Anning and Xigu). In the process of recognition of urban imago space, the Huanghe (Yellow) River and mountains beside the city are the dominant factors and the main nodes of cognition. So the urban imago space of Lanzhou is quite different from that of plain cities. Interviewee did well in the spatial structure map, which was made up of mountainous land, river and main trunk roads,the group structure took profound impression on people.

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