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    2004年, 第14卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2004-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS OF REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
    SHI Chun, Philip JAMES, GUO Zhong-yang
    2004 (1):  1-8. 
    摘要 ( 900 )   PDF(524KB) ( 1151 )  

    Meeting the challenge of sustainable development requires substantial advances in understanding the interaction of natural and human systems. The dynamics of regional sustainable development could be addressed in the context of complex system thinking. Three features of complex systems are that they are uncertain, non-linear and self-organizing. Modeling regional development requires a consideration of these features. This paper discusses the feasibility of using the artificial neural networt(ANN) to establish an adjustment prediction model for the complex systems of sustainable development (CSSD). Shanghai Municipality was selected as the research area to set up the model, from which reliable prediction data were produced in order to help regional development planning. A new approach, which could help to manage regional sustainable development, is then explored.

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    INFLUENCE OF SERIES OF SQUARE GRIDS ON FRACTAL DIMENSIONS A Case Study of Mountains of China's Mainland
    ZHU Xiao-hua, CAI Yun-long
    2004 (1):  9-14. 
    摘要 ( 1112 )   PDF(284KB) ( 971 )  

    MANDELBROT enunciated the uncertainty of the length of a coastline in his paper "How long is the coastline of Britain?" published in Science in 1967. The fractal concept was presented for the first time in that paper and has been applied to many fields ever since. Although fractal dimensions of lots of phenomena were calculated by the box-counting method,the quantitative influence of series of square grids on them is ignored. The issue is systematically discussed as a case study of the mountains of China's Mainland in this paper. And some significant conclusions are drawn as follows: 1) Although the fractal character objectively exists in the mountains of China's Mainland,and it does not vary with the changes of series of square grids,the fractal dimensions of the mountains of China's Mainland are different with these changes. 2) The fractal dimensions of the mountains of China's Mainland vary with the average lengths of sides of series of square grids. The fractal dimension of the mountains of China's Mainland is the function of the average length of side of square grid. They conform to the formula D=f(r) (where D is the fractal dimension,and r is the average length of side of square grid). 3) Different dots of data collection can affect the fractal dimension of the mountains of China's Mainland. 4) The same range of length of side of square grid and dots of data collection can ensure the comparison of fractal dimensions of the mountains of China's Mainland. The research is helpful to get the more understanding of fractal and fractal dimension,and ensure that the fractal studies would be scientific.

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    "BOTTLENECK" AND COUNTERMEASURE OF HIGH-TECHNOLOGIZATION OF MARINE INDUSTRY IN CHINA
    LUAN Wei-xin
    2004 (1):  15-20. 
    摘要 ( 588 )   PDF(280KB) ( 902 )  

    This article deeply researched into the existent five problems and four main "bottlenecks" in the high-technologization of marine industry in China on the basis of analyzing the new trends in international marine problems and the necessity of implementing the strategy of developing China based on marine. This article brought up specific measures to the five "bottlenecks" according to the situations, and pointed out that new marine industry should be high-technologization and the traditional marine industry should be reformed by high-technique. The research results may provide the scientific basis for realizing the high-technologization of marine industry in China.

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    KARST ENVIRONMENT AND ECO-POVERTY IN SOUTH-WESTERN CHINA:A CASE STUDY OF GUIZHOU PROVINCE
    WANG La-chun, LEE Do-won, ZUO Ping, ZHOU Yin-kang, XU You-peng
    2004 (1):  21-27. 
    摘要 ( 633 )   PDF(371KB) ( 1028 )  

    Guizhou Province is one of the least developed areas with the largest number of counties in poverty and the widest coverage of karst landscape in China. The vulnerability of its karst eco-environment seriously threatens the survival of local residents and the development of local economy. Rapid population growth results in higher demand of various resources, which leads to more intensive development activities. For example, the blindfolded development on steep slopes has caused rock desertification of local rare soil in this karst area. It has induced a vicious circle in the poverty→population growth→ecosystem degradation and so on. About 3.13×106 people belong to the absolute impoverished population in Guizhou Province and most of them are living in rock-desertification areas. The essential reasons for destitution are the atrocious eco-environment and the huge population stress. Degradation of mountain ecosystems in southwestern China has continued at unprecedented speed and scale in recent decades. It is necessary to control population growth strictly and prevent further expansion of rock-desertification in order to develop local economy and better living conditions for local people. The only way to ensure a sustainable, stable and harmonious development of human, nature and economy is to restore a good condition of eco-environment and resolve the conflicts between human and land use.

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    LAND COVER CHANGES AND LANDSCAPE DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT IN LOWER REACHES OF TARIM RIVER IN CHINA
    WU Xiu-qin, CAI Yun-long
    2004 (1):  28-33. 
    摘要 ( 684 )   PDF(632KB) ( 1456 )  

    The Tarim River Basin, located in the typical arid region, is one of the key regions of LUCC research in China and plays an important role in maintaining the sustainable development of the western China. In recent years,the ecological environment of the Tarim River Basin has degraded greatly. In the lower reaches, in particular, the riverbed has been dried up for more than 20 years, which accelerated the desertification and has been a great threat to people's lives. Taking the section of the Tarim River between Qiala Lake and Taitema Lake as a typical region, an investigation on land cover changes was carried out with the support of remote sensing information of 1988 and 2000 respectively. The changes of land cover in this region were obtained: 1) Cropland tended to increase. 2) Urban or Built-up Area in 2000 was 324.4ha more than that in 1988. 3) Waters expanded by 3476.51ha. 4) Woodland and Grassland decreased, while Barren Land increased by 3824.9ha. The total amount of land use/land cover change between 1988 and 2000 is small,which is only 0.355% of the total area. It shows that the developmental pace of the lower reaches of the Tarim River is relative slow. Based on these results, the authors assessed the landscape dynamics of this region and pointed out that the degree of desertification was strengthened and the landscape dominated by sand land was further characterized by salt desert.

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    CONVERSION RATES OF SURFACE HOX RADICALS IN BEIJING CITY
    REN Xin-rong, WANG Li-xin, WANG Hui-xiang, MIAO Guo-fang
    2004 (1):  34-38. 
    摘要 ( 682 )   PDF(266KB) ( 1166 )  

    Surface OH radical concentration in Beijing City was measured by impregnated filter trapping technique-high performance liquid chromatography (IFT-HPLC). The observed concentration of OH radical showed obvious diurnal and seasonal variations, with maximum readings at noon or afternoon, ~80×106OH/cm3 in summer and ~20×106-40×106OH/cm3 in fall. On the basis of measured data, the reaction rates related to the photochemical process of HOX (OH+HO2) were derived and characteristics of atmospheric chemical processes in the city were analyzed. The results showed that conversion rates of atmospheric OH and HO2 in the summer of Beijing City were about 700×106 molecule/(cm3·s) and 600×106molecule/(cm3·s), respectively. And the net production of OH in the air of the city mainly originated from the photolysis of the gaseous HNO2, and the main sink of OH were the photochemical reactions with VOCs, NO2, HCHO and CO. It was different from the clean area.

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    CRITICAL HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS FOR OVERFLOW BURST OF MORAINE LAKE
    JIANG Zhong-xin, CUI Peng, JIANG Liang-wei
    2004 (1):  39-47. 
    摘要 ( 690 )   PDF(457KB) ( 1278 )  

    Floodwater and debris flow caused by glacial lake burst is an important land process and a serious mountain disaster in glacial area of Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region, and the overflow burst is mainly caused by glacial landslide falling into moraine lake. On the premise that moraine lake is full, instantaneous burst in part of the lake bank happens, as flow velocity at burst mouth caused by overflow head is higher than threshold flow velocity of glacial till. Under some supposes, d90 and d10 of the glacial till in the bank were used as the threshold sizes of coarse and fine grains respectively. Thus, the formula of calculating threshold flow velocity of uniform sand was simplified,and threshold flow velocity of glacial till was calculated with the formula. Then, with synthesis formula calculating flow velocity of instantaneous part burst, flow velocity at overflow burst mouth was calculated, and calculation formula of critical height (H0) of overflow head was derived. Overflow head was caused by volume and surge of glacial landslide falling into moraine lake, calculation formulas of ascendant height (H1) of lake water surface and surge height (H2) on burst mouth caused by glacial landslide falling into moraine lake were derived. To sum up, critical hydrologic conditions of moraine lake burst with overflow form are: the burst is inevitable as H1 >H0; the burst is possible as H1 0 and (H1+H2) >H0; the burst is impossible as (H1+H2) 0. In the factors influencing the burst critical conditions, it is advantageous for the burst that scale of the lake is 105m2 range; terminal glacial till is more fine and is even more uniform; the width of overflow mouth is even smaller than the length of the bank; the landslide haslarge scale and steep slip surface; and glacial end is close to the lake. With burst of Guangxiecuo Lake in Midui Valley of the Polongzanghu River in Xizang as an example, the burst critical conditions were tested.

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    ASSESSMENT OF THE SFIM ALGORITHM
    XU Han-qiu
    2004 (1):  48-56. 
    摘要 ( 921 )   PDF(3857KB) ( 1092 )  

    Fusion of images with different spatial and spectral resolutions can improve the visualization of the images. Many fusion techniques have been developed to improve the spectral fidelity and/or spatial texture quality of fused imagery. Of them, a recently proposed algorithm, the SFIM (Smoothing Filter-based Intensity Modulation), is known for its high spectral fidelity and simplicity. However, the study and evaluation of the algorithm were only based on spectral and spatial criteria. Therefore, this paper aims to further study the classification accuracy of the SFIM-fused imagery. Three other simple fusion algorithms, High-Pass Filter (HPF), Multiplication (MLT), and Modified Brovey (MB), have been employed for further evaluation of the SFIM. The study is based on a Landsat-7 ETM+ sub-scene covering the urban fringe of southeastern Fuzhou City of China.The effectiveness of the algorithm has been evaluated on the basis of spectral fidelity, high spatial frequency information absorption, and classification accuracy. The study reveals that the difference in smoothing filter kernel sizes used in producing the SFIM-fused images can affect the classification accuracy. Compared with three other algorithms, the SFIM transform is the best method in retaining spectral information of the original image and in getting best classification results.

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    DYNAMICS OF SANDY DESERTIFICATION AND ITS DRIVING FORCES IN WESTERN JILIN PROVINCE
    LI Fang, HE Yan-fen, LIU Zhi-ming, ZHANG Bai
    2004 (1):  57-62. 
    摘要 ( 1134 )   PDF(278KB) ( 947 )  

    By establishing the interpreting elements, and applying supervised classification, the sandy desertification was interpreted and the desertified land areas of the counties in the western Jilin Province in 1986 and in 2000 were obtained. Taking Tongyu and Qian'an as examples, the natural driving forces and man-made driving forces were analyzed. The paper comes the conclusions that the material sources and the warming and dry climate are the internal causes of potential land desertification; the irrational human activities, such as destroying forest and reclaiming the grassland, are the external causes of potential land desertification; while more rational human activities, such as planting trees and restoring grassland can reverse the land desertification. Furthermore, the countermeasures and suggestions for the development of agriculture and animal husbandry in the western Jilin Province are put forward.

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    GROUNDWATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINATION INDEX MAPPING IN CHANGCHUN CITY,CHINA
    Hamadoun BOKAR, TANG Jie, LIN Nian-feng
    2004 (1):  63-70. 
    摘要 ( 880 )   PDF(1991KB) ( 1700 )  

    Groundwater in Changchun City, Jilin Province of China tends to be influenced by human activities. Chemical types of groundwater were detected in both shallow and deep groundwater were: HCO3--Ca2+ and HCO3--Ca2+·Mg2+ or HCO3--Mg2+·Ca2+; SO42--Ca2+ and SO42--Ca2+·Mg2+; Cl--Ca2+; and CO32--Na+. The deteriorations of groundwater quality due to the increase of TDS, NO3-+ NO2-(as Nitrogen) and TH contents have been observed from 1991 to 1998. Scatter analyses showed strong positive correlations between Ca2+, Cl-and NO3-ions and weak negative correlations between the depth of water table and Ca2+, SO42-, Cl-and NO3-ions. A mapping of contaminant index based on Chinese standard of groundwater showed that a large proportion of the groundwater in 1998 was deteriorated by human process. Despite their low values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), the most of the sampled wells were not suitable for drinking and agriculture purposes due to higher contents of NO3-, NO2-and Mn2+ ions.

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    EFFECT OF ELECTRIC FERTILIZER ON SOIL PROPERTIES
    WANG Ya-qin, WANG Ji-hong
    2004 (1):  71-74. 
    摘要 ( 847 )   PDF(188KB) ( 2124 )  

    Electric fertilizer, i. e. exerting electric field on plants during growing season instead of chemical fertilizer, is a kind of physical fertilizer, and the third kind of fertilizer with developmental prospect after inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer. For the purpose of studying the changes of physical and chemical properties of soil after exerting electric field, five treatments with different applications of chemical fertilizer were arranged on the black soil in Yushu City of Jilin Province by randomized block method, and electric field was exerted on plants every ten days during the growing season. Through sample analysis the paper arrives at following conclusions: 1) Exerting electric field can make soil's granular structure increase, bulk density decrease, moisture capacity increase, thus improving the perviousness of soil. 2) Exerting electric field can make microorganism's number increase and activity strengthen, thus activating nutrient and increasing organic matter content. 3) Exerting electric field with 0.1A medium has the best effect. So the chemical fertilizer can be saved. Therefore, we can say that the application of electric fertilizer is favorable for decreasing chemical poison, improving soil, relaxing the contradiction between the supply and demand of chemical fertilizer, and decreasing production cost of agriculture and forestry.

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    RELATIVITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
    YE Dai-fu
    2004 (1):  75-81. 
    摘要 ( 756 )   PDF(291KB) ( 925 )  

    From the realism of science, and taking the guide of EINSTEIN's Relativity as guide, this article called in question the present theory of the sustainable development by the rational thinking of philosophy and a close logic inference. It is found that there are many paradoxes to the theory. Through more deepening and meticulous inference, we arrived at philosophic language of science about the sustainable development. The sustainable development is "non-sustainable development", and the non-sustainable development is "the best sustainable development". While carrying out philosophical principle thinking and repeating science demonstration for the sustainable development, this article got further confirmation that the existence of human being at the minimum environment cost may help them obtain motive power of the sustainable development. In fact, this foundation motive power exists in the flow of development in different organization levels, meanwhile it exists in strategy of intuition living of the ancient people. Only in relative lower environment cost to live can we get the support system of science for the sustainable development, and be able really to achieve the basic goal of the sustainable development.

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    UNRAVELING ECOTOURISM PRACTICE:PROBLEM ANALYSIS BASED ON STAKEHOLDERS
    LIU Xue-mei, BAO Ji-gang
    2004 (1):  82-89. 
    摘要 ( 640 )   PDF(451KB) ( 1128 )  

    Despite the considerable literatures defined what Ecotourism is or should be, it is experiencing vario- us practices with different features. Now the term "Ecotourism" is almost applied to all tourism activities which are based on nature. Faced to the flooding of those unqualified Ecotourism, it is of great necessity to put forward professional claim. The present writer holds that the key to the realization of rigorous Ecotourism chiefly lies in the relationships among the different interest groups involved in it. So the focus of this paper is just on giving a special analysis to the interest relations between those stakeholders which include local government, tour-operators, local residents and eco-tourists, and thus helping to find out what wrong is in those unqualified Ecotourism and the roots of those problems.

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    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESORT LIFE CYCLE AND RESIDENTS' PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE——A Case Study of Putuo Mountain
    YANG Xiao-zhong, LU Lin, ZHANG Guang-sheng, LU Song, XUAN Guo-fu
    2004 (1):  90-96. 
    摘要 ( 676 )   PDF(447KB) ( 1087 )  

    The change in residents' perception and attitude and resort life cycle are the basic problems in the course of resort evolution. This thesis sets up the dynamic model of residents'perception and attitude, analyzes the linkage between residents' perception and attitude and the influential factors of resort life cycle, and finally, with a case study of Putuo Mountain, preliminarily discusses the relationship between resort life cycle and residents'perception and attitude. The research findings show that, although within development stage of life cycle, Putuo Mountain has already presented some signs of mature stage. The on-the-spot survey also indicates that, the local residents' positive perception is stronger than their negative perception. But compared with residents in some other coastal resorts such as Haikou and Sanya, negative perception of residents in Putuo Mountain is more evident, as the result of the smaller tourism carrying capacity in Putuo Mountain. There are some influential factors that have great impact on tourism carrying capacity in Putuo Mountain: tourist-resident number ratio, residents' benefit-cost ratio and characteristics of tourism resources. And the less influential factors are residents' demographic character, tourist behavioral character and cultural differences between local residents and tourists. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to adjust the structure of tourism product for the purpose of expanding tourism carrying capacity, lowering its pressure, lessening residents' environmental cost and enhancing their positive perception, which is the most essential prerequisite for the maturation of life cycle in Putuo Mountain.

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