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    2004年, 第14卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2004-06-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    CHINA'S REGIONAL DISPARITY IN 1981-2000:OPENNESS AND DEVELOPMENT OF NON-STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES AND FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION
    SHEN Bing
    2004 (2):  97-103. 
    摘要 ( 675 )   PDF(783KB) ( 757 )  

    While China's economic growth has been impressive since 1978, regional disparity in terms of provincial per capita GDP has been increasing. On the other hand, this rapid but uneven growth was accompanied by China's deepening openness and structural reforms including the development of non-state-owned enterprises (non-SOEs) and fiscal decentralization. Based on quantitative analyses, this paper tries to explore the features of regional disparity in China and the relationships between regional growth and China's openness and economic structure reforms in the period from 1981 to 2000. The paper finds that the catching-up of the coastal region to the initially rich provinces, which are mainly located in inland areas, brought about a convergence of the growth pattern across provinces in the 1980s. The subsequent divergence in the provincial growth rates between the coast and the interior generated an enlarging regional disparity in China in the 1990s. The ever-faster growth in the coastal region was benefited by China's openness and the development of non-state-owned enterprises. The development of non-state-owned enterprises underlies the higher operational efficiency in the coastal region. Additionally, with the insignificant regression results, fiscal decentralization was observed to facilitate faster growth in the coast region. The findings justify the initiative of the "West Region Development Strategy" and offer some policy implications for China.

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    LOCATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH:CASE STUDY IN CHINA
    ZHONG Chun-ping
    2004 (2):  104-109. 
    摘要 ( 622 )   PDF(375KB) ( 786 )  

    This paper explores how location could affect economic growth and it has always been omitted in economic analysis. Geographic factors can affect economic activities. Three mechanisms of location affecting economic growth have been studied: consumption, production and migration. The initial superior location will take such advantages as lower transport costs and lower price level, so it could have higher consumption utility, higher productivity, and attract more human capital, then lead higher growth. Those regions with the superior location will have higher utility due to more product varities and the comparative lower price, and higher wage due to the production technology, and it would attract more individuals with higher human capital to move to this location. It is a kind of agglomeration, meaning the superior location will hold more advantages and higher growth rate, otherwise those locations with poor geographic factor will be even worse. Based on Chinese provincial economic growth experiences of these years, this paper does some empirical analysis by regressing on some variables including the geographic ones. In this paper, the dummy variables and population density are used to measure the location factor. And we find evidences supporting the view that dominant locations such as coastal areas grow faster, on the contrary, middle and western provinces grow slower. Location does affect economic growth.

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    URBAN PLANNING:A TOOL FOR URBAN POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN SUDAN
    Elnazir RAMADAN, FENG Xue-zhi
    2004 (2):  110-116. 
    摘要 ( 1130 )   PDF(439KB) ( 990 )  

    In the past few dacades, urbanization and urban growth have been increasing rapidly in many of the developing countries. It is expected that over 50% of the world population will live in cities in 2005. The growing trend indicates that as many as one fifth of all households still remain with housing tenure problems, which they try to solve through very expensive rentals, insecurity, socially and environmentally-hazardous squatting or unhealthy overcrowding, sometimes ending up with none at all. And hence, propcr planning is necessary in urban development policies to improve human settlement managements in a sustainable way. This article has tried to handle urban poverty in the Sudan to a reasonable level of detail. It dealt with selected areas with regard to promotion of sustainable human settlement. The study managed to identity some recent progress in Sudanese human settlements, that is, however, still accompanied by numerous serious instances of decline in the urban environment, especially that of the greater Khartoum. Such instances of environmental deterioration are profiled and analyzed by the study with respect to all human settlement aspects of management, land-use, infrastructure, energy and transport. The paper's conclusion emphasized that improving all these aspects is of high priority.

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    EVIDENCE FOR ABRUPT CLIMATIC CHANGES ON NORTHWESTERN MARGIN OF EAST ASIAN MONSOON REGION DURING LAST DEGLACIATION
    QIANG Ming-rui, LI Sen, GAO Shang-yu
    2004 (2):  117-121. 
    摘要 ( 753 )   PDF(2412KB) ( 846 )  

    Based on investigations of the Zhongwei Nanshan aeolian section situated in the southeastern margin of Tengger Desert, carbon-14 and TL (thermoluminescence) dating results and paleoclimatie proxies such as magnetic susceptibility and grain size, we inferred that the northwestern margin of East Asian monsoon region experienced abrupt climatic changes during the last deglaciation. Six oscillation events were identified: Oldest Dryas, Bφlling, Older Dryas, Allerφd, Intra-Allerφd Cold Period (IACP) and Younger Dryas (YD). The summer monsoon was weaker during Oldest Dryas and Younger Dryas when the winter monsoon was stronger. However, during the B/A (Bφlling/Allerφd) period, the summer monsoon strengthened, reflected by magnetic susceptibility, when the winter monsoon also became strong, which is different from the paleoclimatic pattern established in the East Asian monsoon region. Furthermore, the summer monsoon was nearly in phase with the climate changes inferred from the oxygen isotopic records of Greenland ice cores. It could be speculated that the variations of the sea ice cover in the high latitudes of the North Hemisphere affected the high pressure of Asian continent and the changes of the winter monsoon inland. On the other hand, the sea ice cover variations might have indirectly caused the occurrence of ENSO events that has tightly been related to the summer monsoon in northwest margin of East Asian monsoon region.

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    DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC MONITORING AND VISUALIZATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM OF KARST LAND ROCKY DESERTIFICATION
    HU Bao-qing, LIAO Chi-mei, YAN Zhi-qiang, QIN Kai-xian
    2004 (2):  122-128. 
    摘要 ( 798 )   PDF(438KB) ( 715 )  

    In order to study the spatial-temporal change and environmental management of regional karst LUCC (land use and land cover change) and its causative environmental effect—rocky desertification by integrating qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, and relying on RS, GIS and GPS (3S) techniques, karst land rocky derification dynamic monitoring and visualization management information system (KLRD.DMVM.IS) is framed, which includes design aim and structure model, function design, database design and model system design. The model system design gives priority to dynamic monitoring, drive force diagnosis, comprehensive evaluation and decision support of karst rocky desertification. From the viewpoint of model type, mathematic expression and its meaning, the dynamic monitoring models are concretely devised to reflect the spatial and temporal changing features and the trend of karst LUCC and rocky desertification. Taking Du'an Yao Autonomic County of Guangxi as an example, the KLRD. DMVM.IS is systematically analyzed in the application of the process and trend of karst LUCC and rocky desertification in Du'an County, and it provides the technical support for the study on karst land rocky dcsertification.

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    RELATION BETWEEN PRECIPITATION AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE DASHA RIVER WATERSHED
    ZHANG Jian-chun, ZHANG Wei, LI Ji-hong, SHI Zhi-gang, PU Shen-yuan
    2004 (2):  129-134. 
    摘要 ( 740 )   PDF(368KB) ( 739 )  

    The study on sediment production and its relationship with climatic and hydrological factors in watershed is a major environment issue of concern in the international community. Based on the observational records covering the period from 1954 to 1999, the characteristics of precipitation changing over the Dasha River Watershed in Anhui Province and its relation to sediment yield were studied using tendency analysis and correlation analysis. Results showed that the precipitation of the Dasha River Watershed has high variability. In those 46 years, 34% of spring rainfall, 58% of summer rainfall and 30% of annual rainfall will be considered anomaly. The gray correlation analysis shows that sediment discharge correlates most closely with the frequency of the rainstorm with a daily precipitation above 100mm, secondly with the frequency of the rainstorm with a daily precipitation of 50-100mm, and thirdly with the number of rainy days. Their correlation coefficients are 0.98,0.90 and 0.85 respectively. In addition, the paper suggests the major countermeasures and methods for controlling of soil and water losses in this area.

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    EVOLVEMENT AND CONTROL OF VULNERABLE ECOLOGICAL REGION—A Case Study in Ongniud Banner and Aohan Banner,Inner Mongolia
    RAN Sheng-hong, JIN Jian-jun
    2004 (2):  135-141. 
    摘要 ( 618 )   PDF(459KB) ( 754 )  

    The evolvement of a vulnerable ecological region is a dynamic process, which is affected by various factors. During the evolvement process, human activities have a decisive effect. The purpose of studying vulnerable ecological region is to control human economic activities and to develop a negative feedback modulation mechanism. This paper established a model of vulnerable ecological region's evolvement by considering four synthetic variables. These synthetic variables are ecological carrying capacity, ecological resilience, economic development intensity, and cconomic development velocity. Finally, Ongniud Banner and Aohan Banner in North China were taken as study cases to simulate the evolvement processes of vulnerable ecological regions under different conditions of economic development. The results show that human activities have an important influence on the evolvement trend of vulnerable ecological region.

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    ECOLOGICAL SECURITY EVALUATION OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN KARST MOUNTAINOUS AREA—A Case Study of Du'an Yao Autonomous County in Guangxi
    LIAO Chi-mei, LI Lan, YAN Zhi-qiang, HU Bao-qing
    2004 (2):  142-147. 
    摘要 ( 637 )   PDF(318KB) ( 883 )  

    Ecological security is the main task and applied ficld of present geography, resources and environment sciences and ecology. Ecological security evaluation will efficiently promote ecological security and environmental construction in regional land use. In this thesis, the authors put forward the index system of ecological security evaluation in karst mountainous area on three aspects, the pressure of resources and eco-environment, the quality of resources and eco-environment, and the ability of environmental protection and ecological improvement. Using the evaluation method with single index, based on the case study of Du'an Yao Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, the system of synthetic regionalization of ecological agricultural economy was formed, which includes three regions, south region with basic security and synthetic agricultural development, east region with critical security and agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry balanced development, mid-west and south region with ecological insecurity and compounded agriculture and forestry management. Meanwhile, for these regions, the countermeasures of sustainable agricultural development were pointed out, which provide the basis and example for ecological regulation and control of sustainable agricultural development in counties of karst mountainous area.

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    STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN URBANIZATION PROCESS IN CHINA
    CHE Xiu-zhen, SHANG Jin-cheng
    2004 (2):  148-152. 
    摘要 ( 1116 )   PDF(279KB) ( 838 )  

    This paper reviewed the development of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in China, expounded its functions and regional characteristics, and discussed the targets of SEA in the process of urbanization, and the main assessment indicators, procedures, techniques and methodologies of SEA. It concluded that SEA could be improved by the following recommendations: incorporating SEA in decision-making process, selecting experimental units for SEA trial run, and developing strategic evaluation tools and techniques. SEA can provide appropriate and up-to-date information on the impact of human activity on environment in the process of urbanization, and develop a plan of action targeting implementation of intervention for the rehabilitation and preservation of the ecological stability of a city. Therefore, SEA can be a supporting tool for decision-making toward achieving sustainable develooment.

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    EFFECTS OF SEASONALITY ON STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY OF THE PINANG RIVER IN PENANG ISLAND,MALAYSIA
    Ahmad Jailani Muhamed YUNUS, Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI
    2004 (2):  153-161. 
    摘要 ( 668 )   PDF(582KB) ( 814 )  

    For the Pinang River, originating in the western highlands of Penang Island, the nature, sources and extent of pollution were studied. The river water samples collected at five selected sites were analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters, namely temperature, DO, BOD, COD, SS, pH, ammoniac nitrogen (AN), and conductance, Long-term data of rainfall and temperature were analyzed to determine the seasonal variations of the streamflow. The streamflow during the dry season is extremely low compared to the wet season, thus concentrations of contaminants derived from point pollution source increase due to lack of rainfall and runoff events. On the contrary, in the predominantly urban and agricultural catchments, non-point pollution source increases during rainy season through seepage and runoff. Effects of seasonal variations consequently determine the quantity and quality of the water parameters. The Jelutong River, the Dondang River and the Air Itam River carry the seepage from widely urban and residential areas to the main Pinang River systems. Water quality of the Pinang River at different points assessed by the water quality indices was compared. According to the quality indices during the study period, water quality in the upper reaches of the river is medium to good. It dwindled in the plains, due to the seepage from urban areas and discharges from the industrial and agricultural lands.

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    AN ILLUSTRATIVE STUDY ON LOCAL LANDSCAPE AND ITS LONG-TERM CHANGES BASED ON IKONOS AND HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTO
    RUAN Ren-zong, Erle C ELLIS
    2004 (2):  162-169. 
    摘要 ( 659 )   PDF(694KB) ( 805 )  

    Nowadays, the research works on landscape at fine scales using high-resolution images are uncommon. This research is based on the analysis of the combination of remotc sensing data (IKONOS imagery acquired in 2002 and historical aerial photo taken in 1942). In the paper, the ecotopes in Qiujiadou and Xishao villages in Yixing City of Jiangsu Province in 1942 and 2002 were compared and landscape changes as well as the causes of the considerable changes were analyzed. It was found that the ecotope changes were at greater level in some aspects such as water surface and perennial vegetation coverage etc. This study at fine scale is globally significant for the rural areas, especially for the subsistence agricultural land, which occupies larger percentage in the earth. And it analyzes the structure of landscape based on a new landscape classification system-stratifications method.

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    RESIDENTS' ATTITUDES TO TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ANCIENT VILLAGE RESORTS——Case Study of World Cultural Heritage of Xidi and Hong Villages
    WANG Li, LU Lin, TONG Shi-rong, LU Song, YANG Zhao, WANG Yong, LIANG Dong-dong
    2004 (2):  170-178. 
    摘要 ( 652 )   PDF(725KB) ( 821 )  

    Tourism development surely has social, economic and environmental impacts on tourist destinations. The study on resorts residents' attitudes can help understand the nature of tourism development and the extent to which it may influence on tourist destinations. By now, researches on residents' perception and attitudes are plenteous in the international circle and achievements are great, yet few are found in developing countries. As a most representative cultural tourist destination, World Cultural Heritage-Xidi and Hong villages in Yi County of Anhui Province, are drawing the attention of both tourists and academic circles. This article, taking Xidi and Hong villages as examples, seeks to analyze ancient village residents' attitudes towards tourism impacts and then tries further to explore the connection between tourism development and residents' attitudes. Both qualitative and quantitative surveys are applied in the exploratory investigation into local residents' attitudes of tourism impacts. Based on abundant face-to-face interviews with the local households, tourism enterprises concerned, local government and tourists from July to August of 2002, we are able to have a better understanding of local residents' attitudes to community life, and perception of tourism impacts on society, economy and environment. By this we can promote domestic study on resorts residents' attitudes, and provide some theoretical grounds for establishing tourism development planning and perfect community participation system at tourist destinations.

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    CATASTROPHIC ECO-ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN THE SONGNEN PLAIN,NORTHEASTERN CHINA SINCE 1900S
    WANG Hai-xia, WAN Zhong-juan, YU Shao-peng, LUO Xin-zheng, SUN Guang-you
    2004 (2):  179-185. 
    摘要 ( 861 )   PDF(677KB) ( 745 )  

    Although the Songnen Plain in the northeastern China was developed relatively late in the temperate zone of the world, its eco-environment has changed greatly. This paper analyzes the changes of land cover and the rates and trends of desertification during the past 100 years in the Songnen Plain. According to the macroscopic analysis, we find that the eco-environment in the plain has reached to the threshold of catastrophic change since the 1950s. The Thom Needle Catastrophic Model was used to determine and validate this conclusion. Human activities, including large-scale construction projects, such as huge dams and dikes, and excessive grazing were the primary factors contributing to regional eco-environmental catastrophe. And irrational reclamation of the wilderness also affected the eco-environmental change. The results reveal the complex human-land interactions.

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    MARKETIZATION OF GREEN FOOD RESOURCES IN FOREST REGION OF THE CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS
    XIAO Yan
    2004 (2):  186-191. 
    摘要 ( 680 )   PDF(2370KB) ( 874 )  

    The Changbai Mountains is rich in the resources of green food. At present, the low marketization of green food resources in the forest region of the Changbai Mountains becomes the bottleneck to restrict the benign development of its green food industry. With huge market demands at home and abroad, it is the urgent problem how to improve marketization process of green food resources and transfer the resources superiority into the market superiority in the region. According to the investigation, this paper analyzed the status quo and the cause of formation of low-marketization with the method of combining comparative research and practice research. It pointed out that necessary condition of marketization of green food resources in the forest region, such as strategy, economic environment, marketization allocation of sci-tech resources, etc. should be established. Furthermore, the concrete strategies of marketization of green food resources in the region such as market location, strategies of objective markets, combined strategy of marketing, etc. were advanced.

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