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    2003年, 第13卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2003-12-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    CLOBAL CHARM OF THE CHANGJIANG RIVER DELTA
    CHEN Shu-peng, ZHOU Cheng-hu, CHEN Qiu-xiao
    2003 (4):  289-299. 
    摘要 ( 828 )   PDF(596KB) ( 1180 )  

    Based on the theory of geo-economy, under the new situation of global economy, information network and China's entry into WTO, also with the holding of APEC (in 2001) and the International Exposition in the near future, the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta is striding toward the spectacular international multi-polar situation and becomes one of core regions with high-speed development. Facing the ocean and world all along, leading the progressive tides of the age and scintillating the splendor of the nation, she does advance with time. Through a long period of irrigation projects construction and intensive operation of lands in previous agricultural society, the artificial wetland ecosystem with a positive cycle had ever been formed in this region. At present, environmental pollution and urban expansion resulted from post-industrialization are being rectified. The delta will be the paradigm of industrial and agricultural modernization along the sustainable development road. With the rapid development of urbanization, she has been one of the regions with the highest density population and high urbanization level. Taking the Changjiang River estuary and the Hangzhou Bay as two parts, she is continuously strengthening and adjusting her interior structure, expanding mothball space and constructing the oriental modern "logistics center" to link the whole world. The butterfly-style urban system of the Changjiang River Delta is flying, probably engendering earthshaking "butterfly effect".

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    FORGING ASIA'S GLOBAL TRANSPARK IN THE PEARL RIVER DELTA AT ZHUHAI
    Victor F S SIT(XUE Feng-xuan)
    2003 (4):  300-309. 
    摘要 ( 851 )   PDF(405KB) ( 1226 )  

    The main purpose of the paper is to introduce the concept of the Global TransPark (GTP). It is a critical time to develop air logistics infrastructure in the New Economy. The paper also presents a brief review of the air cargo industry in the Asian-Pacific region and China, in particular China's development in the industry as its economy has grown rapidly and globalized in the past two decades. The paper argues that China needs to develop a GTP to support its future growth, and explains why the Pearl River Delta-Hong Kong-Macao city-region or Extended Metropolitan Region (EMR) is the best location. Finally, it proposes that Zhuhai Airport, one of the five airports in the EMR, is the best site for the GTP. New policies from Chinese government as well as close cooperation between local governments of Guangdong and the two Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macao will be needed to make the establishment of the GTP possible.

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    CONSTRAINING FACTORS TO SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION OF WATER RESOURCES AND THEIR COUNTERMEASURES IN CHINA
    ZHAI Jin-liang, FENG Ren-guo, XIA Jun
    2003 (4):  310-316. 
    摘要 ( 1064 )   PDF(214KB) ( 1322 )  

    This paper discusses the constraining factors to sustainable utilization of water resources in China, and the countermeasures to realize sustainable water utilization. The result of comprehensive analysis shows that constraining factors to sustainable utilization of water resources in China are complicated, including physical geographical factors and socio-economic factors, such as uneven distribution of water resources at temporal and spatial scales, inappropriate institutional arrangement and non-water-saving and non-water-conservation production and life mode. The countermeasures against constraining factors to water resources sustainable development are put forward as follows:1) using wetlands and forests, and through spatial conversion to realize temporally sustainable supply of water resources;2) transferring water between basins and areas and developing various water resources in water shortage area;3) establishing water-saving society;4) strengthening water pollution control and water resources protection;and 5) establishing unified water resources management mechanism.

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    RECENT TRENDS OF TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION DISTURBED BY LARGE-SCALE RECLAMATION IN THE SANGJIANG PLAIN OF CHINA
    YAN Min-hua, DENG Wei, CHEN Pan-qin
    2003 (4):  317-321. 
    摘要 ( 1163 )   PDF(776KB) ( 1018 )  

    The regional observed temperature and precipitation changes and their abrupt jumps disturbed by large-scale reclamation in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China were studied. Mean annual temperature of the region was tending to go up and has increased by 1.2-2.2℃ over the past 50 years. A warming jump of mean annual temperature of the region occurred in the 1980s, which had an increase amplitude of 0.9℃. Linear tendency rates of annual precipitation were negative in most of the region. The maximum of annual precipitation decrease was 155.8mm over the past 50 years. An abrupt decrease of regional annual precipitation happened in the middle of the 1960s, which had a decrease of 102.1mm. Based on the fact of climatic change of the Sanjiang Plain over the past 50 years, it is held that the region had larger warming amplitude than that of the surrounding areas in the recent years, which resulted from the large-scale reclamation of various kinds of wetlands.

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    TREND OF PRECIPITATION VARIATION IN HUBEI PROVINCE SINCE THE 1960S
    CHEN Zheng-hong, QIN Jun
    2003 (4):  322-327. 
    摘要 ( 861 )   PDF(359KB) ( 1244 )  

    Through linear regression analysis to the trend of annual, seasonal and monthly precipitation of 72 meteorological stations in Hubei Province from 1961 to 1995, it is revealed that:1) annual precipitation was increasing by 61.0mm/10a in the eastern part of Hubei (112°E as a dividing line) and decreasing by 34.9mm/10a in the western part;2) precipitation in winter and summer (January, February, March, June and July) was increasing in almost whole province which usually with non-uniformity of precipitation distribution from the south to the north. The precipitation in spring, autumn and winter (April, September, November and December) was decreasing in most of the areas which usually with non-uniformity of precipitation distribution from the east to the west. March and December were transition periods between two spatial distribution patterns mentioned above;3) the eastern part of Hubei has beome one of precipitation increasing centers in China. The results was consistent with the trend that more frequent flood and drought events happened in Hubei Province which are more different in spatial and temporal scales.

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    SEFIDROOD RIVER SUB-WATERSHED-DAM-ESTUARY AND DEGRADATION MODEL:A HOLISTIC APPROACH IN IRAN
    Forood AZARI DEHKORDI, Majid F MAKHDOUM, Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI
    2003 (4):  328-333. 
    摘要 ( 688 )   PDF(352KB) ( 1137 )  

    The major concern of this article is to address the shortcoming and outgoing effects of the human activities on the landscape patterns and their consequences in the Sefidrood River watershed in Iran. A flow of data includes three inputs;each of them belongs to one part of three zones of a fluvial system. The three parts of the Sefidrood River fluvial system include Zone 1, a sub-watershed as degradation modeling site, Zone 2, Sefidrood Dam as dam site, and Zone 3, 17km away from the Sefidrood River path to the Caspian Sea as ending point site. The degradation model in the Zone 1 provides a suitable mean for decision support system to decrease the human impacts on each small district. The maximum number for degradation coefficient belongs to the small district with the highest physiographic density, relatively cumulative activities, and a lower figure for the habitat vulnerability. The human degradation impact were not limited to the upstream. The investigation to the Sefidrood Dam and ending point of the Sefidrood River depicts that sedimentation continues as a significant visual impact in the Sefidrood Dam reservoir and the estuary.

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    APPLICATION OF SWAT MODEL IN THE UPSTREAM WATERSHED OF THE LUOHE RIVER
    ZHANG Xue-song, HAO Fang-hua, CHENG Hong-guang, LI Dao-feng
    2003 (4):  334-339. 
    摘要 ( 804 )   PDF(1071KB) ( 1755 )  

    In the Huanghe (Yellow) River basin, soil erosion is a serious problem, while runoff and sediment yield simulation has not been extensively studied on the basis of GIS (Geographic Information System) and distributed hydrological model. GIS-based SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was used to simulate runoff and sediment in the Huanghe River basin. The objective of this paper is to examine the applicability of SWAT model in a large river basin with high sediment runoff modulus, which could reach 770t/(km2·a). A two-stage "Brute Force" optimization procedure was used to calibrate the parameters with the observed monthly flow and sediment data from 1992 to 1997, and with input parameters set during the calibration process without any change the model was validated with 1998-1999's observed data. Coefficient of examination (R2) and Nash-Suttcliffe simulation efficiency (Ens) were used to evaluate model prediction. The evaluation coefficients for simulated flow and sediment, and observed flow and sediment were all above 0.7, which shows that SWAT model could be a useful tool for water resources and soil conservation planning in the Huanghe River basin.

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    IMPACT OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION ON VEGETATION ALONGSIDE QINGHAI-XIZANG HIGHWAY AND RAILWAY
    CHEN Hui, LI Shuang-cheng, ZHANG Yi-li
    2003 (4):  340-346. 
    摘要 ( 668 )   PDF(613KB) ( 2417 )  

    Based on the field investigation in August 2001 and August 2002, digital China Vegetation Map in 2001 and Qinghai-Xizang(Tibet) Plateau Vegetation Regionalization Map in 1996, vegetation characteristics along two sides of Qinghai-Xizang highway and railway are studied in this paper. Meanwhile, the impact of Qinghai-Xizang highway and railway constructions on the vegetation types are analyzed using ARCVIEW, ARC/INFO and PATCH ANALYSIS. It was found that:1) Qinghai-Xizang highway and railway span 9 latitudes, 12 longitudes and 6 physical geographic regions (East Qinghai and Qilian mountain steppe region, Qaidam mountain desert region, South Qinghai-Xizang alpine meadow steppe region, Qiangtang alpine steppe region, Golog-Nagqu alpine shrub meadow region and South Xizang mountain shrub steppe region);2) the construction of Qinghai-Xizang highway and railway destroyed natural vegetation and landscape, especially in 50m-wide buffer regions along both sides of the roads, it was estimated that the net primary productivity deceased by about 30 504.62t/a and the gross biomass deceased by 432 919.25-1 436 104.3t. The losing primary productivity accounted for 5.70% of the annual primary productivity within 1km-wide buffer regions (535 005.07-535 740.11t/a), and only 0.80%-0.89% of that within 10km-wide buffer regions (3 408 950.45-3 810 480.92t/a). The losing gross biomass was about 9.47%-17.06% of the gross biomass within 1km-wide buffer regions (7 502 971.85-25 488 342.71t), and only 1.47%-2.94% of that within 10km-wide buffer regions (43 615 065.35-164 150 665.37t).

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    FRAME DESIGN OF REMOTE SENSING MONITORINGFOR VOLCANIC ACTIVITIES IN CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS
    BO Li-qun, ZHAO Yun-ping, HUA Ren-kui
    2003 (4):  347-351. 
    摘要 ( 881 )   PDF(160KB) ( 966 )  

    Volcanic eruption is one of the most serious geological disasters, however, a host of facts have proven that the Changbai Mountains volcano is a modern dormant one and has ever erupted disastrously. With the rapid development of remote sensing technology, space monitoring of volcanic activities has already become possible, particularly in the application of thermal infrared remote sensing. The paper, through the detailed analysis of geothermal anomaly factors such as heat radiation, heat conduction and convection, depicts the monitoring principles by which volcano activities would be monitored efficiently and effectively. Reasons for abrupt geothermal anomaly are mainly analyzed, and transmission mechanism of geothermal anomaly in the volcanic regions is explained. Also, a variety of noises disturbing the transmission of normal geothermal anomaly are presented. Finally, some clues are given based on discussing thermal infrared remote sensing monitoring mechanism toward the volcanic areas.

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    CLASSIFICATION OF CRYOSOLS:SIGNIFICANCE, ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES
    CHEN Jie, GONG Zi-tong, CHEN Zhi-cheng, TAN Man-zhi
    2003 (4):  352-358. 
    摘要 ( 707 )   PDF(1575KB) ( 1213 )  

    International concerns about the effects of global change on permafrost-affected soils and responses of permafrost terrestrial landscapes to such change have been increasing in the last two decades. To achieve a variety of goals including the determining of soil carbon stocks and dynamics in the Northern Hemisphere, the understanding of soil degradation and the best ways to protect the fragile ecosystems in permafrost environment, further study development on Cryosol classification is being in great demand. In this paper the existing Cryosol classifications contained in three representative soil taxonomies are introduced, and the problems in the practical application of the defining criteria used for category differentiation in these taxonomic systems are discussed. Meanwhile, the resumption and reconstruction of Chinese Cryosol classification within a taxonomic frame is proposed. In dealing with Cryosol classification the advantages that Chinese pedologists have and the challenges that they have to face are analyzed. Finally, several suggestions on the study development of the further taxonomic frame of Cryosol classification are put forward.

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    ANALYSIS ON POVERTY IN MOUNTAIN AREAS BASED ON OFF-FARM INDUSTRIES
    WANG Qing, LI Hui-xia, CHEN Guo-jie, CHEN Yong
    2003 (4):  359-363. 
    摘要 ( 1000 )   PDF(181KB) ( 1230 )  

    This paper reveals that agricultural growth trend in China is strongly correlated with the growth of off-farm industries-the curve of net income from off-farm industries reflects the general characteristics of net income of households. That means the increase of net income of farm households is chiefly from off-farm industries, more than from agriculture. The authors therefore conclude that the "poverty" in mountain areas or the gap between mountain areas and plain areas lies in the underdevelopment of off-farm industries in mountain areas. Finally, the authors make suggestions of strategic adjustment of economic structure:1) present situation of mountain areas in China should be fully considered;2) a full industrial system is not our desire;3) advantageous industries should be promoted to create famous products;4) industrialization and urbanization in mountain areas should be promoted and so on.

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    RELATION BETWEEN THE MRT BUILDING AND UNDERGROUND SPACE EXPLOITATION-A Case in Guangzhou City
    LI Wen-ling, YAN Xiao-pei, WANG Fang
    2003 (4):  364-369. 
    摘要 ( 697 )   PDF(200KB) ( 1356 )  

    On the basis of analyzing the history and characteristics of the underground space exploitation and the urban space development in Guangzhou, and making a thorough study on the underground space exploitation based on the subway building, this paper points out some main problems in the exploitation of underground space in Guangzhou, and emphasizes that Guangzhou must develop the underground space on a large scale with the aid of the subway building, and puts forward a proposal on the urban space coordinate development between on-ground and underground in Guangzhou City.

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    SPATIAL STRUCTURE EVOLUTION OF SYSTEM OF RECREATION BUSINESS DISTRICT-A Case of Suzhou City
    LI Li-mei, TAO Wei
    2003 (4):  370-377. 
    摘要 ( 784 )   PDF(272KB) ( 1865 )  

    The growing attention on urban tourism was very widespread. There are two angles to study urban tourism:supply-side and demand-side. And the supply-side of the tourism remains very important. The RBD (Recreation Business District) is a useful framework to understand the components of urban tourism and how they fit together. The paper begins with a review on the RBD and the spatial structure of tourism in urban areas and then attempts to develop a more general understanding of the spatial structure evolution of RBDs in a tourist-historic city-Suzhou. The spatial structures and functions of the RBDs in Suzhou are examined, based on field observations, interviews with city officials and industry leaders, and a review of available documents. The urban tourism of Suzhou has developed in a range of contexts, that various types of RBDs have emerged as a result of different urban development strategies. The spatial structure has evolved from the past "Single-cored Structure" to "Double-cored Structure" at present, and then to "Chain Structure" in the future. The spatial form and evolution of RBD in Suzhou are closely relative with its urban spatial expansion. Urban area dispersal is the prerequisite of the emergence of the RBD. Planning and constructing the RBD becomes a new impetus to urban growth or renewal. Finally, a number of strategies for planning and developing the RBD in Suzhou are suggested. The different RBDs should adopt different strategies. Intensification can be the possible strategy for the RBDs in the ancient city. Accreting with the urban theme park or engrafting on the Jinji Lake is suggested respectively for the RBD in the Suzhou New District and the Suzhou Industrial Park.

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    STRATEGY OF MAIZE'S CONCENTRATING TO ADVANTAGE AREAS IN JILIN PROVINCE
    JIANG Hui-ming, GU Li-li
    2003 (4):  378-382. 
    摘要 ( 725 )   PDF(162KB) ( 998 )  

    Jilin Province is one of the main grain-producing provinces of China, which has dominant position in maize production, by the view of its advantages in policy, location, breed and market. And after entering WTO, some measures have been taken to enhance maize competitive ability. But there are some difficulties in concentrating production to maize advantaged areas. This paper expounds the basis that Jilin Province becomes the advantage area of maize, analyzes the problems and puts forward the supporting policy. Some strategic measures are proposed, as developing comparable advantages, carrying out the strategy of un-equilibrium development and cultivating advantaged product areas of maize to rapidly improve the international competitive ability and productivity of maize in Jilin Province, cast the agricultural predicament off and promote the agricultural development into a new stage.

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